A. A. Milne

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A. A. Milne
A a milne.jpg
A. A. Milne in 1922
Born Alan Alexander Milne
(1882-01-18)18 January 1882
Hampstead, Middlesex, England
Died 31 January 1956(1956-01-31) (aged 74)
Hartfield, Sussex, England
Occupation Novelist, playwright, poet
Nationality British
Alma mater University of Cambridge
Period Edwardian
Genre Children's literature
Notable works Winnie the Pooh
Spouse Dorothy "Daphne" de Sélincourt (1890-1971) (m. 1913)
Children Christopher Robin Milne

Alan Alexander Milne (/ˈmɪln/; 18 January 1882 – 31 January 1956) was an English author, best known for his books about the teddy bear Winnie-the-Pooh and for various children's poems. Milne was a noted writer, primarily as a playwright, before the huge success of Pooh overshadowed all his previous work.

Biography[edit]

A. A. Milne was born in Hampstead, London[1] to parents John Vince Milne, who was Scottish,[2] and Sarah Marie Milne (née Heginbotham) and grew up at Henley House School, 6/7 Mortimer Road (now Crescent), Kilburn, a small public school run by his father.[3] One of his teachers was H. G. Wells, who taught there in 1889–90.[4] Milne attended Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge [5] where he studied on a mathematics scholarship, graduating with a B.A. in Mathematics in 1903. While there, he edited and wrote for Granta, a student magazine.[3] He collaborated with his brother Kenneth and their articles appeared over the initials AKM. Milne's work came to the attention of the leading British humour magazine Punch, where Milne was to become a contributor and later an assistant editor.

Milne joined the British Army in World War I and served as an officer in the Royal Warwickshire Regiment and later, after a debilitating illness, the Royal Corps of Signals. He was recruited into Military Intelligence to write propaganda articles for MI 7b between 1916 and 1918. He was discharged on 14 February 1919,[6] and settled in Mallord Street, Chelsea.[7]

After the war, he wrote a denunciation of war titled Peace with Honour (1934), which he retracted somewhat with 1940's War with Honour.[3][8] During World War II, Milne was one of the most prominent critics of English writer P. G. Wodehouse, who was captured at his country home in France by the Nazis and imprisoned for a year. Wodehouse made radio broadcasts about his internment, which were broadcast from Berlin. Although the light-hearted broadcasts made fun of the Germans, Milne accused Wodehouse of committing an act of near treason by cooperating with his country's enemy. Wodehouse got some revenge on his former friend (e.g., in The Mating Season) by creating fatuous parodies of the Christopher Robin poems in some of his later stories, and claiming that Milne "was probably jealous of all other writers.... But I loved his stuff."[9]

Milne married Dorothy "Daphne" de Sélincourt in 1913. They were expecting a baby girl in 1920, when the baby was born a boy, he was named two names Christopher Robin Milne. In 1925, A. A. Milne bought a country home, Cotchford Farm, in Hartfield, East Sussex.[10]

During World War II, A. A. Milne was Captain of the Home Guard in Hartfield & Forest Row, insisting on being plain "Mr. Milne" to the members of his platoon. He retired to the farm after a stroke and brain surgery in 1952 left him an invalid, and by August 1953 "he seemed very old and disenchanted".[11] Milne died in January 1956, aged 74.[12]

Literary career[edit]

1903 to 1925[edit]

After graduating from Cambridge in 1903, A. A. Milne contributed humorous verse and whimsical essays to Punch,[13][14] joining the staff in 1906 and becoming an assistant editor.[15]

During this period he published 18 plays and 3 novels, including the murder mystery The Red House Mystery (1922). His son was born in August 1920 and in 1924 Milne produced a collection of children's poems When We Were Very Young, which were illustrated by Punch staff cartoonist E. H. Shepard. A collection of short stories for children Gallery of Children, and other stories that became part of the Winnie-the-Pooh books, were first published in 1925.

Milne was an early screenwriter for the nascent British film industry, writing four stories filmed in 1920 for the company Minerva Films (founded in 1920 by the actor Leslie Howard and his friend and story editor Adrian Brunel). These were The Bump, starring Aubrey Smith; Twice Two; Five Pound Reward; and Bookworms[16] Some of these films survive in the archives of the British Film Institute. Milne had met Howard when the actor starred in Milne’s play Mr Pim Passes By in London.[17]

Looking back on this period (in 1926), Milne observed that when he told his agent that he was going to write a detective story, he was told that what the country wanted from a "Punch humorist" was a humorous story; when two years later he said he was writing nursery rhymes, his agent and publisher were convinced he should write another detective story; and after another two years, he was being told that writing a detective story would be in the worst of taste given the demand for children's books. He concluded that "the only excuse which I have yet discovered for writing anything is that I want to write it; and I should be as proud to be delivered of a Telephone Directory con amore as I should be ashamed to create a Blank Verse Tragedy at the bidding of others."[18]

1926 to 1928[edit]

Milne with his son Christopher Robin and Pooh Bear, at Cotchford Farm, their home in Sussex. Photo by Howard Coster, 1926.

Milne is most famous for his two Pooh books about a boy named Christopher Robin after his son, Christopher Robin Milne, and various characters inspired by his son's stuffed animals, most notably the bear named Winnie-the-Pooh. Christopher Robin Milne's stuffed bear, originally named "Edward",[19] was renamed "Winnie-the-Pooh" after a Canadian black bear named Winnie (after Winnipeg), which was used as a military mascot in World War I, and left to London Zoo during the war. "The pooh" comes from a swan called "Pooh". E. H. Shepard illustrated the original Pooh books, using his own son's teddy, Growler ("a magnificent bear"), as the model. The rest of Christopher Robin Milne's toys, Piglet, Eeyore, Kanga, Roo and Tigger, were incorporated into A. A. Milne's stories,[20][21] two more characters - Rabbit and Owl - were created by Milne's imagination. Christopher Robin Milne's own toys are now under glass in New York.

The real stuffed toys owned by Christopher Robin Milne and featured in the Winnie-the-Pooh stories. They are on display in the Stephen A. Schwarzman Building (formerly the New York Public Library Main Branch) in New York.

The fictional Hundred Acre Wood of the Pooh stories derives from Five Hundred Acre Wood in Ashdown Forest in East Sussex, South East England, where the Pooh stories were set. Milne lived on the northern edge of the forest at Cotchford Farm, 51°05′24″N 0°06′25″E / 51.090°N 0.107°E / 51.090; 0.107, and took his son walking there. E. H. Shepard drew on the landscapes of Ashdown Forest as inspiration for many of the illustrations he provided for the Pooh books. The adult Christopher Robin commented: "Pooh's Forest and Ashdown Forest are identical".[20] The wooden Pooh Bridge in Ashdown Forest, where Pooh and Piglet invented Poohsticks, is a tourist attraction.[22]

Not yet known as Pooh, he made his first appearance in a poem, "Teddy Bear", published in the British magazine Punch in February 1924. Pooh first appeared in the London Evening News on Christmas Eve, 1925, in a story called "The Wrong Sort Of Bees".[21] Winnie-the-Pooh was published in 1926, followed by The House at Pooh Corner in 1928. A second collection of nursery rhymes, Now We Are Six, was published in 1927. All three books were illustrated by E. H. Shepard. Milne also published four plays in this period. He also "gallantly stepped forward" to contribute a quarter of the costs of dramatising P. G. Wodehouse's A Damsel in Distress.[23] His book The World of Pooh won the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1958.

1929 onwards[edit]

The success of his children's books was to become a source of considerable annoyance to Milne, whose self-avowed aim was to write whatever he pleased and who had, until then, found a ready audience for each change of direction: he had freed pre-war Punch from its ponderous facetiousness; he had made a considerable reputation as a playwright (like his idol J. M. Barrie) on both sides of the Atlantic; he had produced a witty piece of detective writing in The Red House Mystery (although this was severely criticised by Raymond Chandler for the implausibility of its plot). But once Milne had, in his own words, "said goodbye to all that in 70,000 words" (the approximate length of his four principal children's books), he had no intention of producing any reworkings lacking in originality, given that one of the sources of inspiration, his son, was growing older.

His reception remained warmer in America than Britain, and he continued to publish novels and short stories, but by the late 1930s, the audience for Milne's grown-up writing had largely vanished: he observed bitterly in his autobiography that a critic had said that the hero of his latest play (God help it) was simply "Christopher Robin grown up...what an obsession with me children are become!".

Even his old literary home, Punch, where the When We Were Very Young verses had first appeared, was ultimately to reject him, as Christopher Milne details in his autobiography The Enchanted Places, although Methuen continued to publish whatever Milne wrote, including the long poem 'The Norman Church' and an assembly of articles entitled Year In, Year Out (which Milne likened to a benefit night for the author).

He also adapted Kenneth Grahame's novel The Wind in the Willows for the stage as Toad of Toad Hall. The title was an implicit admission that such chapters as Chapter 7, "The Piper at the Gates of Dawn", could not survive translation to the theatre. A special introduction written by Milne is included in some editions of Grahame's novel.

Legacy and commemoration[edit]

A. A. Milne memorial plaque at Ashdown Forest, East Sussex, England, the setting for Winnie the Pooh, shared with E.H. Shepard

The rights to A. A. Milne's Pooh books were left to four beneficiaries: his family, the Royal Literary Fund, Westminster School and the Garrick Club.[24] After Milne's death in 1956, his widow sold her rights to the Pooh characters to Stephen Slesinger, whose widow sold the rights after Slesinger's death to the Walt Disney Company, which has made many Pooh cartoon movies, a Disney Channel television show, as well as Pooh-related merchandise. In 2001, the other beneficiaries sold their interest in the estate to the Disney Corporation for $350m. Previously Disney had been paying twice-yearly royalties to these beneficiaries. The estate of E. H. Shepard also received a sum in the deal. The copyright on Pooh expires in 2026.[25] In 2008, a collection of original illustrations featuring Winnie-the-Pooh and his animal friends sold for more than £1.2 million at auction in Sotheby's, London.[26] Forbes magazine ranks Winnie the Pooh the most valuable fictional character; in 2002 Winnie the Pooh merchandising products alone had annual sales of more than $5.9 billion.[27]

A memorial plaque in Ashdown Forest, unveiled by Christopher Robin in 1979, commemorates the work of A. A. Milne and Shepard in creating the world of Pooh.[20] Milne once wrote of Ashdown Forest: "In that enchanted place on the top of the forest a little boy and his bear will always be playing".[20] In 2003, Winnie the Pooh was listed at number 7 on the BBC's survey The Big Read.[28]

Several of Milne's children's poems were set to music by the composer Harold Fraser-Simson.

His poems have been parodied many times, including with the books When We Were Rather Older and Now We Are Sixty.

Religious views[edit]

Milne did not speak out much on the subject of religion, although he used religious terms to explain his decision, while remaining a pacifist, to join the army: "In fighting Hitler", he wrote, "we are truly fighting the Devil, the Anti-Christ ... Hitler was a crusader against God."[29]

His best known comment on the subject was recalled on his death:

He also wrote the poem "Explained":

Elizabeth Ann
Said to her Nan:
"Please will you tell me how God began?
Somebody must have made Him. So
Who could it be, 'cos I want to know?"[31]

Works[edit]

Novels[edit]

  • Lovers in London (1905. Some consider this more of a short story collection; Milne did not like it and considered The Day's Play as his first book.)
  • Once on a Time (1917)
  • Mr. Pim (1921) (A novelisation of his play Mr. Pim Passes By (1919))
  • The Red House Mystery (1922)
  • Two People (1931) (Inside jacket claims this is Milne's first attempt at a novel.)
  • Four Days' Wonder (1933)
  • Chloe Marr (1946)

Non-fiction[edit]

  • Peace With Honour (1934)
  • It's Too Late Now: The Autobiography of a Writer (1939)
  • War With Honour (1940)
  • War Aims Unlimited (1941)
  • Year In, Year Out (1952) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)

Punch articles[edit]

  • The Day's Play (1910)
  • Once A Week (1914)
  • The Holiday Round (1912)
  • The Sunny Side (1921)
  • Those Were the Days (1929) [The four volumes above, compiled]

Newspaper articles and book introductions[edit]

  • The Chronicles of Clovis by "Saki" (1911) [Introduction to]
  • Not That It Matters (1920)
  • By Way of Introduction (1929)

Story collections for children[edit]

Poetry collections for children[edit]

Story collections[edit]

  • The Secret and other stories (1929)
  • The Birthday Party (1948)
  • A Table Near the Band (1950)

Poetry[edit]

  • For the Luncheon Interval [poems from Punch]
  • When We Were Very Young (1924) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
  • Now We Are Six (1927) (illustrated by E. H. Shepard)
  • Behind the Lines (1940)
  • The Norman Church (1948)

Screenplays and Plays[edit]

  • Wurzel-Flummery (1917)
  • Belinda (1918)
  • The Boy Comes Home (1918)
  • Make-Believe (1918) (children's play)
  • The Camberley Triangle (1919)
  • Mr. Pim Passes By (1919)
  • The Red Feathers (1920)
  • The Bump (1920, Minerva Films), starring Aubrey Smith
  • Twice Two (1920, Minerva Films)
  • Five Pound Reward (1920, Minerva Films)
  • Bookworms (1920, Minerva Films)
  • The Dover Road (1921)
  • The Lucky One (1922)
  • The Truth About Blayds (1922)
  • The Artist: A Duologue (1923)
  • Give Me Yesterday (1923) (a.k.a. Success in the UK)
  • Ariadne (1924)
  • The Man in the Bowler Hat: A Terribly Exciting Affair (1924)
  • To Have the Honour (1924)
  • Portrait of a Gentleman in Slippers (1926)
  • Success (1926)
  • Miss Marlow at Play (1927)
  • The Fourth Wall or The Perfect Alibi (1928)
  • The Ivory Door (1929)
  • Toad of Toad Hall (1929) (adaptation of The Wind in the Willows)
  • Michael and Mary (1930)
  • Other People's Lives (1933) (a.k.a. They Don't Mean Any Harm)
  • Miss Elizabeth Bennet (1936) [based on Pride and Prejudice]
  • Sarah Simple (1937)
  • Gentleman Unknown (1938)
  • The General Takes Off His Helmet (1939) in The Queen's Book of the Red Cross
  • The Ugly Duckling (1941)
  • Before the Flood (1951)

Films[edit]

Michael and Mary was adapted to cinema in 1931.

The 1963 film The King's Breakfast was based on Milne's poem of the same name.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Births search results".
  2. ^ Sherborne, Michael (2013). H.G. Wells: Another Kind of Life. Peter Owen Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7206-1348-3. 
  3. ^ a b c Thwaite, Ann (January 2008). "Milne, Alan Alexander (1882–1956)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35031. 
  4. ^ "Hampstead: Education". A History of the County of Middlesex 9: 159–169. 1989. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  5. ^ "Milne, Alan Alexander (MLN900AA)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. 
  6. ^ Finch, Christopher (2000). Disney's Winnie the Pooh: A Celebration of the Silly Old Bear. Disney Editions. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-7868-6352-5. 
  7. ^ Davidson, Max (27 March 2013). "For sale: Winnie-the-Pooh creator A A Milne's home". The Daily Telegraph (London). 
  8. ^ Capitalization as in the British Library Catalogue
  9. ^ "The Art of Fiction – P.G. Wodehouse" (pdf). The Paris Review. 2005. p. 18. Archived from the original on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008. 
  10. ^ "Cotchford Farm". National Monument Records. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 29 September 2008. 
  11. ^ "Letter La Z 5 July 1917 – John Middleton Murry to Beatrice Elvery". George Lazarus Collection. 12 August 1953. Retrieved 9 June 2008. 
  12. ^ Jill C. Wheeler (2010). "A. A. Milne". p. 21. ABDO Publishing Company,
  13. ^ Milne, A. A. (August 1904). "Lillian's Loves". Punch, or the London Charivari 127 (24 August 1904): 142. 
  14. ^ Milne, A. A. (November 1904). "Answers to [Fictional] Correspondents". Punch, or the London Charivari 127 (9 November 1904): 333. 
  15. ^ "A. A. Milne". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 22 May 2008. 
  16. ^ Eforgan, E. (2010). Leslie Howard: The Lost Actor. ISBN 978-0-85303-971-6. 
  17. ^ Thomas Burnett Swann (1971). A. A. Milne. Twayne Publishers. p. 41. 
  18. ^ Milne, Alan Alexander (1926) [1922]. "Introduction (dated April 1926)". The Red House Mystery. London: Methuen. pp. ix–xii. 
  19. ^ Winnie-the-Pooh at the New York Public Library
  20. ^ a b c d Ford, Rebecca (28 February 2007) "Happy Birthday Pooh", Daily Express. Retrieved 15 October 2011
  21. ^ a b "Pooh celebrates his 80th birthday". BBC. Retrieved 11 November 2012
  22. ^ Plans to improve access to Pooh Bridge unveiled BBC. Retrieved 15 October 2011
  23. ^ David A Jasen (2002). P.G. Wodehouse: A Portrait of a Master. Music Sales Group. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-85712-754-9. 
  24. ^ Treneman, Ann (4 August 1998). "A bit of a stink at the Garrick over Winnie the Pooh's pot of money". The Independent (London). Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  25. ^ "Walt Disney secures rights to Winnie the Pooh". The Guardian (London). 6 March 2001. Retrieved 14 January 2012. 
  26. ^ "Pooh pictures sell for £1.2m at auction". Metro (London). 18 December 2008. Retrieved 11 November 2012
  27. ^ "Top-Earning Fictional Characters". Forbes (New York). 25 September 2003. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  28. ^ "The Big Read", BBC, April 2003. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  29. ^ Milne, Alan Alexander (1940). War with Honour. London: Macmillan. pp. 16–17. 
  30. ^ Simpson, James B. (1988). Simpson's Contemporary Quotations. Boston, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-43085-2. 
  31. ^ Milne, A. A. (2009). The Winnie-the-Pooh Collection Set. illustrated by E.H. Shepard. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-525-42292-1. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Thwaite, Ann. A.A. Milne: His Life. London: Faber and Faber, 1990. ISBN 0571138888
  • Toby, Marlene. A.A. Milne, Author of Winnie-the-Pooh. Chicago: Childrens Press, 1995. ISBN 051604270X
  • Wullschläger, Jackie (2001) [1995]. Inventing Wonderland: The Lives of Lewis Carroll, Edward Lear, J. M. Barrie, Kenneth Grahame, and A. A. Milne. London: Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-70330-9. 

External links[edit]