|Full name||Associazione Sportiva Roma SpA|
|Nickname(s)||i Giallorossi (The Yellow-Reds)
La Maggica (The Magic One)
i Lupi (The Wolves)
|Founded||22 July 1927
(by Italo Foschi)
|Head coach||Aurelio Andreazzoli|
|2011–12||Serie A, 7th|
|Website||Club home page|
Associazione Sportiva Roma (BIT: ASR, LSE: 0DMN), commonly referred to as simply Roma, is a professional Italian football club based in Rome. Founded by a merger arranged by the Fascist regime in 1927, Roma have participated in the top-tier of Italian football for all of their existence but one season in the early 50s (1951–52). For their 61st season in a row (80th overall), Roma competed in Serie A for the 2012–13 season.
Roma have won Serie A three times, first in 1941–42 then in 1982–83 and again in 2000–01, as well as winning nine Coppa Italia titles and two Supercoppa Italiana titles. On the European stage Roma won an Inter-Cities Fairs Cup in 1960–61, coming close to European Cup victory in 1983–84 (lost the one-legged final played at home against Liverpool after a penalty shootout), and finishing as runners-up in the UEFA Cup for 1990–91 (two-legged aggregate defeat against Internazionale).
Home games are currently played at the Stadio Olimpico, a venue they share with city rivals Lazio. With a capacity of over 72,000, it is the second largest of its kind in Italy, with only San Siro able to seat more. In September 2009 the club unveiled plans to build a new 55,000-capacity stadium in the western suburbs of Rome. Its design was modeled after English football stadiums with the objective being to give fans a closer view of the pitch. In September 2011, it was announced that the new president, Thomas DiBenedetto, had reached an agreement with the mayor of Rome, Gianni Alemanno, to have the new stadium completed by 2016. Like the previous plan by Sensi, this new stadium is to be modeled after English stadiums.
A.S. Roma was founded in the summer of 1927 when a secretary of the National Fascist Party, Italo Foschi, initiated the merger of three older Italian Football Championship clubs from the city of Rome; Roman FC, SS Alba-Audace and Fortitudo-Pro Roma SGS. The purpose of the merger was to give the Eternal City a strong club to rival that of the more dominant Northern Italian clubs of the time. The only major Roman club to resist the merger was S.S. Lazio because of the intervention of the army General Vaccaro, member of the club and executive of Italian Football Federation. The club played its earliest seasons at the Motovelodromo Appio stadium, before settling in the working-class streets of Testaccio, where it built an all-wooden ground Campo Testaccio; this was opened in November 1929. An early season in which Roma made a large mark was the 1930–31 championship, the club finished as runners-up behind Juventus. Captain Attilio Ferraris along with Guido Masetti, Fulvio Bernardini and Rodolfo Volk were highly important players during this period.
First title victory and decline
After a slump in league form and the departure of high key players, Roma eventually rebuilt their squad adding goalscorers such as the Argentine Enrique Guaita. Under the management of Luigi Barbesino, the Roman club came close to their first title in 1935–36; finishing just one point behind champions Bologna.
Roma returned to form after being inconsistent for much of the late 1930s; Roma recorded an unexpected title triumph in the 1941–42 season by winning their first ever scudetto title. The eighteen goals scored by local player Amedeo Amadei were essential to the Alfréd Schaffer coached Roma side winning the title. At the time Italy was involved in World War II and Roma were playing at the Stadio del Partito Nazionale Fascista.
In the years just after the war, Roma were unable to recapture their league stature from the early 1940s. Roma finished in the lower half of Serie A for five seasons in a row, before eventually succumbing to their only ever relegation to Serie B at the end of the 1950–51 season; around a decade after their championship victory. Under future national team manager Giuseppe Viani, promotion straight back up was achieved.
After returning to the Serie A, Roma managed to stabilise themselves as a top half club again with players such as Egisto Pandolfini, Dino Da Costa and Dane Helge Bronée. Their best finish of this period was under the management of Englishman Jesse Carver, when in 1954–55 they finished as runners-up, after Udinese who originally finished second were relegated for corruption. Although Roma were unable to break into the top four during the following decade, they did achieve some measure of cup success. Their first honour outside of Italy was recorded in 1960–61 when Roma won the Inter-Cities Fairs Cup by beating Birmingham City 4–2 in the finals. A few years later Roma won their first Coppa Italia trophy in 1963–64, by beating Torino 1–0.
Their lowest point came during the 1964–65 season when manager Juan Carlos Lorenzo announced that the club could not pay its players and was unlikely to be able to afford to travel to Vicenza to fulfil its next fixture. Supporters kept the club going with a fundraiser at the Sistine Theatre and bankruptcy was avoided with the election of a new club president Franco Evangelisti.
Their second Coppa Italia trophy was won in 1968–69 when it was competed in a small league like system. Giacomo Losi set a Roma appearance record during 1969 with 450 appearances in all competitions, the record he set would last for 38 years.
Time of mixed fortunes
Roma were able to add another cup to their collection in 1972, with a 3–1 victory over Blackpool in the Anglo-Italian Cup. During much of the 1970s Roma's appearance in the top half of Serie A was sporadic. The best place the club were able to achieve during the decade was third in 1974–75. Notable players who turned out for the club during this period included midfielders Giancarlo De Sisti and Francesco Rocca.
The dawning of a newly successful era in Roma's footballing history was brought in with another Coppa Italia victory, they beat Torino on penalties to win the 1979–80 cup. Roma would reach heights in the league which they had not touched since the 1940s by narrowly and controversially finishing as runners-up to Juventus in 1980–81. Former Milan player Nils Liedholm was the manager at the time, with players such as Bruno Conti, Agostino Di Bartolomei, Roberto Pruzzo and Falcão.
The second scudetto did not elude Roma for much longer; in 1982–83 the Roman club won the title for the first time in 41 years, amidst celebrations in the capital. The following season Roma finished as runners-up in Italy and collected a Coppa Italia title, they also finished as runners-up in the European Cup final of 1984. The European Cup final with Liverpool ended in a 1–1 draw with a goal from Pruzzo, but Roma eventually lost the penalty shoot-out. Roma's successful run in the 1980s would finish with a runners-up spot in 1985–86 and a Coppa Italia victory, beating out Sampdoria 3–2.
After that a comparative decline began in the league, one of the few league highs from the following period being a third place finish in 1987–88. At the start of the 1990s the club was involved in an all-Italian UEFA Cup final, where they lost 2–1 to Internazionale in 1991; the same season the club won its seventh Coppa Italia trophy and ended runners-up to Sampdoria in the Supercoppa Italiana. Aside from finishing runners-up to Torino in a Coppa Italia final, the rest of the decade was largely sub-par in the history of Roma; especially in the league where the highest they could manage was fourth in 1997–98. The early 1990s also saw the emergence of homegrown striker Francesco Totti who would go on to be an important member of the team and the club's iconic captain.
In the new millennium
Roma returned to form in the 2000s, starting the decade in great style by winning their third ever Serie A title in 2000–01; the scudetto was won on the last day of the season by beating Parma 3–1, edging out Juventus by two points. The club's captain, Francesco Totti was a large reason for the title victory and he would become one of the main heroes in the club's history, going on to break several club records. Other important players during this period included Aldair, Cafu, Gabriel Batistuta, and Vincenzo Montella.
The club attempted to defend the title in the following season but ended as runners-up to Juventus by just one point. This would be the start of Roma finishing as runners-up many times in both Serie A and Coppa Italia during the 2000s; they lost out 4–2 to AC Milan in the Coppa Italia final of 2003 and lost out to Milan again by finishing second in Serie A for the 2003–04 season. The club also re-capitalized several time in 2003–04 season. In November 2003 €37.5 million was injected by "Roma 2000" to cover the half-year loss and loss carried from previous year. and again on 30 June for €44.57 million. Through stock market, a further €19.850 million of new shares issued, and at the year end, the share capital was €19.878 million, which unchanged as of 2011. The following season also saw the departure of Walter Samuel for €25 million and Emerson for €28 million, which decreased the strength of the squad, thus Giallorossi finished as the eighth place, one of the worst of recent season.
A Serie A scandal was revealed during 2006 and Roma were one of the teams not involved; after punishments were handed out, Roma was re-classified as runners-up for 2005–06; the same season in which they finished second in the Coppa Italia losing to Internazionale. In the two following seasons, 2006–07 and 2007–08, Roma finished as Serie A runners-up, meaning that in the 2000s Roma have finished in the top two positions more than any other decade in their history Meanwhile in the UEFA Champions League during both of these seasons, they reached the quarter-finals before going out to Manchester United. Despite the sloppy start in UEFA Champions League 2008–09, Roma managed to reach the knockout stage ahead of Chelsea in their group, thus finishing for the first time in their history as winners of the group stage. However, the Giallorossi would lose to Arsenal in the knockout stage on penalty kicks, ending their Champions League campaign.
After a disappointing start to the 2009–10 season, Claudio Ranieri replaced Luciano Spalletti as head coach. At the time of the switch, Roma lay bottom of the Serie A table after losses to Juventus and Genoa. Despite this setback, Roma would later embark on an incredible unbeaten streak of 24 matches in the league – with the last of the 24 being a 2–1 win over rivals Lazio, whereby Roma came from 1–0 down at half-time to defeat their city rivals after Ranieri courageously substituted both Totti and De Rossi at the interval. The Giallorossi were on top of the table at one point, before a loss to U.C. Sampdoria later in the season. Roma would finish runners-up to Inter yet again in both Serie A and the Coppa Italia. This rounded out a highly successful decade in Roma's history, following somewhat mediocre results of the 1990s. During the 2000s, Roma had finally recaptured the Scudetto, two Coppa Italia trophies, and their first two Supercoppa Italiana titles. Other notable contributions to the club's history have included a return to the UEFA Champions League Quarter-finals (in the 2006–2007 and 2007–2008 editions) since 1984, six runners up positions in the league, four Coppa Italia finals and three Supercoppa finals – marking Roma's greatest ever decade.
End of the Sensi era
In the summer of 2010, the Sensi family agreed to relinquish their control of AS Roma as part of a debt-settlement agreement. This brought an end to the presidential reign of the Sensi family who had presided over the club since 1993. Until a new owner was appointed, Rosella Sensi would continue her directorial role of the club. The 2010–11 season had once again seen Roma start off with mixed fortunes on both a domestic and European level. These included losses against teams like Cagliari, Brescia and a 2–0 defeat against Bayern Munich in the group stages of the Champions League (a match which saw manager Claudio Ranieri openly criticised by his own players). However, these were accompanied by victories against Inter Milan and a sensational victory against Bayern Munich in the return fixture, which saw Roma fight back from 0–2 down at half-time to emerge as 3–2 winners. Following a series of poor results which saw Roma engage in a winless-streak of five consecutive matches, Claudio Ranieri resigned as head coach in February 2011, and former striker Vincenzo Montella was appointed as caretaker manager until the end of the season. It was also during this season that Roma icon, Francesco Totti, scored his 200th Serie A goal against Fiorentina in March 2011 – becoming only the sixth ever player to achieve such a feat.
On 16 April 2011, the takeover contract was signed. The new ownership immediately went into effect by making significant changes in the club, hiring Walter Sabatini as director of football and former Spanish international and FC Barcelona B coach Luis Enrique as manager; the first high-profile signings from the duo were attacking midfielder Erik Lamela from River Plate, forward Bojan Krkić from Barcelona, goalkeeper Maarten Stekelenburg from AFC Ajax and unattached defender Gabriel Heinze. The club also sold and released high earner, namely defender John Arne Riise, keeper Doni, forward Jérémy Ménez and Mirko Vučinić.
However, Roma was eliminated from 2011–12 UEFA Europa League play-off round. After the formal takeover on 18 August, Roma bought forward Pablo Daniel Osvaldo, midfielder Miralem Pjanić, Fernando Gago and defender Simon Kjær, as well as youngster Fabio Borini, made the club costed more than 40 million if the loan deal were successfully turned to definitive deal.
Roma have had numerous presidents over the course of their history, some of which have been the owners of the club, others have been honorary presidents. Franco Sensi was the chairman until his death in 2008, with his daughter Rosella Sensi in place as honorary president. Here is a complete list of Roma presidents from 1927 until the present day.
Roma have had many managers and trainers running the team during their history, here is a chronological list of them from 1927 onwards.
- As of 26 August 2012
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Out on loan
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.
|Head coach||Aurelio Andreazzoli|
|Assistant Coach||Roberto Muzzi|
|Technical Coach||Antônio Carlos Zago|
|Goalkeeping Coach||Guido Nanni|
|Fitness Coach||Roberto Ferola|
|Fitness Coach||Vito Scala|
|Team Manager||Salvatore Scaglia|
Last updated: 16 March 2012
Source: AS Roma Official Website
Club statistics and records
Francesco Totti holds Roma's official appearance record, having made 610 (as of May 2011) appearances in all competitions, over the course of 19 seasons from 1992 until the present day. He also holds the record for Serie A appearances with 474, as he passed Giacomo Losi on 1 March 2008, during a home match against Parma.
Including all competitions, Francesco Totti is the all-time leading goalscorer for Roma, with 262 goals since joining the club, 207 of which were scored in Serie A (another Roma record). Roberto Pruzzo, who was the all-time topscorer since 1988 comes in second in all competitions with 136. In the 1930–31 season, Rodolfo Volk scored 29 goals in Serie A over the course of a single season, not only was he the league's topscorer that year, but he set a Roma record for most goals scored in a season, which still lasts today.
Its major founders Fortitudo and Alba having been relegated at the end of 1926–27 campaign, new-founded Roma had to take part to Southern First Division championship (Serie B) for its inaugural season; nevertheless FIGC decided a special enlargement of first level division re-admitting AS Roma as SSC Napoli. The first ever official game participated in by Roma was in the National Division, the predecessor of Serie A, of 1927–28, against Livorno; Roma won 2–0. The biggest ever victory recorded by Roma was 9–0 against Cremonese during the Serie A season of 1929–30. The highest defeat Roma have ever suffered is 7–1, this has happened three times; first against Juventus during 1931–32, then against Torino in 1947–48 and most recently against Manchester United in 2006–07.
Colours, badge and nicknames
Roma's colours of imperial purple with a golden yellow trim represents the traditional colours of the Eternal City (Rome), the official seal of the Comune di Roma features the same colours. The gold and the purple-red represent Roman imperial dignity. White shorts and black socks are usually worn with the red shirt, however in particularly high key games the shorts and socks are the same colour as the home shirt.
thumb|upright|right|Roma's crest used from 1997 to 2013. The kit itself was originally worn by Roman Football Club; one of the three clubs who merged to form the current incarnation in 1927. Because of the colours they wear, Roma are often nicknamed i giallorossi meaning the yellow-reds. Roma's away kit is traditionally white, with a third kit changing colour from time to time. Maybe because of modern sport marketing, the last few years have seen the golden trim and details substituted by light orange. Modern alternate kits have included all orange and orange-maroon versions.
A popular nickname for the club is i lupi (the wolves), the animal has always featured on the club's badge in different forms throughout their history. Currently the emblem of the team is the one which was used when the club was first founded. It portrays the female wolf with the two infant brothers Romulus and Remus, illustrating the myth of the founding of Rome, superimposed on a bipartite golden yellow over maroon red shield. In the myth from which the club take their nickname and logo, the twins (sons of Mars and Rhea Silvia) are thrown into the River Tiber by their uncle Amulius, a she-wolf saved the twins and looked after them. Eventually the two twins took revenge on Amulius, before falling out themselves; Romulus killed Remus and as thus was made king of a new city named in his honour, Rome.
Shirt sponsors and manufacturers
|Period||Kit manufacturer||Shirt sponsor|
|1994–95||Asics||Nuova Tirrena (Insurance)|
|1995–97||INA Assitalia (Insurance)|
|2005–06||Banca Italease (Banking Group)|
Supporters and rivalries
Roma is the fifth most supported football club in Italy behind Juventus, Internazionale, Milan and Napoli with around 7% of Italian football fans supporting the club (according to the Doxa Institute-L'Espresso's research of April 2006). Historically the largest section of Roma supporters in the city of Rome have come from the inner-city, especially Testaccio.
The traditional ultras group of the club was Commando Ultrà Curva Sud commonly abbreviated as CUCS; this group was founded by the merger of many smallers groups and was considered one of the most historic in the history of European football. However, by the mid-1990s CUCS had been usurped by rival factions and ultimately broke up. Since that time, the Curva Sud of the Stadio Olimpico has been controlled by more right-wing groups; A.S. Roma Ultras, Boys, Giovinezza and others. The oldest group Fedayn is apolitical however and politics is not the raison d'être of Roma, just a part of their overall identity. In September 2009 the club unveiled plans to build a new 55,000-capacity stadium in Rome's western suburbs.
The most known club anthem and motto is Roma,Roma,Roma by singer Antonello Venditti. The title roughly means "Roma is not to be questioned, it is to be loved" and is sung before each match. The song Grazie Roma, by the same singer, is played at the end of victorious home games. Recently, the main riff of The White Stripes song Seven Nation Army has also become widely popular at games.
In Italian football Roma is a club with many rivalries; first and foremost is their rivalry with Lazio, the club who they share the Stadio Olimpico stadium with. The derby between the two is called the Derby della Capitale, it is amongst the most heated and emotional footballing rivalries in the world. The fixture has seen some occasional instances of violence in the past including the death of Lazio fan, Vincenzo Paparelli in 1979–80 as a result of an emergency flare fired from the Curva Sud, and the abandonment of a game in march 2004, following unfounded rumours of a fatality which led to violence outside the stadium.
With Napoli, Roma also compete in the Derby del Sole rivalry meaning the "Derby of the Sun". Nowadays fans also consider other Serie A giants like Juventus (rivalry born especially in the 1980s), Milan and Internazionale (increased in recent years) among their rivals as these four compete for the top four spots in the league table to secure a spot in the Champions League.
There have been a number of instances of conflict in recent years between some Roma supporters and fans of English clubs, and the subsequent violence outside the stadium which saw a number of Liverpool fans stabbed. Since then, there have been further instances of some English supporters being attacked and stabbed in Rome, including incidents in 2001 when Liverpool visited Roma twice and subsequent clashes with Middlesbrough fans in 2006 and Manchester United fans in 2007. In March 2009, a coach carrying Arsenal supporters was attacked by a group of Roma "Ultras" just outside the Stadio Olimpico. The coach's windows were smashed and at least one person entered the vehicle, letting off a flare and stabbed a supporter in the knee.
- Winners (1): 1951–52
- Winners (1): 1928
- Winners (1): 1960–61
- Winners (1): 1971–72
Hall of Fame
There are eleven players in Hall of Fame: Franco Tancredi ; Cafu ; Aldair ; Giacomo Losi ; Francesco Rocca ; Agostino Di Bartolomei ; Fulvio Bernardini ; Paulo Roberto Falcao ; Bruno Conti ; Roberto Pruzzo ; Amedeo Amadei.
Associazione Sportiva Roma as a company
|Revenue||€115.973 million (2011–12)|
|Operating income||(€47.698 million) (2011–12)|
|Net income||(€58.474 million) (2011–12)|
|Total assets||€188.397 million (2010–11)|
|Total equity||(€52.586 million) (2011–12)|
|Parent||NEEP Roma Holding S.p.A.|
|Subsidiaries||Soccer S.a.s. di Brand Management Srl|
|Operating income||(€57,598,754) (2011–12)|
|Net income||(€58,268,432) (2011–12)|
|Total assets||€303,771,288 (2011–12)|
|Total equity||€66,285,020 (2011–12)|
Since 1999, during Franco Sensi's period in charge, Associazione Sportiva Roma has been a joint stock company. From 2004 to 2011, Roma's shares are distributed between; 67.1% to Compagnia Italpetroli SpA (the Sensi family holding), 2.5% to Danilo Coppola and 30.4% to other shareholders.
In April 2008, after months of speculation, George Soros was confirmed by Rosella Sensi, CEO of Italian Serie A association football club A.S. Roma, to be bidding for a takeover. The takeover bid was successively rejected by the Sensi family, who instead preferred to maintain the club's ownership. On 17 August 2008 club chairman and owner Franco Sensi died after a long illness; his place at the chairmanship of the club was successively taken by his daughter Rosella.
Since the takeover in 2011, NEEP Roma Holding S.p.A. owned all shares Sensi previously hold. NEEP, itself a joint venture, is held by DiBenedetto AS Roma LLC (later renamed to AS Roma SPV, LLC) and Unicredit in 60–40 ratio, which the former had 4 real person shareholders in equal ratio, led by Roma current president Thomas R. DiBenedetto. After the mandatory bid, bought additional shares from the public sector, made the NEEP held 78.038% (increased from 67.1% of the Sensi).
Along with Lazio and Juventus, Roma is one of only three Italian clubs quotated in Borsa Italiana (Italian stock exchange). According to The Football Money League published by consultants Deloitte, in the season 2010–11, Roma was the 15th highest earning football club in the world with an estimated revenue of €143.5 million.
Since re-capitalization in 2003–04 season, Roma had a short-lived financial self-sustainability. The club had set-up a special amortization fund using Articolo 18-bis Legge 91/1981 mainly for the abnormal signing prior 2002–03 season, (such as Davide Bombardini for €11 million account value in June 2002, which the flopped player exchange boosted 2001–02 season result) and the tax payment of 2002–03 season was rescheduled. In 2004–05 season Roma made a net profit of €10,091,689 and followed by €804,285 in 2005–06 season. In 2006–07 season the accounting method changed to IFRS, which 2005–06 result was reclassified as net loss of €4,051,905 and 2006–07 season was net income of €10,135,539 (€14.011 million as a group). Moreover, the special fund (€80,189,123) was removed from the asset and co-currently for the equity as scheduled, made Roma group had a negative equity of €8.795 million on 30 June 2007. In 2007–08 season Roma made a net income of €18,699,219. (€19 million as a group) However, in 2008–09 season saw the decrease of gate and TV income, co-currently with finished 6th in Serie A, which saw Roma made a net loss of €1,894,330. (€1.56 million as a group) The gate and TV income further slipped in 2009–10 season, made a net loss of €21,917,292 (already boosted by the sale of Alberto Aquilani; €22 million as a group) despite sporting success (the second in 2009–10 Serie A). Moreover, despite a positive equity as a separate company (€105,142,589), the AS Roma Group had a negative equity on consolidated balance sheet, fell from +€8.8million to negative €13.2 million. In 2010–11 season Roma was administrated by UniCredit as Sensi family failed to repay the bank and the club was put into the market, which also saw Roma did not had major signing in 2010–11 season. Co-currently with no selling profit on the player, Roma net loss was enlarged to €30,589,137 (€30.778 million as a group) and the new owner already planned a re-capitalization after the mandatory bid on the shares. On the good side, the TV income was increased from €75,150,744 to €78,041,642 as well as gate income increased, from €23,821,218 to €31,017,179. It is because Roma entered 2010–11 UEFA Champions League which counter-weight the effect of the new collective agreement of Serie A. In 2011–12, the renewal of squad and participate in 2011–12 UEFA Europa League had worsen the financial result, which the €50 million capital increase was counter-weighted totally by the net loss.
One of the subsidiary of Roma (joint venture with SS Lazio, 37.5% x2 and Parma, 25%), Società Diritti Sportivi S.r.l. was in the process of liquidation since 2005. The company was a joint-venture of 4 football clubs including Fiorentina. However after the bankruptcy of old Viola, both Roma and Lazio had increased it shares ratio from 25% to 37.5%.
A.S. Roma had a team in the Superleague Formula race car series where teams are sponsored by football clubs. A.S. Roma's driver was ex IndyCar Series driver Franck Perera. The team had posted 3 podiums and was operated by Alan Docking Racing.
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