Airbus A400M Atlas
|The second prototype A400M, Grizzly 2, at the 2010 Farnborough Airshow|
|First flight||11 December 2009|
|Primary users||French Air Force
Turkish Air Force
See Operators below for orders
€152.4m(FY 2013) (France)
The Airbus A400M Atlas is a multi-national four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft. It was designed by Airbus Military as a tactical airlifter with strategic capabilities to replace older transport aircraft, such as the Transall C-160 and the Lockheed Martin C-130 Hercules. The A400M can perform mission roles other than transportation, including electronic surveillance and aerial refuelling.
The A400M's maiden flight, originally planned for 2008, took place on 11 December 2009 from Seville, Spain. Between 2009-2010, the A400M faced cancellation as a result of development program delays and cost overruns; however, the customer nations chose to maintain their support of the project. A total of 174 A400M aircraft have been ordered by eight nations as of July 2011. In March 2013, the A400M received European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certification. The first aircraft was delivered to the French Air Force in August 2013.
The project began as the Future International Military Airlifter (FIMA) group, set up in 1982 by Aérospatiale, British Aerospace (BAe), Lockheed, and Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) to develop a replacement for the C-130 Hercules and Transall C-160. Varying requirements and the complications of international politics caused slow progress. In 1989 Lockheed left the grouping and went on to develop an upgraded Hercules, the C-130J Super Hercules. With the addition of Alenia of Italy and CASA of Spain the FIMA group became Euroflag.
The A400M is positioned as an intermediate size between the Lockheed C-130 and the Boeing C-17. Originally the SNECMA M138 turboprop (based on the M88 core) was selected to power the A400M. Airbus Military issued a new request for proposal (RFP) in April 2002, after which Pratt & Whitney Canada with the PW180 and Europrop International answered; the latter was a new design. In May 2003, Airbus Military selected the Europrop TP400-D6, reportedly due to political interference over the PW180 engine.
The partner nations – France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Turkey, Belgium, and Luxembourg – signed an agreement in May 2003 to buy 212 aircraft. These nations decided to charge the Organisation for Joint Armament Cooperation (OCCAR) with the management of the acquisition of the A400M. Following the withdrawal of Italy and revision of procurement totals the revised requirement was for 180 aircraft, with first flight in 2008 and first delivery in 2009. On 28 April 2005, South Africa joined the partnership programme with the state-owned Denel Saab Aerostructures receiving a contract for fuselage components.
Delays and problems
On 9 January 2009, EADS announced that the first delivery was postponed until at least 2012, and indicated that it wanted to renegotiate "certain technical characteristics". EADS maintained the first deliveries would begin three years after the A400M's first flight. On 12 January 2009, the German newspaper Financial Times Deutschland reported that the A400M was overweight by 12 tons and may not achieve a critical performance requirement, the ability to airlift 32 tons; sources told FTD at the time that the aircraft could only lift 29 tons, which is insufficient to carry a modern armored infantry fighting vehicle, like the Puma. In response to the FTD report, the chief of the German Air Force stated: "That is a disastrous development," and could delay deliveries to the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) until 2014. The Initial Operational Capability (IOC) for the Luftwaffe is delayed at least until 2017, leading to political planning of potential alternatives such as a higher integration of European airlift capabilities.
On 29 March 2009, Airbus CEO Thomas Enders told Der Spiegel magazine that the program may need to be abandoned without changes. The OCCAR reminded the participating countries that they can terminate the contract before 31 March 2009. On 3 April 2009 the South African Air Force announced that it would start considering alternatives to the A400M due to postponed production and increased cost. On 5 November 2009, South Africa announced it was cancelling the order citing increased cost and delivery delays. On 12 June, The New York Times reported that Germany and France had delayed the decision whether or not to cancel their orders for another six months, while the UK still planned to decide at the end of June. The NYT also quoted a report to the French Senate from February 2009, according to which "the A400M is €5 billion over budget, 3 to 4 years behind schedule, [...] aerospace experts estimate it is also costing Airbus between €1 billion and €1.5 billion a year."
The shortage of military transports caused by the A400M delay led the UK to lease, and subsequently purchase, eight C-17s. France and Germany have also been considering other aircraft, as all three countries need to support their operations in Afghanistan. The ADS Group has warned that shifting the British orders to American aircraft for the short term budget savings would cost much more over time in missed civil and military aerospace business, because they say that the technologies used in the A400M would be a bridge to the next generation of civilian aircraft. In June 2009, Lockheed Martin said that both United Kingdom and France had asked for technical details on the C-130J as an alternative to the A400M.
In 2009, Airbus acknowledged that the program was expected to lose at least €2.4 billion and cannot break even without sales outside NATO countries. A PricewaterhouseCoopers audit of the program projected that it would run €11.2 billion over budget without corrective measures, which would result in an overrun of €7.6 billion. On 24 July 2009, the seven European nations announced that they would continue with the A400M program, and form a joint procurement agency to renegotiate the contract with EADS. On 9 December 2009, the Financial Times reported that Airbus requested an additional €5 billion subsidy for the project. On 5 January 2010, Airbus repeated that the A400M may be scrapped, costing Airbus €5.7 billion unless €5.3 billion was added by partner governments. On 11 January 2010, Tom Enders, Airbus chief executive, stated that he was prepared to cancel A400M production if European governments did not provide more funding; delays had already increased its budget by 25%.
On 5 November 2010, Belgium, Britain, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain and Turkey finalised the contract and agreed to lend Airbus Military €1.5 billion. The program was then least three years behind schedule. The UK reduced its order from 25 to 22 aircraft and Germany from 60 to 53, decreasing the total order from 180 to 170. In 2013 France's budget for 50 aircraft was €8.9bn (~US$11.7bn) at a unit cost of €152.4m (~US$200m), or €178m (~US$235m) including development costs. The 2013 French White Paper on Defence and National Security cut their requirement for tactical transport aircraft from 70 to 50, including aircraft for use by special forces, France envisaged their A400M order will be cut to 35-40 in the 2014-19 budget.
Before the first flight, the engine's required airborne test time was gained using a C-130 testbed aircraft. The first flight of the C-130 testbed occurred on 17 December 2008. The A400M's maiden flight was carried out from Seville on 11 December 2009. The first A400M had flown 39 hours of test flights as of 9 March 2010. The second test aircraft's engines were tested on 18 March 2010 prior to it beginning test flights. The second A400M completed its first flight on 8 April 2010. The third A400M took to the air in July 2010. With this flight the three A400Ms have taken more than 100 flights, totaling 400 hours.
In July 2010, the A400M passed a key test: ultimate-load testing of the wing. On 28 October 2010, Airbus Military announced that it was about to start refuelling and air-drop tests. By October 2010 the A400M had flown 672 hours of the 2,700 hours expected to reach certification. Cold weather testing is to be performed in either Canada or Sweden. In November 2010, the first paratroop jumps were performed from the A400M. Notably Airbus CEO Tom Enders and the A400M project manager Bruno Delannoy were among the group of skydivers in the test. In December 2010, the A400M fleet's flight time has risen to 965 hours. A fourth A400M joined the test fleet with its first flight of over five hours on 20 December 2010.
In late 2010, simulated icing tests were performed on the MSN1 flight test aircraft using devices installed on the leading edges of the wing. These revealed an aerodynamic issue causing buffeting of the horizontal tail, necessitating a six-week retrofit to install anti-icing equipment fed with engine bleed air; production aircraft are to be similarly fitted. Winter tests were done in Kiruna, Sweden during February 2011.
By April 2011, a total of 1,400 flight hours over 450 flights had been achieved. In May 2011 the A400M's EPI TP400-D6 engine received certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA). In May 2011, the A400M fleet had totaled 1,600 hours over 500 flights; by September 2011, the total increased to 2,100 hours and 684 flights.
Due to a gearbox problem, an A400M was shown on static display instead of a flight demonstration at the 2011 Paris Air Show. By October 2011, the total flight hours had reached 2,380 over 784 flights. A minor problem that occurred during a test for landing on a wet runway led to reconstruction of parts of the main landing gear door which has been damaged by water infiltration.
The MSN2 flight test aircraft was due to spend the week of 22 May 2012 conducting unpaved runway trials on a grass strip at Cottbus-Drewitz Airport in Germany. Testing was cut short on 23 May, when, during a rejected takeoff test, the left side main wheels broke through the runway surface. Airbus Military stated that it found the behavior of the aircraft was "excellent". The undamaged aircraft returned to Toulouse.
On 14 March 2013, the A400M received its Type Certification from the European Aviation Safety Agency.
Production and delivery
Assembly of the first A400M began at the Seville plant of EADS Spain in early 2007. Major assemblies built at other facilities abroad were brought to the Seville facility by Airbus Beluga transporters. In February 2008, four Europrop TP400-D6 flight test engines were delivered for the first A400M. Static structural testing of an A400M test airframe began on 12 March 2008 in Spain. By 2010, Airbus planned to manufacture thirty aircraft per year.
The first flight, originally scheduled for the first quarter of 2008, was postponed due to program delays, schedule adjustments and financial pressures. EADS announced in January 2008 that continued development problems with the engines had resulted in a delay to the second quarter of 2008 before the first engine test flights on a C-130 testbed aircraft. The first flight of the aircraft, previously scheduled for July 2008, had again been postponed. Civil certification under European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) CS-25 will be followed later by certification for military purposes. The A400M was "rolled out" in Seville on 26 June 2008 at an event presided by King Juan Carlos I of Spain.
On 12 January 2011, serial production of the A400M formally commenced. On 1 August 2013, delivery of the first aircraft to the French Air Force, it was formally handed over during a ceremony on 30 September 2013. On 9 August 2013, the first Turkish A400M conducted its maiden flight from Seville.
The Airbus A400M will increase the airlift capacity and range compared with the aircraft it was originally set to replace, the older versions of the Hercules and Transall. Cargo capacity is expected to double over existing aircraft, both in payload and volume, and range is increased substantially as well. The cargo box is 17.71 m long excluding ramp, 4.00 m wide, and 3.85 m high (or 4.00 m aft of the wing). and the ramp is 5.40 m long.
The A400M will operate in many configurations including cargo transport, troop transport, medical evacuation, aerial refuelling, and electronic surveillance. The aircraft is intended for use on short, soft landing strips and for long-range, cargo transport flights.
It features a fly-by-wire flight control system with sidestick controllers and flight envelope protection. Like other Airbus aircraft, the A400M will have a full glass cockpit (all information accessed through large colour screens) and as such will represent a technological leap compared to the older C-130s and C-160s that many countries now operate.
The A400M's wings are primarily carbon fibre reinforced plastic. The eight-bladed Scimitar propeller is also made from a woven composite material. The aircraft is powered by four Europrop TP400-D6 engines rated at 8,250 kW (11,000 hp) each. The TP400-D6 engine is to be the most powerful turboprop engine in the West to enter operational use. One of the few propeller powered aircraft with swept wings, the turboprops provide an efficient cruise speed of 780 km/h (480 mph) which falls between the C-130 and the jet-powered C-17.
The pair of propellers on each wing of the A400M turn in opposite directions, with the tips of the propellers advancing from above towards the midpoint between the two engines. This is in contrast to the overwhelming majority of multi-engine propeller driven aircraft where all propellers on the same wing turn in the same direction. The counter-rotation is achieved by the use of a gearbox fitted to two of the engines, and only the propeller turns the opposite direction; all four engines are identical and turn in the same direction which eliminates the need to have two different "handed" engines on stock for the same aircraft, which simplifies maintenance and supply costs. This configuration, dubbed DBE (Down Between Engines), allows the aircraft to produce more lift and lessens the torque and prop wash on each wing. It also reduces yaw in the event of an outboard engine failure.
The A400M has a removable refuelling probe mounted above the cockpit to allow the aircraft to receive fuel from drogue equipped tankers. Optionally, the receiving probe can be replaced with a fuselage mounted UARRSI receptacle for receiving fuel from boom equipped tankers. The aircraft can also act as a tanker when fitted with two wing mounted hose and drogue under-wing refuelling pods or a centre-line Hose and Drum unit.
In December 2004, South Africa announced it would purchase eight A400Ms at a cost of approximately €837 million, with the nation joining the Airbus Military team as an industrial partner. Deliveries were expected from 2010 to 2012. In 2009, South Africa cancelled all eight aircraft, citing increasing costs. On 29 November 2011 Airbus Military reached an agreement to refund pre-delivery payments worth €837 million to Armscor.
Airbus Military made a bid in 2006 to supply Canada with the A400M to meet a tender request for 17 new tactical airlifters to replace its old Lockheed C-130E models. Canada ordered four Boeing C-17 Globemaster IIIs and 17 Lockheed C-130J Super Hercules instead.
In 2009, the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command requested information on the A400M; the company responded with a proposal for 118 aircraft.
- A400M Grizzly
- Five prototype and development aircraft, a sixth aircraft was cancelled.
- A400M-180 Atlas
- Production variant
|Date||Country||Orders||Entry into service
|27 May 2003||Germany||53||Expected November 2014||Order reduced from 60 to 53 (plus 7 options), and will try to resell 13, leaving 40.|
|France||50||August 2013||Two aircraft delivered during 2013.|
|Spain||27||Expected 2016||Original budget of €3,453M increased to €5,493M in 2010. Requirement reduced to 14 aircraft and will try to resell the remaining 13.|
|United Kingdom||22||First aircraft delivered in November 2014||Order reduced from 25 to "at least 22".|
|Turkey||10||First aircraft delivered in April 2014||A400M deliveries to be completed by 2018.|
|December 2004||South Africa||0||N/A||Order of 8 units cancelled|
|8 December 2005||Malaysia||4||Expected 2015||Only non-European country to purchase the A400M|
Data from Airbus Military specifications
- Crew: 3 or 4 (2 pilots, 3rd optional, 1 loadmaster)
- Capacity: 37,000 kg (81,600 lb)
- 116 fully equipped troops / paratroops,
- up to 66 stretchers accompanied by 25 medical personnel
- Length: 45.1 m (148 ft 0 in)
- Wingspan: 42.4 m (139 ft 1 in)
- Height: 14.7 m (48 ft 3 in)
- Empty weight: 76,500 kg (168,654 lb) ; operating weight
- Max takeoff weight: 141,000 kg (310,852 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 50,500 kg (111,330 lb) internal fuel
- Max landing weight: 122,000 kg (268,963 lb)
- Powerplant: 4 × Europrop TP400-D6 turboprop, 8,250 kW (11,060 hp) each
- Propellers: 8-bladed Ratier-Figeac FH385 and FH386 variable pitch tractor propellers with feathering and reversing capability (FH385 anticlockwise on engines 2 and 4, FH386 clockwise on engines 1 and 3), 5.3 m (17 ft 5 in) diameter
- Cruising speed: 780 km/h (485 mph; 421 kn) (Mach 0.68–0.72)
- Initial cruise altitude: at MTOW: 9,000 m (29,000 ft)
- Range: 3,298 km (2,049 mi; 1,781 nmi) at max payload (long range cruise speed; reserves as per MIL-C-5011A)
- Range at 30-tonne payload: 4,540 km (2,450 nmi)
- Range at 20-tonne payload: 6,390 km (3,450 nmi)
- Ferry range: 8,710 km (5,412 mi; 4,703 nmi)
- Service ceiling: 11,300 m (37,073 ft)
- Tactical takeoff distance: 980 m (3,215 ft) (aircraft weight 100 tonnes, soft field, ISA, sea level)
- Tactical landing distance: 770 m (2,526 ft) (as above)
- Turning radius (ground): 28.6 m
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- "Updated- Pictures & Video: Airbus celebrates as A400M gets airborne." Flight International, 11 December 2009. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
- "Projet de loi de finances pour 2014 : Défense : équipement des forces" (in French). Senate of France. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 2014-08-30.
- "A400M naming ceremony at RIAT." Airbus Military, 6 July 2012. Retrieved: 6 July 2012.
- Hoyle, Craig. "RIAT: A400M reborn as 'Atlas'." Flightglobal.com, 6 July 2012. Retrieved: 6 July 2012.
- "RAF – A400m." RAF, MOD. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
- "A400M Contract Amendment Finalised With Customer Nations." Airbus Military. Retrieved: 9 September 2011.
- Hewson, R. The Vital Guide to Military Aircraft, 2nd ed. Airlife Press, Ltd. 2001.
- "Airbus Transport Is Almost Ready for Takeoff ". Wall Street Journal, 2 December 2009.
- "South Africa to Cancel its A400M Order." Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved: 2 May 2012.
- Regan, James and Tim Hepher. EADS wants A400M contract change, adds delay>" Reuters, 9 January 2009. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
- "Airbus A400M military transport reportedly too heavy and weak.' Thelocal.de. Retrieved: 20 July 2010.
- "Business: EADS denies mulling collapse of A400M project." Khaleejtimes.com, 23 January 2009. Retrieved: 20 July 2010.
- . Sascha Lange: The End for the Airbus A400M?”. SWP Comments, 26. February 2009.
- Evans-Pritchard, Ambrose. "Airbus admits it may scrap A400M military transport aircraft project." The Daily Telegraph, 29 March 2009. Retrieved: 23 April 2010.
- Airbus-Projekt A400M droht zu scheitern, Der Spiegel, 2009-02-27.
- Engelbrecht, Leon. "SAAF considering A400M alternative". DefenceWeb, 3 April 2009.
- "State aborts Airbus contract." SAPA via Fin24.com, 5 November 2009. Retrieved: 5 November 2009.
- Brothers, Caroline. "Germany and France Delay Decision on Airbus Military Transport." The New York Times, 11 June 2009.
- Bohlen, Celestine. "Airbus Needs U.S. Help to Dispose of Elephant."Bloomberg.com, 6 July 2009. Retrieved: 20 July 2010.
- Pocock, Chris. "Fresh doubts over A400M as Europe tightens its belt." ainonline.com. Retrieved: 9 September 2011.
- "U.K., France Seek Data on Super Hercules Plane, Lockheed Says." Bloomberg.
- "Factbox: The big money behind Airbus A400M talks." Reuters, 21 January 2010. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
- "New chance for Europe's A400M transporter." Spacewar.com. Retrieved: 20 July 2010.
- "Airbus gets extension of A400M Contract Moratorium." Bloomberg News, 27 July 2009.
- EADS pleads for €5bn to complete A400M[dead link]
- Hollinger, Peggy, Pilita Clark and Jeremy Lemer. "Airbus threatens to scrap A400M aircraft." Financial Times, 5 January 2010.
- "Airbus chief 'may cancel A400M'." BBC News, 12 January 2010. Retrieved: 23 April 2010.
- Mackenzie, Christina. "Partner Nations Approve A400M Contract." Aviation Week, 5 January 2011.
- Merchet, Jean-Dominique (30 April 2013). "Armée de l'air : moins d'une quarantaine d'A400M devrait être commandée" (in French). [[Marianne (magazine)|]].
- Harvey, Dave. "Airbus unveils carbon fibre plane." BBC News, 25 June 2008. Retrieved: 1 January 2010.
- "El Rey estrena el Airbus 400, el mayor avión militar de fabricación europea." ELPAÍS.com.
- Kaminski-Morrow, David. "Airbus A400M's engine becomes airborne for first time." Flightglobal, 17 December 2008.
- [dead link]
- [dead link]
- "Second Airbus Military A400M completes maiden flight." Airbus Military, 9 April 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Picture: Third A400M takes to the air." Flight International, 9 July 2011.
- "A400M wing passes critical test." defpro.com, 3 August 2010. Retrieved: 3 August 2010. Quote: A400M new airlifter has passed the ultimate-load up-bend test.
- "A400M close to first air drop, refuelling tests, says Airbus." Flightglobal.com, 31 October 2010.
- "Airbus To Ramp Up A400M Test Effort." Aviation Week, 28 October 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Picture: First paratroops jump from Europe's A400M." Flightglobal.com, 10 November 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Fourth A400M nears debut, as type approaches 1,000 flight hours." Flight International, 17 December 2010.
- Tran, Pierre. "4th A400M Takes Off." Defense News, 20 December 2010.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Bearing up: Airbus Military's 'Grizzly' nears civil certification." Flightglobal.com, 27 October 2011. Retrieved: 12 August 2012.
- Perry, Dominic. "A400M undergoes Swedish winter trials." Flight International, 8 February 2011.
- Hoyle, Craig. "A400M contract amendment signed, as test fleet passes 1,400 flight hours." Flight International, 7 April 2011.
- Chuter, Andrew. "A400M Engine Wins Safety Certification." Defense News, 6 May 2011.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Pictures: New-look A400M readied for icing trials." Flight International, 16 July 2011.
- Morrison, Murdo. "Paris: Engine problems prevent A400M flying at show." Flight International, 19 July 2011.
- "Bearing up: Airbus Military's 'Grizzly' nears civil certification." Flightglobal. Retrieved: 2 May 2012.
- "El A400M de Airbus Military Aterriza en Perú por Primera vez." Agencia Digital, March 2012. Retrieved: 16 April 2012.
- "The global tour of the A400M." Second Line of Defense. Retrieved: 16 April 2012.
- "A400M has high time in La Paz" Flight Global, 30 March 2012. Retrieved: 16 April 2012.
- "Pictures." Ingeniøren, 16 April 2012. Retrieved: 16 April 2012.
- Hoyle, Craig. "Soft ground cuts short A400M landing trials." Flightglobal.com, 25 May 2012. Retrieved: 7 June 2012.
- "Airbus Military A400M Receives Full Civil Type Certificate From EASA."
- "Fourth Engine for A400M Brings First Flight Closer"[dead link]. Reuters,
- "Static test programme begins on aircraft MSN 5000"[dead link]. EADS, 28 March 2008.
- "A400M Countdown #4 – A Progress report from Airbus Military." A400m-countdown.com. Retrieved: 20 July 2010.
- "EADS Global Website – En." Eads.net. 2010-07-20[dead link]
- "A400M Gets Going." http://www.aviationweek.com, 12 January 2011.
- "French acceptance sees A400M deliveries take off". Flight International, 1 August 2013.
- "France formally accepts A400M transport". Flight International, 30 September 2013.
- "First Airbus Military A400M for Turkish Air Force makes maiden flight". EADS. 12 August 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "The versatile airlifter for the 21st Century." Airbus Military. Retrieved: 2 May 2012.
- "A400M Capabilities." Airbus Military. Retrieved: 15 May 2010.
- A400M powerplant[dead link]. Airbus Military.
- "Airbus Military." countdown.com.
- "IR Sensors Page 4 English Seite 5 deutsch[dead link]. IAF.Fraunhofer
- "EADS and Thales to supply latest-technology missile warner to A400M." globalsecurity.org.
- Airbus Military A400m
- "Airbus A400M tactical airlifter makes combat debut in Mali". The Aviationist, 2 January 2014.
- Hoyle, Craig (6 January 2014). "French Mali mission gives A400M operational debut". Flight International. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- "EADS welcomes South Africa's intention to become an A400M partner"[dead link]. EADS, 15 December 2004.
- "South Africa signs for A400M transports." Flight International, 3 May 2005.
- Roberts, Janice. "Airbus refunds A400M payments to Armscor." Moneyweb, 19 December 2011.
- Airlift Capability Project – Tactical MERX website – Government of Canada
- Warwick, Graham. "Canada signs $1.4bn contract for 17 Lockheed Martin C-130Js." Flight International, 16 January 2008.
- Airbus Military signs agreement with Chile[dead link] Airbus Military.
- "Chile to Buy 3 Airbus A400M Transports." Defense Industry Daily. Retrieved: 29 March 2013.
- "Annual Report and Registration Document 2005." European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V., December 2005 Retrieved: 25 April 2011
- "A400M price tag stays at RM600m each." Malay Mail, 13 November 2009.
- "EADS: USAF can buy 118 A400Ms with savings from C-130, C-5 retirements." Flight International, 19 February 2010. Retrieved: 16 March 2010.
- "Durchbruch im Streit über A400M" (German) Sueddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved: 27 October 2010.
- "Germany to take fewer A400M planes." AFP, 28 January 2011.
- "La France a réceptionné le premier Airbus A400M" (French) Le Figaro. Retrieved: 2013-08-01.
- "Evaluación de los Programas Especiales de Armamento (PEAs)" (in Spanish). Ministerio de Defensa, Madrid (Grupo Atenea), September 2011. Retrieved: 30 September 2012.
- "Spain aims to resell half A400M fleet." Reuters. Retrieved: 2 August 2013.
- UK's first A400M arrives at Brize Norton home
- UK approaches Airbus Military, Thales for A400M training service August 2010 flightglobal.com
- "Airbus Defence and Space delivers A400M to Turkish Air Force". airbus-group.com. Retrieved 22 May 2014.
- "Turkey Accepts First A400M" Defense news Retrieved: 11 May 2014.
- "Military cargo plane to be delivered to Turkey in 2013." Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved: 1 July 2011.
- "Turkey accepts delivery of its First Airbus A400M". 5 April 2014.
- "A400M Technical Specifications." Airbus Military (a400m.com). Retrieved: 23 April 2010.
- "Airbus Military A400M". Jane's All the World's Aircraft. Jane's Information Group, 2010. (subscription article, dated 24 February 2010).
- "A400M engine decision." Airbus.
- EASA Type Certificate Data Sheet for A400M-180
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Airbus A400M.|
- Airbus Military A400M page
- OCCAR site
- A400M page on Airforce-Technology.com
- BBC video of unveiling of the A400M
- Official unveiling in Seville