North Circular Road
|Length:||25.7 mi (41.4 km)|
|West end:||Chiswick (M4 Junction 1)|
| A205 road (South Circular Road)
A40 road (Western Avenue)
The North Circular Road (officially the A406 and sometimes known as simply the North Circular) is a 25-mile long bypass of Central London in England. It runs from Chiswick in the west to Woolwich in the east, and connects the various suburbs in the area, including Willesden, Wembley, Southgate, Tottenham, Woodford and Barking. Together with its counterpart, the South Circular Road, it forms a ring road through the Outer London suburbs. This ring road does not make a complete circuit of the city, being C-shaped rather than a complete loop as the crossing of the River Thames in the east is made on the Woolwich Ferry.
The road was originally designed to connect local industrial communities together in addition to bypassing London, and was constructed in the 1920s and 30s. It received significant upgrades after the Second World War, and was at one point planned to be upgraded to motorway as part of the controversial and ultimately cancelled London Ringways scheme in the late 1960s. In the early 1990s, the road was extended to bypass Barking and meet the A13 north of Woolwich.
The road's design varies from six lane dual carriageway to urban streets, the latter of which contribute to traffic congestion in London and are regularly featured on local traffic reports, particularly at Henlys Corner and Bounds Green in Northwest London. The uncertainty of development has caused urban decay and property blight along its route, and led to criticism over the poor pollution record along the route. Several London Borough Councils have set up regeneration projects to improve the environment for communities surrounding the North Circular.
- 1 Route
- 2 History
- 3 Criticism
- 4 Junctions
- 5 References
- 6 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (February 2015)|
The North Circular Road has seen substantially more investment than its counterpart, the South Circular Road, and consequently runs on more purpose-built road than urban streets, often coupled with demolition of existing houses and urban infrastructure. Although the route has alternative names at some points, it is generally referred to as the North Circular throughout for route planning purposes. The route is mostly grade-separated dual carriageway from the A40 at Hanger Lane to the A13 in Beckton except for the Drury Way/Brentfield Road junction, the Golders Green Road/Brent Street junction, Henlys Corner and the section from Bounds Green to Green Lanes. In the west where improvements made slowest progress and the highway is now unlikely ever to be further widened, the original names are preserved.
Gunnersbury Avenue and Hanger Lane
The road begins in Gunnersbury at the Chiswick Flyover (junction 1 of the M4), from which the South Circular Road (A205) heads south over Kew Bridge. The first section runs along "Gunnersbury Avenue" through Gunnersbury Park to Ealing Common, where it becomes Hanger Lane. The road crosses the railway west of Paddington to the Hanger Lane Gyratory System, a large roundabout on top of the Western Avenue (the A40) with Hanger Lane tube station. This is one of the busiest junctions in London, incorporating 10,000 vehicles an hour.
Hanger Lane to Southgate
The A406 runs on purpose-built road to the north of Hanger Lane Gyratory, and is known as the "North Circular Road" name. The road is a six-lane dual carriageway that connects the industrial estates in the area, and passes beneath the main railway line from Euston Station, near Stonebridge Park. Beyond this, there is a junction with IKEA and the Neasden temple to the southeast (not visible), and the road runs across empty land past the Welsh Harp Reservoir.
Beyond the reservoir, there is a large interchange with the Edgware Road (A5) and junction 1 of the M1 motorway at Staples Corner, and a junction for the Brent Cross Shopping Centre at the Brent Cross Interchange (joining the A41 from Finchley). This section of the North Circular was used for filming the car chasing sequences in Withnail And I.
Northeast of Brent Cross, at Henlys Corner, the North Circular briefly shares carriageways with the A1 which joins it from the left and leaves it to the right to head into Central London. The junction complex also serves a local road from Hampstead and pedestrian traffic, and consequently is a major bottleneck on the route. Transport for London have invested in the junction, including a special hands free crossing for the local Jewish community, who can then cross the road on the Sabbath.
The road passes north of St Pancras and Islington Cemetery towards Friern Barnet and Muswell Hill. The road narrows to two lane single carriageway to pass under a railway bridge, and continues as Telford Road towards Bounds Green.
Southgate to Woodford
Traffic on the North Circular Road must turn right from Telford Road into Bowes Road, which has caused problems with HGV traffic. The road continues past densely packed housing and business areas before widening at Green Lanes and assuming the North Circular Road name again. Bowes Road is the last part of the road (travelling clockwise) which is single carriageway.
At Great Cambridge Interchange, its most northerly point, the A406 crosses Great Cambridge Road (A10). This leads onto the Lea Valley Viaduct that provides a safe crossing of the River Lea's flood plain. The viaduct is part of the original construction and was one of the first of its kind to be build using reinforced concrete. Angel Road railway station is partially located beneath the flyover at Angel Road.
After the viaduct the road becomes Southend Road, passing north of Walthamstow, and immediately before the Crooked Billet junction, the former site of Walthamstow greyhound racing track. It continues eastward, cutting through a southern section of Epping Forest and meeting the Woodford New Road at Waterworks Corner, before an elevated junction with the M11 motorway and Southend Road heading to Gants Hill.
Woodford to Woolwich
Before the South Woodford to Barking Relief Road (the A406 section between the M11 and A13) opened in 1987, the A406 designation extended as far as east as Gants Hill. This old stretch (Southend Road and Woodford Avenue) has been renumbered the A1400. The official North Circular Road itself diverged at Waterworks Corner, and then followed the A104, A114, A116 and A117.
The current route of the North Circular Road then turns south, passing Eastern Avenue (A12) on a flyover at the Redbridge roundabout. It passes Romford Road (the historic Roman Road from London to Colchester) to the west of Ilford and London Road, Barking, and ends at a roundabout with the A13 Newham Way / Alfred's Way in Beckton.
The road then continues south of the junction as the A1020 and joins its previous alignment (see below) along the A117. This leads to the Woolwich Free Ferry across the River Thames, connecting with the eastern end of the South Circular Road on the other side of the river. The junction with the A13 has been built to enable the North Circular to be continued across the junction to the Thames Gateway Bridge when and if it is built.
Proposals for a radial route avoiding Central London had been in place since the early 20th century to increasing levels of traffic. In 1910, the London Traffic Division of the Board of Trade had built up schemes for new roads, including what became the North Circular Road, which was designed to skirt the extent of urban development along suburbs.
The North Circular Road was originally designed as an unemployment relief scheme following the First World War. Various manufacturing industries, including furniture production, had moved away from the East End in the early 20th century and started to be based in communities along the fringes of outer London development. As well as a general bypass of Central London, it would connect the communities of Edmonton, Tottenham and Walthamstow together and allow former munition factories to be reused for industrial purposes. Further west, industrial work increased around Wembley to cater for the 1924 British Empire Exhibition, while former military factories at Willesden, Hendon and Acton would also benefit from being connected by the North Circular Road. The overall route ran on cheap land that further works and factories could be built next to. Purpose-built sections were designed to dual carriageway standards, including a 27 feet wide carriageway accompanied by 9 foot verges.
The original route ran from Chiswick in the west to Southgate, and was open to traffic by the 1930s. Although it mostly ran on new-build road, a section east of Southgate ran on existing streets. By the end of the decade, the area surrounded the Park Royal estate had become the largest industrial estate in the south of England, and the London Passenger Transport Board were receiving regular complaints about the excess traffic levels.
Due to laxer laws about building housing on major roads, as London suburbs developed, properties were allowed to be built on the North Circular Road. The original purpose-built road had been designed with no speed limit, as was the case in the 1920s, but by 1951 a 30mph speed limit was enforced along the route.
After reviewing traffic conditions in 1961, the Ministry of Transport planned to improve the North Circular Road to a higher capacity, grade separating as many junctions as possible, particularly those at important arterial routes. In the 1960s the Greater London Council developed the London Ringways Plan to construct a series of circular and radial motorways throughout London to ease traffic congestion in the central area. Under this plan the North Circular Road was to be improved to dual-carriageway standard throughout the majority of its length by the late 1970s.
The Ringway projects were extremely unpopular and drew wide-scale protests, which led to the cancellation of plans in 1972, particularly after the Westway had opened in the face of wide scale protest two years earlier. In 1974, the MOT scaled back plans to improve the North Circular Road, though by the end of the decade they had revised plans to improve the route to dual carriageway throughout without any property frontages. This was largely completed, except for certain sections that are significant traffic bottlenecks, particularly at Henleys Corner and Bounds Green.
South Woodford to Barking Relief Road
The section of the North Circular south of Charlie Browns in South Woodford is the "South Woodford to Barking Relief Road". The road was constructed on the alignment planned for the unrealised motorway plans and the section between the M11 and A12 junctions was originally opened as part of the M11 with the interchange at Redbridge designated as M11 junction 3. The intention was to rename this section as M15 once the A406 upgrade to motorway standard had proceeded further but this never happened, and the road was eventually downgraded from motorway to 'A' road keeping the existing A406 designation.
Henlys Corner and Bounds Green improvements
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (March 2015)|
The North Circular Road ceased to be a trunk road in 2000, when control of all roads inside Greater London passed to Transport for London (TfL). In 2004, then Mayor of London Ken Livingstone promised limited improvements to the road, but received criticism for not approving earlier plans for widening the often heavily congested road at critical sections. In 2009, it was announced that major works between the Bounds Green Road and Green Lanes junctions would finally go ahead. Work to divert utility lines such as telephone and gas supplies started in late 2009 and was due for completion in February 2010. Major works began in May 2010 and are now complete. The work improved the carriageway between these junctions, widening Telford Road to two lanes and improving all of the junctions along the route. Improvements were also made to walkways and cycle paths along this route. However, the new junctions are not grade-separated. This is in contrast to the design of junctions further down the road in both directions. This design decision represents the major difference between the original Highways Agency scheme and the smaller TfL version that was implemented.
In April 2011, a long-awaited major upgrade of the Henlys Corner interchange began. This was after many years of proposals, design changes and delays. An underpass was originally proposed but this was heavily criticised by local residents, and would have been very costly, and was subsequently scrapped. The upgrade scheme improved on the current junction by adding extra lanes and allowing easier left and right turns, speeding up queue times. Cycle paths and safer pedestrian crossings were included. The scheme is generally regarded[by whom?] as having been a great success.
In July 2013, a task force set up by the Mayor of London Boris Johnson proposed that long sections of the North Circular (as well as the South Circular) should be put underground in road tunnels, freeing up space on the surface to provide public space, extensive cycle routes, and better links to existing communities currently severed by the road.
The North Circular Road has received regular criticism over its lack of progress and piecemeal development due to a lack of funding. In 1971, a longstanding member of Southgate Council said, "Whatever you do, don’t talk to James McIntosh about the Bowes Road widening scheme, because he’s heard it all before – about 50 years ago." In 1989, Michael Portillo, then a Member of Parliament for Engfield Southgate, complained that 367 houses were scheduled for demolition as part of improvements to the North Circular in his constituency.
The uncertainty over the future of the North Circular Road has blighted properties on and nearby it, particularly around Bounds Green. Since TfL took responsibility for the road, land for future schemes has been left dormant, resulting in urban decay with derelict properties. In 2011, Enfield Borough Council proposed a North Circular Area Action Plan, which would regenerate the area immediately around Telford Road and Bowes Road, and encourage growth. This includes new pedestrian crossings and improved access to existing open spaces, including Arnos Park and Broomfield Park.
In 2002, the North Circular was rated as Britain's noisiest road by the UK Noise Association. In 2013, the road was named in a BBC report as being the most polluted in London, including the highest surveyed levels of benzine and nitrogen dioxide. A report in the Sunday Times, referring to the North Circular, said "if you want to pull back the lid of your convertible and drink in the fresh air, look elsewhere".
The North Circular Road has a wide variety of styles and standards of junctions connecting to other roads. These range from the complex, grade-separated design at Charlie Brown's near Woolwich, to at-grade junctions with traffic lights. The original road contained entirely at-grade junctions; many of these were improved and grade separated during the late 1970s and early 1980s.
|Chiswick flyover||A315 / A4 / A205 – Chiswick, Kew, Brentford, Staines-upon-Thames, Hounslow|
|Gunnersbury Park||B4491 / A4000 – South Ealing, Shepherd's Bush, Acton|
|A4020 – Ealing, Southall, Acton||The historic London – Oxford postal route at Ealing Common|
|Hanger Lane Gyratory||A40 / A4005 – Greenford, Perivale, Alperton, Park Royal, Acton Northolt|
|A404 – Harrow, Wembley, Harlesden||Near Stonebridge Park station|
|Brent Park, Superstores, Wembley Stadium, Industrial Estate|
|A4088 – Willesden, Neasden, Kingsbury|
|Staples Corner||M1 / A5 – The NORTH, Watford, Harrow, Kilburn, Cricklewood, Edgware, West Hendon||A5 is the historic Watling Street from London to Wroxeter|
|Brent Cross||A41 to A1 – Kilburn, Cricklewood, Hendon, Hatfield|
|A502 to A1 – Mill Hill, Golders Green, Hampstead|
|Henlys Corner||A1 to M1 – The NORTH, Watford, Mill Hill, Hendon||West end of merge with the A1|
|Henlys Corner||A598 – Finchley, Golders Green||A special pedestrian crossing for Jews to use on the Sabbath is located here|
|Henlys Corner||A1 – Central London, Holloway||East end of merge with A1|
|A1000 – North Finchley, East Finchley, Chipping Barnet||The historic Great North Road|
|Colney Hatch Junction||B550 – Muswell Hill, Friern Barnet, Retail Park|
|Hobart Corner||A109 / A1004 – New Southgate, Whetstone, Southgate|
|Bounds Green interchange||A1110 / B1452 – New Southgate, Southgate||A regular congestion hotpot where traffic must narrow to single carriageway and perform a 90 degree turn. Transport for London have earmarked the junction for improvement.|
|Green Lanes||A105 – Palmers Green, Wood Green, Hornsey|
|Great Cambridge Road Roundabout||A10 to M25 / A111 – Central London, Dalston, Hertford, Enfield, Potters Bar, Ware, Royston, Cambridge|
|Crooked Billet Roundabout||A112 – Chingford, Walthamstow, Highams Park|
|Waterworks||A104 to A503 / M11 – Woodford, Leytonstone, Walthamstow|
|Charlie Brown's||A1400 / A113 – Gants Hill, Chigwell||Restricted access; eastbound exit and westbound entrance. The original Charlie Brown's was the roundabout underneath this junction. It was named after a pub next to the roundabout, which was demolished in 1972.|
|Charlie Brown's||M11 – Stansted, Cambridge|
|Redbridge Roundabout||A12 – Central London, Stratford, Chelmsford, Romford||Also the location of Redbridge tube station|
|A118 – Ilford||The historic Roman Road from London to Colchester|
|A124 – Barking, East Ham|
|Beckton Roundabout||A13 / A1020 (North Circular) to M25 / A117 – Tilbury, Dartford Crossing, Woolwich Ferry, Central London, Blackwall Tunnel|
|Waterworks Corner||A104 / A503||To avoid Epping Forest, the original build of the North Circular met the A104 at a different location by a water works northeast of Walthamstow.|
|Gants Hill||A12 / A123||Gants Hill tube station is also at this location.|
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