A5 (Croatia)

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A5 motorway shield

A5 motorway
Autocesta A5
Slavonika
Map key - green in use Map key - red under construction Map key - violet planned
Map key - blue other motorways
Route information
Part of European route E73
Length: 55.5 km (34.5 mi)
88.5 km (55.0 mi) planned
Major junctions
From: D2 in Osijek interchange
  D7 in Đakovo interchange
To: A3 motorway in Sredanci interchange
Location
Counties: Osijek-Baranja, Brod-Posavina
Major cities: Osijek, Đakovo
Highway system
Motorways in Croatia

The A5 motorway (Croatian: Autocesta A5) is a motorway in Croatia spanning 55.5 kilometres (34.5 mi).[1] It connects Osijek, the largest city in Slavonia region, to the Croatian motorway network at the Sredanci interchange of the A3 motorway.[2] The A5 represents a significant north–south transportation corridor in Croatia and is a part of the European route E73.[3] The A5 motorway route also follows Pan-European corridor Vc.[4] In addition to Osijek, the A5 motorway also passes near Đakovo.[5]

The first section of the A5, joining the Sredanci interchange to Đakovo, was opened in 2007; the route to Osijek opened in 2009. As of September 2011, the section south of the A3, extending to the Sava River and border of Bosnia and Herzegovina, is under construction. Once the entire Pan-European corridor Vc is completed, motorists will recognize the A5's importance as a transit route. When completed, the corridor shall entail the A5 itself extended to the Hungarian border and connected to the Hungarian M6 motorway as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina's A1 motorway and the A10 motorway, completing the corridor route at the Adriatic Sea coast. The current route requires no major structures, but as of September 2011, two major bridges are under construction—across Sava and Drava rivers as the motorway extends south and north respectively.[6]

The motorway consists of two traffic lanes and an emergency lane in each driving direction separated by a central reservation. All intersections of the A5 motorway are grade separated. There are four exits and four rest areas operating along the route.[7] The motorway is tolled using a ticket system, integrated with the A3, and each exit includes a toll plaza.[8]

Route description[edit]

Six lane motorway, back side of a gantry supporting variable traffic signs is visible spanning the opposite direction carriageway
The A5 route runs in plains

The A5 is an important north–south motorway covering 55 kilometres (34 mi) in the eastern Croatian region of Slavonia, connecting the region's largest city, Osijek, to the remainder of the Croatian motorway system. The A5's southern terminus joins the A3 motorway at the Sredanci interchange; its northern terminus is near Osijek, connecting to the city's southern bypass. As a part of the road network of Croatia, the A5 is a part of European route E73. The motorway is of great importance to Croatia's economic development, especially tourism, as it represents a major southward transport route from southern Hungary. The Pan-European corridor Vc will include the A5, and its completion will highlight the importance of the A5 motorway.[4][9]

A view of motorway and a traffic sign indicating distances to tourist destinations
Northbound A5 near the Sredanci interchange

The cities and towns with an immediate connection to the A5 include Đakovo via the D7 and Čepin via the Ž4105 county road.[2][10] The A5 motorway consists of two traffic lanes and an emergency lane in each driving direction, with carriageways separated by the median. All existing interchanges are trumpet interchanges, except for Sredanci, which is a cloverleaf. The A5 features a number of rest areas which provide various services including restrooms, filling stations and restaurants.[7][11] The motorway has four interchanges, providing access to several towns and cities and the Croatian state road network. The motorway is maintained and operated by the state-owned management company Hrvatske autoceste.[1][12]

An automatic traffic monitoring and guidance system is in place along the motorway. It consists of measuring, control and signaling devices, located in zones where driving conditions may vary—at interchanges, near viaducts and bridges, and areas where fog is common. The system uses variable traffic signs to communicate driving conditions, possible restrictions and other information to motorists.[13]

The A5 motorway runs through plains crossed by a number of watercourses and railways running perpendicular to the motorway route, requiring a variety of bridges and viaducts. Particular attention to the environment is also necessary, due to water supply and natural heritage zones, as well as nearby agricultural production.[7]

Toll[edit]

A five lane toll plaza
Đakovo exit toll plaza

The A5 is a tolled motorway based on the vehicle classification in Croatia using a closed toll system. Toll charged along the A5 route between Osijek and the Sredanci interchange depends on the route traveled and ranges from 4.00 kuna (0.54 euro) to 30.00 kuna (4.05 euro) for passenger cars and 13.00 kuna (1.76 euro) to 98.00 kuna (13.24 euro) for semi-trailer trucks. Motorcycles are charged approximately half of the passenger car rate.[14] The toll is payable in either Croatian kuna or euros using major credit cards, debit cards and a number of prepaid toll collection systems. The latter include smart cards issued by the motorway operator and ENC, an electronic toll collection system which is used by motorways across Croatia, with discounted rates for dedicated lanes at toll plazas.[8] Toll collection systems along the A5 and A3 are unified; vehicles switching from one motorway to the other at Sredanci, for example, do not pass toll plazas at the interchange.[15]

In the first half of 2011 Hrvatske autoceste collected 508.1 million kuna (68.7 million euro) in toll revenue, an increase of 2.25% compared to the same period in 2010. However, the company reports revenue for the entire motorway network and does not provide data for individual motorways.[16]

History[edit]

Motorway ending, traffic signs indicating a mandatory exit
Provisional terminus near Đakovo, 2008

The first section of the A5 motorway, covering 23-kilometre (14 mi) between the Sredanci interchange and Đakovo was opened on 9 November 2007. This was Croatia's first commitment to improve transport facilities along the Pan-European transport corridor Vc, while providing a feeder motorway to the A3 toward Osijek, the largest city in the east of the country. Hrvatske autoceste invested 1.4 billion kuna (189 million euro) to construct the first section, completed in eighteen months by a consortium of Croatian construction companies. When the first section opened, construction on a second stretch of the A5, reaching 32.5-kilometre (20.2 mi) between Đakovo and Osijek, was announced on 15 November, with completion scheduled for December 2008.[17][18][19]

The route extension to Osijek was delayed by four months, but opened on 17 April 2009. The construction works were completed in 17 months at a price of 2.13 billion kuna (287 million euro). Completion of this section marked the start of toll collection on the A5 motorway.[20][21] The motorway is nicknamed "Slavonika", presumably because it spans Slavonia from North to South, although the Sredanci interchange with the A3 motorway is also called Slavonika by some media.[22][23]

In general, motorways in Croatia have led to a positive economic impact on the cities and towns they connected, as well as aiding tourism in Croatia.[24]

Further construction[edit]

As of September 2011, 3.5-kilometre (2.2 mi) Sredanci–Svilaj border crossing section was under construction, representing the southernmost section of the A5 motorway. The new section includes an additional exit to Svilaj, a mainline toll plaza, a border crossing and a bridge across the Sava River. This bridge leads to Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the motorway is scheduled to continue as A1 motorway towards Sarajevo, Mostar and Ploče, reconnecting to the Croatian motorway network—A10 motorway. The section is scheduled for completion in 2014.[6]

An extension is also planned for the A5 motorway north of Osijek, across the Drava River, to the Hungarian border, where it will connect to the Hungarian M6 motorway at a Branjin Vrh/Ivándárda border crossing. This route will also contain two new exits near Čeminac and Beli Manastir and a new bridge over the Drava River.[25][26] In July 2011, a groundbreaking ceremony was held at the bridge construction site, as a preparation for extension of the A5.[27] In May 2012, Hrvatske autoceste—the investor in the construction works contract—proposed cancellation of the construction works as a cost-cutting measure, even though funding of the works was secured through European Investment Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development loans.[28]

Traffic volume[edit]

Bar graph indicating the motorway traffic volume
2010 A5 traffic volume by section

Traffic is regularly counted and reported by Hrvatske autoceste, the operator of the motorway, and is published by Hrvatske ceste. Variations between AADT and average summer daily traffic (ASDT) traffic volumes are attributed to the fact that the motorway carries substantial tourist traffic to the Adriatic Sea resorts during the summer. On average, the A5 motorway carries 14% more ASDT than AADT. The largest increase, 15%, of ASDT relative to AADT is observed on the Đakovo–Sredanci section.[29]

The variations between the AADT and the ASDT traffic volumes are attributed to the fact that the motorway carries certain tourist traffic from Hungary to the Croatian motorway network and ultimately to the Adriatic Sea. On average the motorway carries 15% increased volume of traffic during summer months.[29] As the Hungarian M6 motorway is gradually extended towards the Croatian border and the A5 motorway's northern terminus, the number of tourists traveling along this route in summer months is increasing.[22]

A5 traffic volume details
Road Counting site AADT ASDT Notes
Autocesta A5.svg A5 2515 Osijek south 1,755 1,995 Between Osijek and Čepin interchanges. Average daily traffic figure is provided instead of AADT.
Autocesta A5.svg A5 3620 Čepin south 2,395 2,722 Between Čepin and Đakovo interchanges. Average daily traffic figure is provided instead of AADT.
Autocesta A5.svg A5 3616 Đakovo south 2,772 3,195 Between Đakovo and Sredanci interchanges.

Rest areas[edit]

A view of the motorway, a rest area approach traffic sign is located on the right side of the road
A5 approach to Andrijevci rest area

There are four rest areas along the A5 motorway. Legislation identifies four types of rest areas: A-type rest areas comprise a full range of amenities, including a filling station, a restaurant and a hotel or motel; B-type rest areas have no lodging; C-type rest areas are very common and include a filling station and a café, but no restaurants or accommodations; D-type rest areas only offer parking spaces, possibly picnicking tables and benches and restrooms. Most rest areas along the A2 motorway generally follow this ranking system, although some offer extra services. Many filling stations along the Croatian motorway network have small convenience stores, and some offer LPG fuel.[30]

The primary motorway operator, Hrvatske autoceste (HAC), leases the A, B and C type rest areas to various operators through public tenders. There is a single such rest area operator on the A5 motorway: Petrol. The rest area operators are not permitted to sub-lease fuel operations. The A5 motorway rest areas are accessible from both directions of the motorway and operate 24 hours a day, seven days a week.[11]

List of A5 motorway rest areas
County km Name[2] Operators Type[30] Notes[11]
Osijek‑Baranja 42.2 Beketinci OMV C Beketinci rest area contains parking spaces only. As of September 2011, a filling station and a café are under construction at the rest area.[31][32]
52.5 Strossmayerovac D Strossmayerovac rest area contains parking spaces only.
68.4 Ivandvor Petrol B Ivandvor rest area facilities comprise a filling station, a restaurant, a café, restrooms and picnicking areas.
Brod‑Posavina 78.6 Andrijevci D Andrijevci rest area contains a café and restrooms.
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Exit list[edit]

County km Exit Name[2] Destination[10] Notes
Osijek‑Baranja 29.5 3 Osijek D2
E73
Connection to Osijek (south), Bizovac and Belišće (via the D34)
The northern terminus of the motorway and of the European route E73 concurrency
Zeichen 391 - Mautpflichtige Strecke, StVO 2003.svg Osijek toll plaza
38.4 4 Čepin Ž4105 Connection to Čepin
42.2 Zeichen 314.svg Beketinci rest area
52.5 Zeichen 314.svg Strossmayerovac rest area
62.0 5 Đakovo D7 Connection to Đakovo and Vrpolje
68.4 Zeichen 314.svg Ivandvor rest area
Brod‑Posavina 73.7 HŽ Zagreb-Vinkovci Viaduct
78.6 Zeichen 314.svg Andrijevci rest area
85.0 6 Sredanci A3
E70
E73
Connection to the A3 motorway (E70) connecting Slavonski Brod and Zagreb (to the west) and Županja and Belgrade, Serbia (to the east)
The southern terminus of the motorway and the southern terminus of the E73 concurrency
7 Svilaj Ž4217 Connection to Svilaj; Scheduled to open in 2014[6][33]
88.5 Zeichen 392 - Zollstelle, StVO 1970.svg Svilaj border crossing A1-BIH-2014.svg A1
E73
Svilaj border crossing to Bosnia and Herzegovina; The route continues into Bosnia and Herzegovina as the A1 motorway towards Sarajevo. The planned southern terminus of the motorway; Scheduled to open in 2014.[6][33]
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Overview of motorways and semi-motorways". HUKA. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Pravilnik o označavanju autocesta, njihove stacionaže, brojeva izlaza i prometnih čvorišta te naziva izlaza, prometnih čvorišta i odmorišta" [Regulation on motorway markings, chainage, interchange/exit/rest area numbers and names]. Narodne novine (in Croatian). 6 May 2003. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  3. ^ "EUROPEAN AGREMENT ON MAIN INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC ARTERIES (AGR)" (PDF). United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2011. 
  4. ^ a b "Transport : launch of the Italy-Turkey pan-European Corridor through Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Greece". European Union. 9 September 2002. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  5. ^ Google Maps. Overview map of the A5 (Map). http://maps.google.com/maps?f=d&source=s_d&saddr=E73&daddr=Unknown+road&geocode=FcRgtwId1A8bAQ%3BFSHcsAIdMmoXAQ&hl=en&mra=mift&mrsp=1&sz=13&sll=45.144031,18.311462&sspn=0.081122,0.181789&ie=UTF8&ll=45.328013,18.577881&spn=0.646877,1.454315&t=h&z=10. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  6. ^ a b c d "Ne-tehnički sažetak, Sjeverna i južna dionica Autoceste A5 (Koridor Vc), Hrvatska" [Non-technical summary, North and south section of the A5 motorway (Corridor Vc), Croatia] (PDF) (in Croatian). European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. June 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Croatian Motorways". Hrvatske autoceste. pp. 282–307. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "Statistički podaci" [Electronic toll collection available on HAC, ARZ and BINA Istra motorways] (in Croatian). HUKA. Retrieved 28 August 2010. 
  9. ^ Crnjak, Mario; Puž, Goran (November 2007). Kapitalna prometna infrastruktura [Capital transport infrastructure] (PDF). Hrvatske autoceste. pp. 37–39. ISBN 978-953-7491-02-2. Retrieved 11 October 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "Odluka o razvrstavanju javnih cesta u državne ceste, županijske ceste i lokalne ceste" [Decision on categorization of public roads as state roads, county roads and local roads]. Narodne Novine (in Croatian). 17 February 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c "Rest Areas". Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  12. ^ "Zakon o javnim cestama" [Public Roads Act] (in Croatian). Narodne novine. 14 December 2004. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  13. ^ Croatian Motorways (PDF). Hrvatske autoceste. 2007. pp. 130–133. ISBN 978-953-7491-09-3. Retrieved 5 September 2010. 
  14. ^ "Price list". Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  15. ^ "Zagreb-Lipovac-Osijek". Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  16. ^ "Rast prihoda od naplate cestarine" [Toll revenue increases] (in Croatian). Privredni vjesnik. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 14 September 2011. 
  17. ^ "U petak otvaranje dionice Đakovo-Sredanci" [Đakovo-Sredanci section opens on Friday] (in Croatian). "Poslovni dnevnik". 7 November 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  18. ^ "Autocesta A5, Beli Manastir - Osijek - Svilaj" [A5 motorway, Beli Manastir - Osijek - Svilaj] (PDF) (in Croatian) (12). Croatian Motorway Concessionaires Association. November 2007. 
  19. ^ Branko Nadilo (2006). "Gradnja autocesta na području Slavonije" [Motorway construction spree in Slavonia] (PDF) (in Croatian) 58 (6). Građevinar. pp. 490–492. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  20. ^ "Sanader pustio u promet novu dionicu Osijek - Đakovo" [Sanader opens new Osijek - Đakovo section]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). 17 April 2009. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  21. ^ Maja Muškić; Suzana Župan (20 March 2009). "Autocesta od Đakova do Osijeka gotova 31. ožujka" [Đakovo to Osijek motorway to be completed on 31 March]. Glas Slavonije (in Croatian). 
  22. ^ a b Suzana Župan (9 August 2011). "Slavonikom je prema moru u srpnju prošlo 64 tisuće vozila" [64 thousand vehicles travel to seaside along Slavonika in July]. Glas Slavonije (in Croatian). Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  23. ^ "Vozio u suprotnom smjeru jer je žena zaboravila torbicu" [Driving in wrong direction because his wife forgot her purse]. Večernji list (in Croatian). 22 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  24. ^ Jelena Lončar (14 December 2007). "Međuovisnost prometa i turizma u Hrvatskoj" [Interdependency of transport and tourism in Croatia] (in Croatian). geografija.hr. Retrieved 6 September 2010. 
  25. ^ "Autocesta A5 Beli Manastir - Osijek - Svilaj, dionica Osijek - Đakovo" [A5 Motorway: Beli Manastir - Osijek - Svilaj, Osijek - Đakovo section] (PDF) (in Croatian). Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  26. ^ "Autocesta A5 Beli Manastir - Osijek - Svilaj, dionica Đakovo - Sredanci" [A5 Motorway: Beli Manastir - Osijek - Svilaj, Đakovo - Sredanci section] (PDF) (in Croatian). Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  27. ^ Emica Elveđi (11 July 2011). "Kosor: Ove godine ćemo sigurno izaći iz krize" [Kosor: This year we shall certainly end the crisis]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011. 
  28. ^ Krešimir Žabec (1 May 2012). "HAC odustaje od projekata vrijednih 9,5 milijardi kuna koje je naredio Ivo Sanader" [Hrvatske autoceste cancelling projects worth 9.5 billion kuna, ordered by Ivo Sanader]. Jutarnji list (in Croatian). Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  29. ^ a b "Brojenje prometa na cestama Republike Hrvatske - sažetak" [Traffic counting on the roadways of the Republic of Croatia - digest] (PDF) (in Croatian). Hrvatske ceste. May 2011. Retrieved 28 September 2011. 
  30. ^ a b "Basic types and offer of roadside service facilities". Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 29 July 2011. 
  31. ^ Stjepko Boban (17 September 2010). "Planovi pripremnih mjera i aktivnosti za turističku sezonu 2011" [Plans for preparatory measures and activities for tourist season 2011] (PDF) (in Croatian). Hrvatske autoceste. Retrieved 28 September 2014. 
  32. ^ Maja Muškić (17 January 2011). "OMV na Slavoniki gradi benzinsku, bar i trgovinu" [OMV building a filling station, a bar and a shop on the Slavonika]. Glas Slavonije (in Croatian). 
  33. ^ a b "Vlada: Ugovor o jamstvu i financiranju s EIB-om za dovršetak autoceste na koridoru Vc" [Government: Guarantee and funding contract with the EIB to complete the Corridor Vc motorway] (in Croatian). Government of the Republic of Croatia. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 30 June 2011.