ABTS

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ABTS
ABTS.png
Identifiers
CAS number 30931-67-0
ChemSpider 4576521 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C18H18N4O6S4
Molar mass 514.62 g/mol
Hazards
R-phrases R36 R37 R38
S-phrases S26-S36
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
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Infobox references

In biochemistry, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) or ABTS is chemical compound used to observe the reaction kinetics of specific enzymes. A common use for it is in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect for binding of molecules to each other.

It is commonly used as a substrate with hydrogen peroxide for a peroxidase enzyme or alone with blue multicopper oxidase enzymes such as laccase or bilirubin oxidase. Its use allows the reaction kinetics of peroxidases themselves to be followed. In this way it also can be used to indirectly follow the reaction kinetics of any hydrogen peroxide-producing enzyme, or to simply quantify the amount of hydrogen peroxide in a sample.

The formal reduction potentials for ABTS are high enough for it to act as an electron donor for the reduction of oxo species such as molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, particularly at the less-extreme pH values encountered in biological catalysis. Under these conditions, the sulfonate groups are fully deprotonated and the mediator exists as a dianion.

ABTS–· + e → ABTS2– E°′ = 0.67 V vs SHE
ABTS + e → ABTS–· E°′ = 1.08 V vs SHE[1]

This compound is chosen because the enzyme facilitates the reaction with hydrogen peroxide, turning it into a green and soluble end-product. Its new absorbance maximum of 420 nm light (ε = 3.6 × 104 M–1 cm–1)[2] can easily be followed with a spectrophotometer, a common laboratory instrument. It is sometimes used as part of a glucose estimating reagent when finding glucose concentrations of solutions such as blood serum.

ABTS is also frequently used by the food industry and agricultural researchers to measure the antioxidant capacities of foods.[3] In this assay, ABTS is converted to its radical cation by addition of sodium persulfate. This radical cation is blue in color and absorbs light at 734 nm.[4] The ABTS radical cation is reactive towards most antioxidants including phenolics, thiols and Vitamin C.[5] During this reaction, the blue ABTS radical cation is converted back to its colorless neutral form. The reaction may be monitored spectrophotometrically. This assay is often referred to as the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. The reactivity of the various antioxidants tested are compared to that of Trolox, which is a water-soluble analog of vitamin E.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bourbonnais, Robert; Leech, Dónal; Paice, Michael G. (1998-03-02), "Electrochemical analysis of the interactions of laccase mediators with lignin model compounds", Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General Subjects 1379 (3): 381–390, doi:10.1016/S0304-4165(97)00117-7 
  2. ^ Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lee, Yeo-Jin (2000-12-01), "Purification and Characterization of a New Member of the Laccase Family from the White-Rot Basidiomycete Coriolus hirsutus", Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 384 (1): 109–115, doi:10.1006/abbi.2000.2083 
  3. ^ Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Donald L. (2005-02-25), "The Chemistry Behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays", J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (6): 1841–1856, doi:10.1021/jf030723c, PMID 15769103 
  4. ^ Re, Roberta; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Proteggente, Anna; Pannala, Ananth; Rice-Evans, Catherine (1999-06-02), "Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay", Free Radical Biology and Medicine 26 (9-10): 1231–1237, doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(98)00315-3 
  5. ^ Walker, Richard B.; Everette, Jace D. (2009-01-29), "Comparative Reaction Rates of Various Antioxidants with ABTS Radical Cation", J. Agric. Food Chem. 57 (4): 1156–1161, doi:10.1021/jf8026765, PMID 19199590 
  6. ^ Barclay, L. R. C.; Locke, S. J.; MacNeil, J. M. (1985), "Autoxidation in micelles - Synergism of Vitamin-C with Lipid-Soluble Vitamin-E and Water-Soluble Trolox", Can. J. Chem. 63 (2): 366–374, doi:10.1139/v85-062