ACTH receptor

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Melanocortin 2 receptor (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
Identifiers
Symbols MC2R ; ACTHR
External IDs OMIM607397 MGI96928 HomoloGene444 IUPHAR: MC2 ChEMBL: 1965 GeneCards: MC2R Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE MC2R 208568 at tn.png
PBB GE MC2R 217434 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4158 17200
Ensembl ENSG00000185231 ENSMUSG00000045569
UniProt Q01718 Q64326
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000529 NM_001271716
RefSeq (protein) NP_000520 NP_001258645
Location (UCSC) Chr 18:
13.88 – 13.92 Mb
Chr 18:
68.41 – 68.43 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The adrenocorticotropic hormone receptor or ACTH receptor also known as the melanocortin receptor 2 or MC2 receptor is a type of melanocortin receptor (type 2) which is specific for ACTH.[1]

Structure[edit]

Both human and bovine ACTH receptors are synthesized as 297 residue long proteins. There is 81% homology between human and bovine sequences.[2] The full length sequence includes seven hydrophobic domains that are predicted as transmembrane segments.[2] In the third intracellular loop of the receptor a protein kinase A and protein kinase c phosphorylation motifs have been detected.[2]

Tissue and subcellular localization[edit]

ACTH receptor is found in the zona fasciculata of the human adrenal cortex. Binding of the receptor by ACTH stimulates the production of cortisol. (By contrast, aldosterone production from the zona glomerulosa is stimulated primarily by angiotensin II.)

Protein recognition at the receptor uses energy obtained from the dephosphorylation of ATP to cAMP by adenylate cyclase. ACTH receptors are located on the plasma membrane, and are G protein-coupled receptors.

The ACTH receptor uses cAMP as a secondary messenger.[3][4]

Pathology[edit]

Mutations in this receptor cause familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 1, in which patients have high levels of serum ACTH and low levels of cortisol.[5][6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Beuschlein F, Fassnacht M, Klink A, Allolio B, Reincke M (2001). "ACTH-receptor expression, regulation and role in adrenocortial tumor formation". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 144 (3): 199–206. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1440199. PMID 11248736. 
  2. ^ a b c Raikhinstein M, Zohar M, Hanukoglu I (February 1994). "cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of the bovine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1220 (3): 329–32. doi:10.1016/0167-4889(94)90157-0. PMID 8305507. 
  3. ^ Hanukoglu I, Feuchtwanger R, Hanukoglu A (Nov 1990). "Mechanism of corticotropin and cAMP induction of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system enzymes in adrenal cortex cells.". J Biol Chem 265 (33): 20602–8. PMID 2173715. 
  4. ^ Elias LL, Clark AJ (October 2000). "The expression of the ACTH receptor". Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res. 33 (10): 1245–8. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2000001000015. PMID 11004726. 
  5. ^ Clark AJ, McLoughlin L, Grossman A (February 1993). "Familial glucocorticoid deficiency associated with point mutation in the adrenocorticotropin receptor". Lancet 341 (8843): 461–2. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(93)90208-X. PMID 8094489. 
  6. ^ Tsigos C, Arai K, Hung W, Chrousos GP (November 1993). "Hereditary isolated glucocorticoid deficiency is associated with abnormalities of the adrenocorticotropin receptor gene". J. Clin. Invest. 92 (5): 2458–61. doi:10.1172/JCI116853. PMC 288430. PMID 8227361. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]