ADAMTS13

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13
Protein ADAMTS13 PDB 3GHM.png
Rendering based on PDB 3GHM.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols ADAMTS13 ; 13; ADAM-TS; ADAM-TS13; ADAMTS-13; C9orf8; TTP; VWFCP; vWF-CP
External IDs OMIM604134 MGI2685556 HomoloGene16372 GeneCards: ADAMTS13 Gene
EC number 3.4.24.87
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ADAMTS13 220208 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 11093 279028
Ensembl ENSG00000160323 ENSMUSG00000014852
UniProt Q76LX8 Q769J6
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_139025 NM_001001322
RefSeq (protein) NP_620594 NP_001001322
Location (UCSC) Chr 9:
136.28 – 136.32 Mb
Chr 2:
26.97 – 27.01 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13)—also known as von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (VWFCP)—is a zinc-containing metalloprotease enzyme that cleaves von Willebrand factor (vWf), a large protein involved in blood clotting. It is secreted in blood and degrades large vWf multimers, decreasing their activity.[1]

Genetics[edit]

The ADAMTS13 gene maps to the ninth chromosome (9q34).[1]

Discovery and function[edit]

Since 1982 it had been known that thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), one of the microangiopathic hemolytic anemias (see below), was characterized in its familial form by the presence in plasma of unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers (ULVWF).[1]

In 1994, vWF was shown to be cleaved between a tyrosine at position 1605 and a methionine at 1606 by a plasma metalloprotease enzyme when it was exposed to high levels of shear stress. In 1996, two research groups independently further characterized this enzyme. In the next two years, the same two groups showed that the congenital deficiency of a vWF-cleaving protease was associated with formation of platelet microthrombi in the small blood vessels. In addition, they reported that IgG antibodies directed against this same enzyme caused TTP in a majority of non-familial cases.[1]

Proteomics[edit]

Genomically, ADAMTS13 shares many properties with the 19 member ADAMTS family, all of which are characterised by a protease domain (the part that performs the protein hydrolysis), an adjacent disintegrin domain and one or more thrombospondin domains. ADAMTS13 in fact has eight thrombospondin domains. It has no hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and hence it not anchored in the cell membrane.[1]

Role in disease[edit]

Deficiency of ADAMTS13 was originally discovered in Upshaw-Schülman syndrome, the recurring familial form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. By that time it was already suspected that TTP occurred in the autoimmune form as well, owing to its response to plasmapheresis and characterisation of IgG inhibitors. Since the discovery of ADAMTS13, specific epitopes on its surface have been shown to be the target of inhibitory antibodies.[1][2][3]

Especially since the link between aortic valve stenosis and angiodysplasia was proven to be due to high shear stress (Heyde's syndrome), it has been accepted that increased exposure of vWf to ADAMTS13 due to various reasons would predispose to bleeding by causing increased degradation of vWf. This phenomenon is characterised by a form of von Willebrand disease (type 2a).[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Levy GG, Motto DG, Ginsburg D (2005). "ADAMTS13 turns 3". Blood 106 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-10-4097. PMID 15774620. 
  2. ^ Tsai HM (2003). "Advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 14 (4): 1072–81. doi:10.1097/01.ASN.0000060805.04118.4C. PMID 12660343. 
  3. ^ Furlan M, Lämmle B (2001). "Aetiology and pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and haemolytic uraemic syndrome: the role of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease". Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 14 (2): 437–54. doi:10.1053/beha.2001.0142. PMID 11686108. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Furlan M, Lammle B. Aetiology and pathogenesis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and haemolytic uraemic syndrome: the role of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2001;14:437-54. PMID 11686108.
  • Tsai HM. Advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003;14:1072-81. PMID 12660343.
  • Tang BL (2001). "ADAMTS: a novel family of extracellular matrix proteases.". Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 33 (1): 33–44. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(00)00061-3. PMID 11167130. 
  • Fujimura Y, Matsumoto M, Yagi H, et al. (2002). "Von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease and Upshaw-Schulman syndrome.". Int. J. Hematol. 75 (1): 25–34. doi:10.1007/BF02981975. PMID 11843286. 
  • Zheng X, Majerus EM, Sadler JE (2003). "ADAMTS13 and TTP.". Curr. Opin. Hematol. 9 (5): 389–94. doi:10.1097/00062752-200209000-00001. PMID 12172456. 
  • Tsai HM (2003). "Von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS13, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.". J. Mol. Med. 80 (10): 639–47. doi:10.1007/s00109-002-0369-8. PMID 12395148. 
  • Tsai HM (2003). "Platelet activation and the formation of the platelet plug: deficiency of ADAMTS13 causes thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.". Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 23 (3): 388–96. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.0000058401.34021.D4. PMID 12615692. 
  • Tsai HM (2003). "Is severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 specific for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura? Yes.". J. Thromb. Haemost. 1 (4): 625–31. doi:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00169.x. PMID 12871390. 
  • Remuzzi G (2003). "Is ADAMTS-13 deficiency specific for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura? No.". J. Thromb. Haemost. 1 (4): 632–4. doi:10.1046/j.1538-7836.2003.00170.x. PMID 12871391. 
  • Moake JL (2004). "von Willebrand factor, ADAMTS-13, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.". Semin. Hematol. 41 (1): 4–14. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.003. PMID 14727254. 
  • López JA, Dong JF (2004). "Cleavage of von Willebrand factor by ADAMTS-13 on endothelial cells.". Semin. Hematol. 41 (1): 15–23. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.004. PMID 14727255. 
  • Plaimauer B, Scheiflinger F (2004). "Expression and characterization of recombinant human ADAMTS-13.". Semin. Hematol. 41 (1): 24–33. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.006. PMID 14727256. 
  • Kokame K, Miyata T (2004). "Genetic defects leading to hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.". Semin. Hematol. 41 (1): 34–40. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.002. PMID 14727257. 
  • Schneppenheim R, Budde U, Hassenpflug W, Obser T (2004). "Severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency in childhood.". Semin. Hematol. 41 (1): 83–9. doi:10.1053/j.seminhematol.2003.10.007. PMID 14727263. 
  • Kremer Hovinga JA, Studt JD, Lämmle B (2005). "The von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (ADAMTS-13) and the diagnosis of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).". Pathophysiol. Haemost. Thromb. 33 (5-6): 417–21. doi:10.1159/000083839. PMID 15692254. 
  • Levy GG, Motto DG, Ginsburg D (2005). "ADAMTS13 turns 3.". Blood 106 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1182/blood-2004-10-4097. PMID 15774620. 
  • George JN (2005). "ADAMTS13, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic uremic syndrome.". Curr. Hematol. Rep. 4 (3): 167–9. PMID 15865866. 
  • Dong JF (2005). "Cleavage of ultra-large von Willebrand factor by ADAMTS-13 under flow conditions.". J. Thromb. Haemost. 3 (8): 1710–6. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2005.01360.x. PMID 16102037. 
  • Matsukawa, M.; Kaikita, K.; Soejima, K.; Fuchigami, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Honda, T.; Tsujita, K.; Nagayoshi, Y.; Kojima, S.; Shimomura, H.; Sugiyama, S.; Fujimoto, K.; Yoshimura, M.; Nakagaki, T.; Ogawa, H. (2007). "Serial Changes in von Willebrand Factor-Cleaving Protease (ADAMTS13) and Prognosis After Acute Myocardial Infarction". The American Journal of Cardiology 100 (5): 758–763. doi:10.1016/j.amjcard.2007.03.095. PMID 17719316.  edit

External links[edit]

  • The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M12.241

External links[edit]