ADEOS I

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ADEOS I
H-ii adeos.gif
The launch of ADEOS I aboard an H-II rocket
Mission type Environmental monitoring, observation
Operator NASDA
Spacecraft properties
Launch mass 3,500 kilograms (7,700 lb)
Start of mission
Launch date 17 August 1996, 01:53:00 (1996-08-17UTC01:53Z) UTC[1]
Rocket H-II
Launch site Tanegashima Yoshinobu 1
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Sun-synchronous[2]
Inclination 98.6 degrees
Period 101 minutes
Instruments
OCTS, AVNIR, NSCAT, TOMS, POLDER, IMG, ILAS, RIS

ADEOS I (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite 1) was an Earth observation satellite[3] launched by NASDA in 1996.[4][5] The mission's Japanese name, Midori, means "green".[6]

The mission ended in July 1997 after the satellite sustained structural damage to the solar panel array.[4] Its successor, ADEOS II, was launched in 2002. Like the first mission, it ended after less than a year[6] – also following solar panel malfunctions.[7]

Purpose[edit]

ADEOS was designed to observe Earth's environmental changes, focusing on global warming, depletion of the ozone layer, and deforestation.[6]

On board the satellite are eight instruments developed by NASDA, NASA, and CNES. The Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS) is a whisk broom radiometer developed by NASDA.[3] The Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (AVNIR), an optoelectronic scanning radiometer with CCD detectors, was also produced by NASDA.[3] The NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT), developed with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, used fan-beam Doppler signals to measure wind speeds over bodies of water.[3] The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) was built by CNES to study changes to Earth's ozone layer.[3] The Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectance (POLDER) device was also developed by CNES, and was also launched on ADEOS II.[3] The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) was developed by NASDA and the Environment Agency of Japan, and used grating spectrometers to measure the properties of trace gases using solar occultation.[3] The Retroreflector in Space (RIS) and Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse Gases (IMG) were both developed by Japan, and studied atmospheric trace gases and greenhouse gases respectively.[3]

Mission[edit]

Failure[edit]

On 28 August 1996, the satellite adjusted its attitude to control its orbit. As a result of this manoeuvre, the solar panel received sunlight from the rear. This caused the solar paddle mast to expand and the panel blanket to contract, placing tension on a soldered joint on the paddle, which eventually broke.[4]

The final communication from the satellite was received at 07:21 UTC on 30 June 1997,[4] 9 months after launch.[6]

Investigation[edit]

The subsequent investigation into the mission's failure identified that a solder point on the solar cell paddle had broken down, causing a malfunction.[4]

Footnotes[edit]

Sources[edit]