Discredited HIV/AIDS origins theories

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This article contains hypotheses not currently accepted by the majority of the scientific community. For the majority view within the scientific community, see History of HIV/AIDS.

Various alternative theories have arisen speculating about the hidden origins of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), ranging from suggestions that they were the inadvertent result of experiments in the development of vaccines to claims that they were intentionally developed by scientists working for the U.S. government. (Alternative theories regarding the hidden origin—accidental or intentional—of HIV/AIDS must be distinguished from AIDS denialism, which is the view of those who deny that HIV is the cause of AIDS. AIDS denialists, however, overlap with the alternative origin theorists in sharing the conspiratorial view that government officials and the biomedical establishment have been complicit in suppressing the truth about HIV/AIDS.) Speculations notwithstanding, the current scientific consensus is that HIV originated naturally in West Central Africa in the mid-1930s from the closely related simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV).[1]

Theories[edit]

Purported accidental vaccine origins[edit]

In 1987 there was some consideration given to the possibility that the "Aids epidemic may have been triggered by the mass vaccination campaign which eradicated smallpox". An article[2] in The Times suggested this, quoting an unnamed "adviser to WHO" with "I believe the smallpox vaccine theory is the explanation to the explosion of Aids". It is now thought that the smallpox vaccine causes serious complications for people who already have impaired immune systems, and the Times article described the case of a military recruit with "dormant HIV" who died within months of receiving it. But no citation was provided regarding people who did not previously have HIV. (HIV is now considered to be a contraindication for the smallpox vaccine—both for an infected person and their sexual partners and household members.[3][4]) Some conspiracy theorists propose an expanded hypothesis in which the smallpox vaccine was deliberately 'laced' with HIV.[5]
In contrast, a research article was published in 2010 suggesting that it might have been the actual eradication of smallpox and the subsequent ending of the mass vaccination campaign that contributed to the sudden emergence of HIV, due to the possibility that immunization against smallpox "might play a role in providing an individual with some degree of protection to subsequent HIV infection and/or disease progression".[6][7] Regardless of the effects of the smallpox vaccine itself, its use in practice in Africa is one of the categories of un-sterile injection that may have contributed to the spread and mutation of the immunodeficiency viruses.[8]
The dermatologist Alan Cantwell, in self-published books entitled AIDS and the Doctors of Death: An Inquiry into the Origin of the AIDS Epidemic (1988) and Queer Blood: The Secret AIDS Genocide Plot (1993), said that HIV is a genetically modified organism developed by U.S. Government scientists and that it was introduced into the population through Hepatitis B experiments performed on gay and bisexual men between 1978–1981 in major U.S. cities. Cantwell claims that these experiments were directed by Wolf Szmuness, and that there was an ongoing government cover-up of the origins of the AIDS epidemic. Similar theories have been advanced by Robert B. Strecker, Matilde Krim and Milton William Cooper.
In the 1999 version of his OPV AIDS hypothesis, Edward Hooper proposed that early batches of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) grown in cultures of chimpanzee kidney cells, infected with a chimpanzee virus, were the original source of HIV-1 in Central Africa. A vial of the batch most strongly implicated by Hooper was found in storage in the UK, and analysis found no HIV/SIV sequences or chimpanzee cellular components, but did find traces of macaque mitochondria. Analysis of five samples of OPV in storage at the Wistar Institute, including one from a batch used in the Belgian Congo between 1958 and 1960, found no chimpanzee DNA.[9] Other molecular biology and phylogenetic studies also contradict the hypothesis, and scientific consensus regards it as disproven.[10][11][12][13] In 2004 the journal Nature described the hypothesis as "refuted".[14]

Purported intentional creation[edit]

These theories generally attribute HIV's origin to the US government or its contractors.
  • Jakob Segal (1911–1995), a professor at Humboldt University in then-East Germany, proposed that HIV was engineered at a U.S. military laboratory at Fort Detrick, by splicing together two other viruses, Visna and HTLV-1. According to his theory, the new virus, created between 1977 and 1978, was tested on prison inmates who had volunteered for the experiment in exchange for early release. He further suggested that it was through these prisoners that the virus was spread to the population at large. After the end of the cold war, however, the former KGB agents Wassili Nikititsch Mitrochin and Oleg Gordijewski revealed independently of each other that the Fort Detrick hypothesis was a propaganda operation devised by the KGB's First Chief Directorate under the codename "infektion". Later it was also supported by the section X of East Germany's Hauptverwaltung Aufklärung as admitted by its officer Günther Bohnensack. It is not entirely clear whether Segal pursued the hypothesis independently on his own accord or whether he was simply following orders. Segal himself always denied the latter and kept pursuing the hypothesis even after the operation had been canceled and the cold war had ended. It is known that Segal was in close contact with Russian KGB officers and Mitrochin mentioned him as a central asset of the operation.[15][16]
  • Various theories have been advanced regarding a "racist" or "genocidal" motivation for the purported creation of HIV. Some theorists also attribute a homophobic element to the conspiracy. These views have sometimes been endorsed by prominent individuals and organizations.
    • In the mid 1980s, the dermatologist Alan Cantwell (see above) included the possibility of a deliberate anti-gay agenda in his theory that the HIV/AIDS epidemic originated with the hepatitis B vaccine in New York City.
    • In Behold a Pale Horse (1991), radio broadcaster and author Milton William Cooper (1943–2001) proposed that AIDS was the result of a conspiracy to decrease the populations of blacks, Hispanics, and homosexuals.[17]
    • The dentist and entrepreneur Leonard G. Horowitz, author of the self-published works Emerging Viruses: AIDS & Ebola. Nature, Accident or Intentional? (1996) and Death in the Air: Globalism, Terrorism and Toxic Warfare (2001), advanced the theory that the AIDS virus was engineered by such U.S. Government defense contractors as Litton Bionetics for the purposes of bio-warfare and "population control". He believes that HIV was deliberately designed in a US military lab in the 1970s for use as a genocidal weapon.
      • The Nation of Islam endorses the view that governments and pharmaceutical companies have pursued genocidal racist policies including the creation and spread of HIV. Consequently, the group called for a boycott of U.S.-sponsored vaccination programs for children. Leonard Horowitz has been cited as influential in the NoI boycott decision.[20]
      • In 2008, the controversial Reverend Jeremiah Wright cited Leonard Horowitz in support of his view that the U.S. government invented HIV as a means of genocide against black people.
    • The 2004 Nobel Peace Prize laureate and environmental activist Wangari Maathai was asked by a Time magazine interviewer if she stood by a previous alleged claim that "AIDS is a biological weapon manufactured by the developed world to wipe out the black race". Maathai responded, "I have no idea who created AIDS and whether it is a biological agent or not. But I do know things like that don't come from the moon. (...) I guess there is some truth that must not be too exposed."[21] Maathai subsequently issued a written statement in December 2004: "I neither say nor believe that the virus was developed by white people or white powers in order to destroy the African people. Such views are wicked and destructive."[22]

Prevalence of conspiracy beliefs[edit]

  • In 2005, an anonymous survey was conducted among 71 African Americans in the United States to measure belief in prevalent conspiracy theories regarding HIV and AIDS. The survey found that the majority somewhat or strongly believed that "a lot of information about AIDS is being withheld from the public" and over half somewhat or strongly believed that "there is a cure for AIDS, but it is being withheld." Almost 60% disagreed that, "the government is telling the truth about AIDS." Over 40% somewhat or strongly agreed that, "people who take the new medicines for HIV are human guinea pigs for the government."[23] According to Phil Wilson, executive director of the Black AIDS Institute in Los Angeles, conspiracy theories are becoming a barrier to the prevention of AIDS since people start to believe that no matter what the measures they take are, they can still be prone to contracting this disease. This makes them less careful when engaging in practices that put them at risk because they believe there is no point.[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sharp, P. M.; Bailes, E.; Chaudhuri, R. R.; Rodenburg, C. M.; Santiago, M. O.; Hahn, B. H. (2001). "The origins of acquired immune deficiency syndrome viruses: Where and when?". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 356 (1410): 867–76. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0863. PMC 1088480. PMID 11405934.  edit
  2. ^ Wright, Pearce (11 May 1987). "Smallpox vaccine 'triggered Aids virus'". The Times (London). 
  3. ^ Maurer, DM; Harrington, B; Lane, JM (1 September 2003). "Smallpox Vaccine: Contraindications, Administration, and Adverse Reactions". American Family Physician 68 (5): 889–96. PMID 13678138. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  4. ^ "Questions and Answers About Smallpox Contraindications and Screening". Emergency Preparedness and Response. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  5. ^ Kalambuka, Angeyo (1 December 2009). "Don't Discount Conspiracy Theories on Origin of Aids". Daily Nation (Nairobi). Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  6. ^ Weinstein, Raymond S.; Weinstein, Michael M.; Alibek, Kenneth; Bukrinsky, Michael I.; Brichacek, Beda (18 May 2010). "Significantly reduced CCR5-tropic HIV-1 replication in vitro in cells from subjects previously immunized with Vaccinia Virus". BMC Immunology (BioMed Central) 11 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2172-11-23. ISSN 1471-2172. PMC 2881106. PMID 20482754. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  7. ^ Connor, Steve (19 May 2010). "Smallpox vaccine 'helped fight HIV'". The Independent (London). Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  8. ^ Marx PA, Alcabes PG, Drucker E (June 2001). "Serial human passage of simian immunodeficiency virus by unsterile injections and the emergence of epidemic human immunodeficiency virus in Africa". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. 356 (1410): 911–20. doi:10.1098/rstb.2001.0867. PMC 1088484. PMID 11405938. 
  9. ^ Sarah Ramsay 28 April 2001 "Cold water downstream from The River" The Lancet 357 (9265) p.1343 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04536-0
  10. ^ Hillis DM (2000). "AIDS. Origins of HIV". Science 288 (5472): 1757–1759. doi:10.1126/science.288.5472.1757. PMID 10877695. 
  11. ^ Birmingham K (2000). "Results make a monkey of OPV-AIDS theory". Nat Med 6 (10): 1067–1067. doi:10.1038/80356. PMID 11017114. 
  12. ^ Cohen J (2001). "AIDS origins. Disputed AIDS theory dies its final death". Science 292 (5517): 615a–615. doi:10.1126/science.292.5517.615a. PMID 11330303. 
  13. ^ Origin of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website , Accessed 30 January 2007
  14. ^ Worobey M, Santiago M, Keele B, Ndjango J, Joy J, Labama B, Dhed'A B, Rambaut A, Sharp P, Shaw G, Hahn B (2004). "Origin of AIDS: contaminated polio vaccine theory refuted". Nature 428 (6985): 820–820. doi:10.1038/428820a. PMID 15103367. 
  15. ^ Andrew, Christopher; Vasili Mitrokhin (1999). The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. Basic Books. p. 319. ISBN 0-465-00310-9. 
  16. ^ Johanna Lutterroth: Aids-Verschwörung. Das Propaganda-Virus des KGB. Spiegel Online, 2012-6-26 (German)
  17. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (2003). "Illuminati". The Skeptic's Dictionary: A Collection of Strange Beliefs, Amusing Deceptions, and Dangerous Delusions. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 175. ISBN 9781118045633. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  18. ^ "SA Government steps into Aids row". BBC News. September 14, 2000. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  19. ^ Nattrass, Nicoli (2012). The AIDS Conspiracy: Science Fights Back. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 4, 23–27. ISBN 9780231149129. Retrieved January 17, 2013. 
  20. ^ Knight, Peter, Conspiracy Culture: From the Kennedy Assassination to the X-files, p. 202
  21. ^ Faris, Stephan (10 October 2004). "10 Questions: Wangari Maathai". TIME.com/CNN. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 
  22. ^ from the Green Belt Movement website- Wangari Maathai's "The Challenge of AIDS in Africa".
  23. ^ Bogart, Laura M., and Sheryl Thorburn Bird. "Exploring the Relationship of Conspiracy Beliefs about HIV/AIDS to Sexual Behaviors and Attitudes Among African-American Adults." Journal of the National Medical Association. 95.11 (2003): 1057–1065. Web. 11 Apr. 2013.<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2594665/pdf/jnma00315-0052.pdf>.
  24. ^ Fears, Darryl. "Study: Many Blacks Cite AIDS Conspiracy." Washington Post 25 001 2005, A02. Web. 11 Apr. 2013. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A33695-2005Jan24.html>.

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