AIM-9 Sidewinder

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AIM-9 Sidewinder
US Navy 980220-N-0507F-003 U.S. Marine Corps Lance Cpl. Leander Pickens arms an AIM-9 Sidewinder missile on a FA-18C Hornet.jpg
An AIM-9 Sidewinder is affixed to a U.S. Navy F/A-18 Hornet on board the USS George Washington (CVN-73), in February 1998.
Type Short-range air-to-air missile
Place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1956–present
Production history
Manufacturer Nammo
Raytheon Company
Ford Aerospace
Loral Corp.
Unit cost US$664,933[1] (AIM-9X Blk II FY13)
Produced September 1953
Specifications
Weight 188 pounds (85.3 kg)
Length 9 feet 11 inches (3.02 m)
Diameter 5 in (127.0 mm)
Warhead WDU-17/B annular blast-frag
Warhead weight 20.8 lb (9.4 kg)
Detonation
mechanism
Magnetic influence (old models)
Active infrared (AIM-9L onwards)

Engine Hercules/Bermite MK 36 Solid-fuel rocket
Wingspan 11 in (279.4 mm)
Operational
range
0.6 to 22 miles (1.0 to 35.4 km)
Speed Mach 2.5
Guidance
system
Infrared homing (most models)
semi-active radar homing (AIM-9C)
Launch
platform
Aircraft, helicopter gunships

The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s. Entering service in 1956, variants and upgrades remain in active service with many air forces after five decades. The United States Air Force purchased the Sidewinder after the missile was developed by the United States Navy at China Lake, California.[2]

The majority of Sidewinder variants utilize infrared homing for guidance; the AIM-9C variant used semi-active radar homing and served as the basis of the AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radar missile. The Sidewinder is the most widely used missile in the West, with more than 110,000 missiles produced for the U.S. and 27 other nations, of which perhaps one percent have been used in combat. It has been built under license by some other nations including Sweden. The AIM-9 is one of the oldest, least expensive, and most successful air-to-air missiles, with an estimated 270 aircraft kills in its history of use.[3]

The missile was designed to be simple to upgrade.[4] It has been said[by whom?] that the design goals for the original Sidewinder were to produce a reliable and effective missile with the "electronic complexity of a table model radio and the mechanical complexity of a washing machine"—goals which were well accomplished in the early missiles. The United States Navy hosted a 50th anniversary celebration of its existence in 2002. Boeing won a contract in March 2010 to support Sidewinder operations through 2055, guaranteeing that the weapons system will remain in operation until at least that date. Air Force Spokeswoman Stephanie Powell noted that due to its relative low cost, versatility, and reliability it is "very possible that the Sidewinder will remain in Air Force inventories through the late 21st century."

History[edit]

The development of the Sidewinder missile began in 1946 at the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS), Inyokern, California, now the Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake, California as an in-house research project conceived by William B. McLean. McLean initially called his effort "Local Fuze Project 602" using laboratory funding, volunteer help and fuze funding to develop what it called a heat-homing rocket. It did not receive official funding until 1951 when the effort was mature enough to show to Admiral William "Deak" Parsons, the Deputy Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd). It subsequently received designation as a program in 1952. The Sidewinder introduced several new technologies that made it simpler and much more reliable than its United States Air Force (USAF) counterpart, the AIM-4 Falcon, under development during the same period. After disappointing experiences with the Falcon in the Vietnam War, the Air Force replaced its Falcons with Sidewinders.

Nearly 100,000 of the first generation (AIM-9B/C/D/E) of the Sidewinder were produced with Raytheon and General Electric as major sub-contractors.[5] Philco-Ford produced the guidance and control sections of the early missiles.[5] The NATO version of the first generation missile was built under licence in Germany by Bodenseewek Geratetechnik, 9,200 examples were built.[5] A second generation of the missile (AIM-9G/H/J) was introduced during 1970 and these were followed from the mid-seventies by the AIM-9L/P) which was a substantial improvement on the early versions particularly with an improved SR-116 reduced-smoke rocket motor.[5] The third generation of the missile (AIM-9L/M) are all-aspect missile which share little in common with the earlier missiles.[5]

Geometric arrangement of mirror, IR detector and target
An AIM-9B hitting an F6F-5K drone at China Lake, 1957.

Name selection[edit]

The name Sidewinder was selected in 1950 and is the common name of Crotalus cerastes, a venomous rattlesnake which uses infrared sensory organs to hunt warm-blooded prey.[5][6]

Design[edit]

An AIM-9E Sidewinder missile on display at the National Air and Space Museum

The AIM-9 is made up of a number of different components manufactured by different companies, including Aerojet and Raytheon. The missile is divided into four main sections: guidance, target detector, warhead, and rocket motor.

The Guidance and Control Unit (GCU) contains most of the electronics and mechanics that enable the missile to function. At the very front is the IR seeker head utilizing the rotating reticle, mirror, and five CdS cells or “pan and scan” focal-plane array (AIM-9X), electric motor, and armature, all protruding into a glass dome. Directly behind this are the electronics that gather data, interpret signals, and generate the control signals that steer the missile. An umbilical on the side of the GCU attaches to the launcher, which detaches from the missile at launch. To cool the seeker head, a 5,000 psi (35 MPa) argon bottle (TMU-72/B or A/B) is carried internally in Air Force AIM-9L/M variants while the Navy uses a rail mounted nitrogen bottle. The AIM-9X model contains a Stirling cryo-engine to cool the seeker elements. Two electric servos power the canards to steer the missile (except AIM-9X). At the back of the GCU is a gas grain generator or thermal battery (AIM-9X) to provide electrical power. The AIM-9X features High-Off-Boresight capability; together with JHMCS (Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System), this missile is capable of locking on to a target that is in its field of regard said to be up to 90 degrees off boresight. The AIM-9X has several unique design features including built-in-test to aid in maintenance and reliability, an electronic safe and arm device, an additional digital umbilical similar to the AMRAAM and jet vane control.

Next is a target detector with four IR emitters and detectors that detect if the target is moving farther away. When it detects this action taking place, it sends a signal to the Warhead Safe and Arm device to detonate the warhead. Versions older than the AIM-9L featured an influence fuze that relied on the target's magnetic field as input. Current trends in shielded wires and non-magnetic metals in aircraft construction rendered this obsolete.

A Sidewinder hitting a QF-4B drone, 1974.

The AIM-9H model contained a 25-pound (11 kg) expanding rod-blast fragmentary warhead. All other models up to the AIM-9M contained a 22-pound (10 kg) annular blast fragmentary warhead. The missile's warhead rods can break rotor blades (an immediately fatal event for any helicopter).

Recent models of the AIM-9 are configured with an annular blast fragmentation warhead, the WDU-17B by Argotech Corporation. The case is made of spirally wound spring steel filled with 8 pounds (4 kg) of PBXN-3 explosive. The warhead features a safe/arm device requiring five seconds at 20 g (~200 m/s²) acceleration before the fuze is armed, giving a minimum range of approximately 2.5 kilometers.

The Mk36 solid propellant rocket motor provides propulsion for the missile. A reduced smoke propellant makes it difficult for a target to see and avoid the missile. This section also features the launch lugs used to hold the missile to the rail of the missile launcher. The forward of the three lugs has two contact buttons that electrically activate the motor igniter. The fins provide stability from an aerodynamic point of view, but it is the "rollerons" at the end of the wings providing gyroscopic precession that prevents the serpentine motion that gave the Sidewinder its name in the early days. The wings and fins of the AIM-9X are much smaller to accommodate one in each side bay of the F-22 Raptor as originally planned, AIM-9X control surfaces are reversed from earlier Sidewinders with the control section located in the rear, while the wings up front provide stability. The AIM-9X also features vectored thrust or jet vane control to increase maneuverability and accuracy, with four vanes inside the exhaust that move as the fins move. The last upgrade to the missile motor on the AIM-9X is the addition of a wire harness that allows communication between the guidance section and the control section, as well as a new 1760 bus to connect the guidance section with the launcher’s digital umbilical.

The Sidewinder incorporated a number of innovations over the independently developed World War II German Missile Enzian's "Madrid" IR range fuze that enabled it to be successful.[citation needed] The first innovation was to replace the "steering" mirror with a forward-facing mirror rotating around a shaft pointed out the front of the missile. The detector was mounted in front of the mirror. When the long axis of the mirror, the missile axis and the line of sight to the target all fell in the same plane, the reflected rays from the target reached the detector (provided the target was not very far off axis). Therefore, the angle of the mirror at the instant of detection (w1) estimated the direction of the target in the roll axis of the missile.

The yaw/pitch (angle w2) direction of the target depended on how far to the outer edge of the mirror the target was. If the target was further off axis, the rays reaching the detector would be reflected from the outer edge of the mirror. If the target was closer on axis, the rays would be reflected from closer to the centre of the mirror. Rotating on a fixed shaft, the mirror's linear speed was higher at the outer edge. Therefore if a target was further off-axis its "flash" in the detector occurred for a briefer time, or longer if it was closer to the center. The off-axis angle could then be estimated by the duration of the reflected pulse of infrared.

The Sidewinder also included a dramatically improved guidance algorithm. The Enzian attempted to fly directly at its target, feeding the direction of the telescope into the control system as it if were a joystick. This meant the missile always flew directly at its target, and under most conditions would end up behind it, "chasing" it down. This meant that the missile had to have enough of a speed advantage over its target that it did not run out of fuel during the interception.

The Sidewinder is not guided on the actual position recorded by the detector, but on the change in position since the last sighting. So if the target remained at 5 degrees left between two rotations of the mirror, the electronics would not output any signal to the control system. Consider a missile fired at right angles to its target; if the missile is flying at the same speed as the target it should "lead" it by 45 degrees, flying to an impact point far in front of where the target was when it was fired. If the missile is traveling four times the speed of the target, it should follow an angle about 11 degrees in front. In either case, the missile should keep that angle all the way to interception, which means that the angle that the target makes against the detector is constant. It was this constant angle that the Sidewinder attempted to maintain. This "proportional pursuit" system is very easy to implement, yet it offers high-performance lead calculation almost for free and can respond to changes in the target's flight path,[7] which is much more efficient and makes the missile "lead" the target.

However this system also requires the missile to have a fixed roll axis orientation. If the missile spins at all, the timing based on the speed of rotation of the mirror is no longer accurate. Correcting for this spin would normally require some sort of sensor to tell which way is "down" and then adding controls to correct it. Instead, small control surfaces were placed at the rear of the missile with spinning disks on their outer surface; these are known as rollerons. Airflow over the disk spins them to a high speed. If the missile starts to roll, the gyroscopic force of the disk drives the control surface into the airflow, cancelling the motion. Thus the Sidewinder team replaced a potentially complex control system with a simple mechanical solution.

Flight test and service introduction[edit]

Prototype Sidewinder-1 missile on an AD-4 Skyraider during flight testing

Originally called the Sidewinder 1 the first live firing was on 3 September 1952.[5] On the 11 September 1953 was the first time the missile intercepted a drone.[5] The missile carried out 51 guided flights in 1954 and in 1955 production was authorised.[5] In 1954 the United States Air Force carried out trials with the original AIM-9A and the improved AIM-9B at the Holloman Air Development Center.[5] The first operational use of the missile was by Grumman F9F-8 Cougars and FJ-3 Furies of the United States Navy in the middle of 1956.[5]

Combat debut[edit]

The first combat use of the Sidewinder was on September 24, 1958, with the air force of the Republic of China (Taiwan), during the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis. During that period of time, ROCAF North American F-86 Sabres were routinely engaged in air battles with the People's Republic of China over the Taiwan Strait. The PRC MiG-17s had higher altitude ceiling performance and in similar fashion to Korean War encounters between the F-86 and earlier MiG-15, the PRC formations cruised above the ROC Sabres, immune to their .50 cal weaponry and only choosing battle when conditions favored them. In a highly secret effort, the United States provided a few dozen Sidewinders to ROC forces and an Aviation Ordnance Team from the U. S. Marine Corps to modify their Sabres to carry the Sidewinder. In the first encounter on 24 September 1958, the Sidewinders were used to ambush the MiG-17s as they flew past the Sabres thinking they were invulnerable to attack. The MiGs broke formation and descended to the altitude of the Sabres in swirling dogfights. This action marked the first successful use of air-to-air missiles in combat, the downed MiG's being their first casualties.[8]

Compromised technology[edit]

The Taiwan Strait battles inadvertently produced a new derivative of Sidewinder. Shortly after that conflict the Soviet Union began the manufacture of the K-13/R-3S missile (NATO reporting name AA-2 'Atoll'), a reverse-engineered copy of the Sidewinder. It was made possible after a Taiwanese AIM-9B hit a Chinese Communist MiG-17 without exploding, the missile lodging itself in the airframe of the MiG after which the pilot was able to bring both plane and missile back to base. According to Ron Westrum in his book "Sidewinder", the Soviets obtained the plans for Sidewinder from a Swedish Air Force Colonel, Stig Wennerström, and rushed their version into service by 1961 copying it so closely that even the part numbers were duplicated, although none of the known Soviet sources mention this. Years later, Soviet engineers would admit that the captured Sidewinder served as a "university course" in missile design and substantially improved Soviet and allied air-to-air capabilities. In 1972, when the Finnish Air Force started using Sidewinder (AIM-9P) in their Saab 35 Draken fighters, they were already using Soviet-made Atoll in their MiG-21s; Finns found the two so similar that they tested Sidewinders in MiGs and Atolls in Drakens.

USAF adoption[edit]

Although originally developed for the USN and a competitor to the USAF AIM-4 Falcon, the Sidewinder was subsequently introduced into USAF service when DoD directed that the F-4 Phantom be adopted by the USAF. The Air Force originally borrowed F-4B model Phantoms, which were equipped with AIM-9B Sidewinders as the short-range armament. The first production USAF Phantoms were the F-4C model, which carried the AIM-9B Sidewinder. The Air Force opted to carry only AIM-4 Falcon on their F-4D model Phantoms introduced to Vietnam service in 1967, but disappointment with combat use of the Falcon led to a crash effort to reconfigure the F-4D so that it could carry Sidewinders. The USAF nomenclature for the Sidewinder was the GAR-8 (later AIM-9E). During the 1960s the USN and USAF pursued their own separate versions of the Sidewinder, but cost considerations later forced the development of common variants beginning with the AIM-9L.

Continued evolution[edit]

(Top: AIM-9A; Bottom: AIM-9C) Early Sidewinders mounted on an F-8D Crusader.
(From top to bottom) The U.S. Navy's AIM-9B, AIM-9D, and AIM-9C in the early 1970s

The Sidewinder subsequently evolved through a series of upgraded versions with newer, more sensitive seekers with various types of cooling and various propulsion, fuse, and warhead improvements. Although each of those versions had various seeker, cooling, and fusing differences, all but one shared infrared homing. The exception was the U.S. Navy AAM-N-7 Sidewinder IB (later AIM-9C), a Sidewinder with a semi-active radar homing seeker head developed for the F-8 Crusader. Only about 1,000 of these weapons were produced, many of which were later rebuilt as the AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radiation missile.

Vietnam influence on Sidewinder development[edit]

When air combat started over North Vietnam in 1965, Sidewinder was the standard short range missile carried by the US Navy on its F-4 Phantom and F-8 Crusader fighters and could be carried on the A-4 Skyhawk and on the A-7 Corsair for self-defense. The Air Force also used the Sidewinder on its F-4C Phantoms and when MiGs began challenging strike groups, the F-105 Thunderchief also carried the Sidewinder for self-defense. Performance of the 454 Sidewinders launched[9] during the war, and the AIM-7 Sparrow was not as satisfactory as hoped. Both the Navy and Air Force studied the performance of their aircrews, aircraft, weapons, training, and supporting infrastructure. The Air Force conducted the classified Red Baron Report while the Navy conducted a study concentrating primarily on performance of air-to-air weapons that was informally known as the "Ault Report". The impact of both studies resulted in modifications to the Sidewinder by both services to improve its performance and reliability in the demanding air-to-air arena.

Summary of Vietnam War AIM-9 aerial combat kills 1965–1973[edit]

USN AIM-9 Sidewinder aerial combat kills:[10]

Missile firing aircraft AIM-9 Sidewinder model (Type) Aircraft downed Comments
F-8E Crusader AIM-9D (1) MiG-21/(9) MiG-17s US Fighters launched from US aircraft carriers; USS Hancock CV-19, USS Oriskany CV-34, USS Bon Homme Richard CV-31, USS Ticonderoga CV-14
F-8C AIM-9D (3) MiG-17s/(1) MiG-21 US Fighters launched from USS Bon Homme Richard CV-31 and USS Intrepid CV-11
F-8H AIM-9D (2) MiG-21s US Fighters launched from USS Bon Homme Richard CV-31
F-4B Phantom II AIM-9D (2) MiG-17s/(2) MiG-21s US Fighters launched from USS Constellation CV-64 and USS Kitty Hawk CV-63
F-4J AIM-9D (2) MiG-21s US Fighters launched from USS America CV-66 and USS Constellation CV-64
F-4B AIM-9B (1) MiG-17 US Fighters launched from USS Kitty Hawk CV-63
F-4B AIM-9G (7) MiG-17s/(2) MiG-19s Fighters launched from USS Coral Sea CV-43 and USS Midway CV-41
F-4J AIM-9G (7) MiG-17s/(7) MiG-21s Fighters launched from USS Enterprise CVN-65, USS America CV-66, USS Saratoga CV-60, USS Constellation CV-64, USS Kitty Hawk CV-63
Total MiG-17s 29
Total MiG-21s 15
Total MiG-19s 2
USN Total: 46

USAF AIM-9 Sidewinder aerial combat kills:[10]

Missile firing aircraft AIM-9 Sidewinder Model (Type) Aircraft downed Comments
F-4C AIM-9B (13) MiG-17s/(9) MiG-21s USAF 45th Tactical Fighter Squadron (TFS), 389th TFS, 390th TFS, 433rd TFS, 480th TFS, 555th TFS
F-105D Thunderchief AIM-9B (3) MiG-17s 333rd TFS, 469th TFS
F-4D AIM-9E (2) MiG-21s 13th, 469th TFS
F-4E AIM-9E (4) MiG-21s 13th TFS, 34th TFS, 35th TFS, 469th TFS
F-4D AIM-9J (2) MiG-19s/(1) MiG-21 523rd TFS, 555th TFS
Total MiG-17s 16
Total MiG-21s 16
Total MiG-19s 2
USAF Total: 34

Navy AIM-9D/G/H[edit]

AIM-9Ds armed F-4B of VF-111 on the USS Coral Sea.

The Navy Sidewinder design progression went from the early production B model to the D model that was used extensively in Vietnam. The G and H models followed with new forward canard design improving ACM performance and expanded acquisition modes and improved envelopes. The "Hotel" model followed shortly after the "Golf" and featured a solid state design that improved reliability in the carrier environment where shock from catapult launches and arrested landings had a deteriorating effect on the earlier vacuum tube designs. The Ault report had a strong impact on Sidewinder design, manufacture, and handling.

Air Force AIM-9E/J/N/P[edit]

Once the Air Force adopted the Sidewinder as part of its arsenal, it developed the AIM-9E, introducing it in 1967. The "Echo" was an improved version of the basic AIM-9B featuring larger forward canards as well as a more aerodynamic IR seeker and an improved rocket motor. The missile, however still had to be fired at the rear quarter of the target, a drawback of all early IR missiles. Significant upgrades were applied to the first true dogfight version, the AIM-9J, which was rushed to the South-East Asia Theatre in July 1972 during the Linebacker campaign, in which many aerial encounters with North Vietnamese MiGs occurred. The Juliet model could be launched at up to 7.5g (74 m/s²) and introduced the first solid state components and improved actuators capable of delivering 90 lb·ft (120 N·m) torque to the canards, thereby improving dogfight prowess. In 1973, Ford began production of an enhanced AIM-9J-1, which was later redesignated the AIM-9N. The AIM-9J was widely exported. The J/N evolved into the P series, with five versions being produced (P1 to P5) including such improvements as new fuzes, reduced-smoke rocket motors, and all-aspect capability on the latest P4 and P5. BGT in Germany has developed a conversion kit for upgrading AIM-9J/N/P guidance and control assemblies to the AIM-9L standard, and this is being marketed as AIM-9JULI. The core of this upgrade is the fitting of the DSQ-29 seeker unit of the AIM-9L, replacing the original J/N/P seeker to give improved capabilities.

All-aspect Sidewinders[edit]

AIM-9L[edit]

AIM-9L Captive air training missile with part/section in blue color, denoting inert warhead and rocket motor, for training purposes.

The next major advance in IR Sidewinder development was the AIM-9L ("Lima") model which was in full production in 1977.[11] This was the first "all-aspect" Sidewinder with the ability to attack from all directions, including head-on, which had a dramatic effect on close in combat tactics. Its first combat use was by a pair of US Navy F-14s in the Gulf of Sidra in 1981 versus two Libyan Su-22 Fitters, both of the latter being destroyed by AIM-9Ls. Its first use in a prolonged conflict was by the United Kingdom during the 1982 Falklands War; in this campaign the "Lima" reportedly achieved a kill ratio of around 80%, a dramatic improvement over the 10–15% levels of earlier versions, scoring 17 kills and 2 shared kills against Argentine aircraft.[12] In that same year but over Lebanon's Bekaa Valley, 51 out of the 55 Syrian-flown MiGs shot down were hit by Israeli Air Force Sidewinders.

In combat uses of the AIM-9L, opponents had not developed tactics for the evasion of head-on missile shots with it, making them more vulnerable.[citation needed] The AIM-9L was also the first Sidewinder that was a joint variant used by both the US Navy and Air Force since the AIM-9B. The "Lima" was distinguished from earlier Sidewinder variants by its double delta forward canard configuration and natural metal finish of the guidance and control section. The Lima was also built under license in Europe by a team headed by Diehl BGT Defence. There are a number of "Lima" variants in operational service at present. First developed was the 9L Tactical, which is an upgraded version of the basic 9L missile. Next was the 9L Genetic, which has increased infra-red counter counter measures (IRCCM); this upgrade consisted of a removable module in the Guidance Control Section (GCS) which provided flare-rejection capability. Next came the 9L(I), which had its IRCCM module hardwired into the GCS, providing improved countermeasures as well as an upgraded seeker system. Diehl BGT also markets the AIM-9L(I)-1 which again upgrades the 9L(I)GCS and is considered an operational equivalent to the initially "US only" AIM-9M.

AIM-9M[edit]

AIM-9M Sidewinder with distinctive "Dash-9" lettering being preflighted by a USAF pilot. Note the blue stripe, which indicates that this example has an inert warhead intended for training purposes

The subsequent AIM-9M ("Mike") has the all-aspect capability of the L model while providing all-around higher performance. The M model has improved capability against infrared countermeasures, enhanced background discrimination capability, and a reduced-smoke rocket motor. These modifications increase its ability to locate and lock-on to a target and decrease the chance of missile detection. Deliveries of the initial AIM-9M-1 began in 1982. The only changes from the AIM-9L to the AIM-9M were related to the Guidance Control Section (GCS). Several models were introduced in pairs with even numbers designating Navy versions and odd for USAF: AIM-9M-2/3, AIM-9M-4/5, and AIM-9M-6/7 which was rushed to the Persian Gulf area during Desert Shield to address specific threats expected to be present. The AIM-9M-8/9 incorporated replacement of five circuit cards and the related parentboard to update infrared counter counter measures (IRCCM) capability to improve 9M capability against the latest threat IRCM. The first AIM-9M-8/9 modifications, fielded in 1995, involved deskinning the guidance section and substitution of circuit cards at the depot level, which is labor-intensive and expensive—as well as removing missiles from inventory during the upgrade period. The AIM-9X concept is to use reprogrammable software to permit upgrades without disassembly.

Further development[edit]

AIM-9R[edit]

AIM-9R test firing from an F/A-18C at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake

The Navy began development of AIM-9R, a Sidewinder seeker upgrade in 1987 that featured a Focal Plane Array (FPA) seeker using video-camera type charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors and featuring increased off-boresight capability. The technology at the time was restricted to visual (daylight) use only and the USAF did not agree on this requirement, preferring another technology path. AIM-9R reached flight test stage before it was cancelled and subsequently both services agreed to join a joint development of the AIM-9X variant.

BOA/Boxoffice[edit]

Testing compressed carriage Sidewinder BOA configuration at China Lake

China Lake developed an improved compressed carriage control configuration titled BOA. ("Compressed carriage" missiles have smaller control surfaces to allow more missiles to fit in a given space.[13] The surfaces may be permanently "clipped", or may fold out when the missile is launched.)

The BOA design reduced size of control surfaces, eliminating the rollerons, and returned to simple forward-canard design. Although the Navy and Air Force had jointly developed and procured AIM-9L/M, BOA was a Navy-only effort supported by internal China Lake Independent Research & Development (IR&D) funding. Meanwhile, the Air Force was pursuing a parallel effort to develop a compressed carriage version of Sidewinder, called Boxoffice, for the F-22. The Joint Chiefs of Staff directed that the services collaborate on AIM-9X, which ended these separate efforts. The results of BOA and Boxoffice were provided to the industry teams competing for AIM-9X, and elements of both can be found in the AIM-9X design.

AIM-9X[edit]

After looking at advanced short range missile designs during the AIM portion of the ACEVAL/AIMVAL Joint Test and Evaluation at Nellis AFB in the 1974-78 timeframe, the Air Force and Navy agreed on the need for the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile AMRAAM. But agreement over development of an Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile ASRAAM was problematic and disagreement between the Air Force and Navy over design concepts (Air Force had developed AIM-82 and Navy had flight-tested Agile and flown it in AIMVAL). Congress eventually insisted the services work on a joint effort resulting in the AIM-9M, thereby compromising without exploring the improved off boresight and kinematic capability potential offered by Agile. In 1985, the Soviet Union did field a solid rocket motor (SRM) missile (AA-11 Archer/R-73) that was very similar to Agile. At that point, the Soviet Union took the lead in SRM technology and correspondingly fielded improved InfraRed Counter Measures (IRCM) to defeat or reduce the effectiveness of the latest Sidewinders. With the reunification of Germany and improved relations in the aftermath of the Soviet Union, the West became aware of how potent both the AA-11 and IRCM were and SRM requirements were readdressed.

The first guided launch of an AIM-9X occurred in 1999 from a VX-9 F/A-18C and shot-down a QF-4 Drone

For a brief period in the late 1980s, an ASRAAM effort led by a European consortium was in play under a MOA with the United States in which AMRAAM development would be led by the US and ASRAAM by the Europeans. The UK working with the aft end of the ASRAAM and Germany developing the seeker (Germany had first-hand experience improving the Sidewinder seeker of the AIM-9J/AIM-9F). By 1990, technical and funding issues had stymied ASRAAM and the problem appeared stalled, so in light of the threat of AA-11 and improved IRCM, the US embarked on determining requirements for AIM-9X as a counter to both the AA-11 and improved IRCM features. The first draft of the requirement was ready by 1991 and the primary competitors were Raytheon and Hughes. Later, the UK resolved to revive the ASRAAM development and selected Hughes to provide the seeker technology in the form of a high off-boresight capable Focal Plane Array. However, the UK did not choose to improve the turning kinematic capability of ASRAAM to compete with AA-11. As part of the AIM-9X program, the US conducted a foreign cooperative test of the ASRAAM seeker to evaluate its potential, and an advanced version featuring improved kinematics was proposed as part of the AIM-9X competition. In the end, the Hughes-evolved Sidewinder design, featuring virtually the same British funded seeker as used by ASRAAM, was selected as the winner.

An AIM-9X on an 422d Test & Evaluation Squadron F-15C, 2002.

The AIM-9X Sidewinder, developed by Raytheon engineers, entered service in November 2003 with the USAF (lead platform is the F-15C; the USN lead platform is the F/A-18C) and is a substantial upgrade to the Sidewinder family featuring an imaging infrared focal plane array (FPA) seeker with claimed 90° off-boresight capability, compatibility with helmet-mounted displays such as the new U.S. Joint Helmet Mounted Cueing System, and a totally new three-dimensional thrust-vectoring control (TVC) system providing increased turn capability over traditional control surfaces. Utilizing the JHMCS, a pilot can point the AIM-9X missile's seeker and "lock on" by simply looking at a target, thereby increasing air combat effectiveness.[14] It retains the same rocket motor, fuze and warhead of the 9-"Mike", but its lower drag gives it improved range and speed.[15] AIM-9X also includes an internal cooling system, eliminating the need for use of launch-rail nitrogen bottles (U.S. Navy and Marines) or internal argon bottle (USAF). It also features an electronic safe and arm device similar to the AMRAAM, allowing reduction in minimum range and reprogrammable InfraRed Counter Counter Measures (IRCCM) capability that coupled with the FPA provide improved look down into clutter and performance against the latest IRCM. Though not part of the original requirement, AIM-9X demonstrated potential for a Lock-on After Launch capability, allowing for possible internal use for the F-35, F-22 Raptor and even in a submarine-launched configuration for use against ASW platforms.[16] The AIM-9X has been tested for a surface attack capability, with mixed results.[17]

Testing work on the AIM-9X Block II version began in September 2008.[18] The Block II adds Lock-on After Launch capability with a datalink, so the missile can be launched first and then directed to its target afterwards by an aircraft with the proper equipment for 360 degree engagements, such as the F-35 and F-22.[19] By January 2013, the AIM-9X Block II was about halfway through its operational testing and performing better than expected. NAVAIR reported that the missile was exceeding performance requirements in all areas, including lock-on after launch (LOAL). The Block II performed as designed in 21 of 22 combined developmental and live fire tests, with 17 of the tests resulting in the missile guiding to a lethal target intercept in aggressive scenarios. Since the beginning of operational testing, 5 of 7 live fire attempts had guided to a lethal target intercept. One area where the Block II needs improvement is helmetless high off-boresight (HHOBS) performance. It is functioning well on the missile, but performance is below that of the Block I AIM-9X. The HHOBS deficiency does not impact any other Block II capabilities, and is planned to be improved upon by a software clean-up build. Objectives of the operational test are due to be completed by the third quarter of 2013.[20] As of June 2013, Raytheon has delivered 5,000 AIM-9X missiles to the armed services.[21]

Block III[edit]

In September 2012, Raytheon was ordered to continue developing the Sidewinder into a Block III variant, even though the Block II had not yet entered service. The USN projects that the new missile will have a 60% longer range, modern components to replace old ones, and an insensitive munitions warhead, which is more stable and less likely to detonate by accident, making it safer for ground crews. The need for the AIM-9 to have an increased range is from digital radio frequency memory (DRFM) jammers that can blind the onboard radar of an AIM-120D AMRAAM, so the Sidewinder Block III's passive imaging infra-red guidance system is a useful alternative. Although it can supplement the AMRAAM for beyond visual range (BVR) engagements, it will still be capable at performing within visual range (WVR). Modifying the AIM-9X is seen as a cost-effective alternative to developing a new missile in a time of declining budgets. To achieve the range increase, the rocket motor will have a combination of increased performance and missile power management. The Block III will "leverage" the Block II's guidance unit and electronics, including the AMRAAM-derived datalink. The Block III is currently scheduled to enter the engineering and manufacturing development (EMD) phase in 2016, with developmental testing in 2018 and operational test in 2020, and achieve initial operational capability (IOC) in 2022. The Block III development schedule follows the increased number of F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighters to enter service.[22][23] The Navy is pressing for this upgrade in response to a projected threat which analysts have speculated will be due to the difficulty of targeting upcoming Chinese Fifth-generation jet fighters with the radar guided AMRAAM.[24] Specifically, analysts predict that Chinese advances in electronics will mean Chinese fighters will use their AESA radars as jammers to degrade the AIM-120's kill probability.[25]

Other Sidewinder developments[edit]

TC-1 Republic of China (Taiwan)[edit]

CSIST TC-1 is a Taiwanese development of the AIM-9L originally meant to arm the ROCAF's indigenous F-CK-1 fighter. A ground-launched version was since developed as part of the Antelope air defence system, being carried on a Humvee-based launcher vehicle. The Pelican-Hardigg Technical Packaging division of Pelican Products Inc. has designed, qualified, and now manufactures a single missile AUR (All Up Round) Container for this missile. The Pelican-Hardigg Missile Container has been designed to be light enough for the loaded container to be physically handled by 6 men.[26]

Chaparral[edit]

A version for the U.S. Army with a launcher for four AIM-9D missiles mounted on a tracked vehicle and called the MIM-72/M48 Chaparral was also developed. In this configuration an operator sat in a protected capsule that was incorporated into the launcher assembly that rotated as an integrated unit. The Chaparral was introduced into service in 1969 and remained an integral part of the Army's air defense network until 1998.

AGM-122A Sidearm[edit]

The Sidewinder was also the basis for the AGM-122A Sidearm anti-radiation missile utilizing an AIM-9C guidance section modified to detect and track a radiating ground-based air defense system radar. The target-detecting device is modified for air-to-surface use, employing forward hemisphere acquisition capability. Sidearm stocks have apparently been expended, and the weapon is no longer in the active inventory.[citation needed]

Experimental use of an AIM-9L against tanks at China Lake, 1971.

Anti-tank variant[edit]

China Lake experimented with Sidewinder in the air-to-ground mode including use as an anti-tank weapon. Starting from 2008, the AIM-9X demonstrated its ability as a successful light air-to-ground missile.[27]

Larger rocket motor[edit]

Under the High Altitude Project, engineers at China Lake mated a Sidewinder warhead and seeker to a Sparrow rocket motor to experiment with usefulness of a larger motor.

Operators[edit]

Current operators[edit]

Former operators[edit]

Please note that this list is not exhaustive.

Notable pilots[edit]

Wally Schirra was an early Sidewinder test pilot when he was stationed at NOTS between 1952 to 1954. During one flight, Schirra fired the Sidewinder missile and the missile "doubled back" and started to chase his jet. Schirra, through skillful flying, avoided the Sidewinder. He later went onto to join NASA Mercury program as one of the first seven American astronauts to fly into space.[36]

See also[edit]

Related development
Related lists

Comparable missiles

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "GAO-13-294SP DEFENSE ACQUISITIONS Assessments of Selected Weapon Programs". US Government Accountability Office. March 2013. p. 43. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  2. ^ Babcock, Elizabeth (September 1999). Sidewinder Invention and Early Years. The China Lake Museum Foundation. "The Air Force subsequently procured Sidewinder AIM-9B missiles for its hottest tactical and strategic aircraft, p. 21" 
  3. ^ "Raytheon AIM-9 Sidewinder". www.designation-systems.net. Archived from the original on 9 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  4. ^ "Air Weapons: Beyond Sidewinder". www.strategypage.com. Archived from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2010. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Tom Hildreth (March–April 1988). "The Sidewinder Missile". Air-Britain Digest (Air-Britain) 40 (2): 39–40. ISSN 0950-7434. 
  6. ^ US Naval Museum of Armament & Technology: AIM-9 Sidewinder
  7. ^ Interestingly, echo-locating bats as they pursue flying insects also adopt such a strategy, see this PLoS Biology report: Echo-locating Bats Use a Nearly Time-Optimal Strategy to Intercept Prey. Public Library of Science. 18 April 2006. Retrieved 10 August 2010. 
  8. ^ Raytheon Sidewinder AIM-9
  9. ^ Michel III p. 287
  10. ^ a b McCarthy Jr. p. 148-157
  11. ^ Bonds 1989, p. 229.
  12. ^ 1982 AIM-9 Sidewinder air engagements
  13. ^ http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADP010957
  14. ^ Doty, Steven R. (2008-02-29). "Kunsan pilots improve capability with AIM-9X missile". Air Force Link. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  15. ^ Sweetman, Bill, Warming trend, Aviation Week and Space Technology, July 8, 2013, p.26
  16. ^ Raytheon Press Release[dead link]
  17. ^ "Raytheon AIM-9X Block II Air/Air Missile." Defense Update, 20 September 2011.
  18. ^ Raytheon Press Release, September 18, 2008
  19. ^ Raytheon AIM-9X Block II Missile Completes First Captive Carry Flight
  20. ^ AIM-9X Block II performing better than expected - Flightglobal.com, January 28, 2013
  21. ^ Raytheon Delivers 5,000th AIM-9X Sidewinder Air-to-Air Missile - Deagel.com, 15 June 2013
  22. ^ "US Navy hopes to increase AIM-9X range by 60%." - Flightglobal.com, 18 July 2013
  23. ^ New Sidewinder Tweaks - Strategypage.com, September 5, 2012
  24. ^ Sweetman, Bill (June 19, 2013). "Raytheon Looks At Options For Long-Range AIM-9". Aviation Week. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  25. ^ Sweetman, Bill, Warming Trend, Aviation Week and Space Technology, July 8, 2013, p.26
  26. ^ Pelican-Hardigg: Advanced Case Solutions
  27. ^ AIM-9X Sidewinder demonstrates Air-To-Surface capability :: F-16.net
  28. ^ La Franchi, Peter (27 March 2007). "Australia confirms AIM-9X selection for Super Hornets". Flight International. Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  29. ^ Czech Air force ordered 100 AIM-9M[dead link]
  30. ^ Finland Ordering 150 AIM-9X Sidewinders
  31. ^ Taking on Iran's air force
  32. ^ 150 AIM-9 Sidewinder Missiles for Saudi Arabia
  33. ^ "SIPRI arms transfer database". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Updated on 19 March 2012. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  34. ^ Turkey Buys 127 AIM-9X Sidewinder Missiles
  35. ^ "AIM-9B Sidewinder". South African Air Force Association. Archived from the original on 27 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-04. 
  36. ^ "Test Pilot". WallySchirra.com. Retrieved 2012-01-26. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bonds, Ray ed. The Modern US War Machine. New York, New York: Crown Publishers, 1989. ISBN 0-517-68802-6.
  • Bonds, Ray and David Miller. "AIM-9 Sidewinder". Illustrated Directory of Modern American Weapons. Zenith Imprint, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1346-6. 
  • Clancy, Tom. "Ordnance: How Bombs Got 'Smart'". Fighter Wing. London: HarperCollins, 1995. ISBN 0-00-255527-1. 
  • Doty, Steven R. (2008-02-29). "Kunsan pilots improve capability with AIM-9X missile". Air Force Link. Archived from the original on 2 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  • Babcock, Elizabeth (1999). Sidewinder – Invention and Early Years. The China Lake Museum Foundation. 26 pp. A concise record of the development of the original Sidewinder version and the central people involved in its design.
  • McCarthy, Donald J. Jr. MiG Killers, A Chronology of U.S. Air Victories in Vietnam 1965-1973. 2009, Specialty Press, North Branch, MN, U.S.A. ISBN 978-1-58007-136-9
  • Michel III, Marshall L. Clashes, Air Combat Over North Vietnam 1965-1972. 1997. ISBN 978-1-59114-519-6.
  • Westrum, Ron (1999). "Sidewinder—Creative missile development at China Lake." Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-55750-951-2

External links[edit]