AK-74

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AK-74
Ak74l.jpg
Early AK-74 assault rifle with rust-colored plastic magazine and laminated wood furniture
Type Assault rifle
Place of origin Soviet Union
Russia
Service history
In service 1978–present[1]
Used by See Users
Wars Soviet–Afghan War
Nagorno-Karabakh War
Georgian Civil War
First Chechen war
Second Chechen War
War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
2008 South Ossetia war
War in Donbass
Various other conflicts in Asia and the Middle East
Production history
Designer Mikhail Kalashnikov
Designed 1974
Manufacturer Izhmash (now Kalashnikov Concern)
Produced 1974–present
Number built 5,000,000 +[2]
Variants AKS-74, AKS-74U, AKS-74UB, AK-74M, AK-101, AK-102, AK-103, AK-104, AK-105
Specifications
Weight AK-74: 3.07 kg (6.8 lb)
AKS-74: 2.97 kg (6.5 lb)
AKS-74U: 2.7 kg (6.0 lb)
AK-74M: 3.4 kg (7.5 lb)[3]
without magazine
30-round magazine: 0.23 kg (0.51 lb)
6H5 bayonet: 0.32 kg (0.71 lb)
Length AK-74: 943 mm (37.1 in)
AKS-74 (stock extended): 943 mm (37.1 in)
AKS-74 (stock folded): 690 mm (27.2 in)
AKS-74U (stock extended): 735 mm (28.9 in)
AKS-74U (stock folded): 490 mm (19.3 in)
AK-74M (stock extended): 943 mm (37.1 in)
AK-74M (stock folded): 700 mm (27.6 in)
Barrel length AK-74, AKS-74, AK-74M: 415 mm (16.3 in)
AKS-74U: 210 mm (8.3 in)
Width AK-74M: 70 mm (2.8 in)
Height AK-74M: 195 mm (7.7 in)

Cartridge 5.45×39mm
Action Gas-operated, rotating bolt
Rate of fire Cyclic: 650 (rd/min)[4]
Practical:
Automatic: 100 (rd/min)[5]
Semi-auto: 40 (rd/min)[6]
Muzzle velocity 880–900 m/s (2,887–2,953 ft/s) (AK-74, AKS-74, AK-74M)[7][8]
735 m/s (2,411 ft/s) (AKS-74U)
Effective firing range 500 m (550 yd) ((AK-74, AKS-74, AK-74M point target)
800 m (870 yd) ((AK-74, AKS-74, AK-74M area target)[9]
Maximum firing range 3,150 m (3,440 yd)
Feed system 30-round or 45-round RPK-74 detachable box magazine
Sights Adjustable iron sights, front post and rear notch on a scaled tangent
Flip-up sight and front cylindrical post (AKS-74U)

The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s in the Soviet Union as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller intermediate cartridge, the 5.45×39mm, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons.

The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.[10] Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former USSR. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK) and Romania (PA md. 86).[10][11][12] Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.

The rifle was originally developed, in 1974, by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov.

History[edit]

The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the mujahadeen during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.[13]

Design details[edit]

The AK-74 is an adaptation of the 7.62×39mm AKM assault rifle and features several important design improvements.[10] These modifications were primarily the result of converting the rifle to the intermediate-caliber 5.45×39mm cartridge, in fact, some early models are reported to have been converted AKMs, re-barreled to 5.45×39mm.[14] The result is a more accurate and reliable rifle than the AKM.[10] The AK-74 and AKM share an approximate 50% parts commonality (interchangeable most often are pins, springs and screws).

Operating mechanism[edit]

The rifle’s operation during firing and reloading is identical to that of the AKM.[15] After ignition of the cartridge primer and propellant, rapidly expanding propellant gases are diverted into the gas cylinder above the barrel through a vent near the muzzle. The build-up of gases inside the gas cylinder drives the long-stroke piston and bolt carrier rearward and a cam guide machined into the underside of the bolt carrier along with an ejector spur on the bolt carrier rail guide, rotates the bolt approximately 35° and unlocks it from the barrel extension via a camming pin on the bolt. The moving assembly has about 5.5 mm (0.2 in) of free travel which creates a delay between the initial recoil impulse of the piston and the bolt unlocking sequence, allowing gas pressures to drop to a safe level before the seal between the chamber and the bolt is broken. Like previous Kalashnikov-pattern rifles, the AK-74 does not have a gas valve; excess gases are ventilated through a series of radial ports in the gas cylinder. Since the Kalashnikov operating system offers no primary extraction upon bolt rotation, the 5.45×39mm AK-74 bolt has a larger extractor claw than the 7.62×39mm AKM for increased extraction reliability.[16] Other minor modifications were made to the bolt and carrier assembly.

Barrel[edit]

An AK-74M muzzle device venting propellant gases

The rifle received a new barrel with a chrome-lined bore and 4 right-hand grooves at a 200 mm (1:7.87 in) rifling twist rate. The front sight base and gas block were redesigned. The gas block contains a gas channel that is installed at a 90° angle in relation to the bore axis. A pair of support brackets are cast into the gas block assembly and are used to attach a BG-15c or GP-25 under-slung 40 mm grenade launcher. Like the AK-47 and AKM, the muzzle is threaded for the installation of various muzzle devices such as the standard muzzle brake or a blank-firing adaptor, while a spring-loaded detent pin held in the front sight post prevents them from unscrewing while firing. The distinctive standard-issue muzzle brake features a large expansion chamber, two symmetrical vertical cuts at the forward end of the brake and three non symmetrical positioned vent holes to counteract muzzle rise and climb as well lateral shift to the right much like the AKM's offset muzzle brake. A flat plate near the end of the brake produces a forward thrust when emerging exhaust gases strike its surface, greatly reducing recoil. The muzzle brake prevents backblast from reaching the firer, although it is reported to be harsh on bystanders as the muzzle gases are dispersed to the sides.[17] The standard-issue AK-74 muzzle brake has been subtly revised several times since the 1970s,[18]

Sights[edit]

Iron sights[edit]

The AK-74 uses an adjustable notched rear tangent iron sight calibrated in 100 m (109 yd) increments from 100 to 1,000 m (109 to 1,094 yd). The front sight is a post adjustable for elevation in the field. Horizontal adjustment is done by the armory before issue. Due to the introduction of the 5.45×39mm cartridge the battle sight setting marked "П" on the AK-74 can be used for all ranges up to 400 m (437 yd), instead of the 7.62×39mm AK-47 and AKM's 300 m (328 yd).[19] The "point-blank range" battle zero setting "П" on the AK-74 rear tangent sight element corresponds to a 400 m (437 yd) zero.[20] For the AK-74 combined with the 7N6 or 7N10 service cartridges the 400 m battle zero setting limits the apparent "bullet rise" within approximately −5 to +40 cm (−2.0 to 15.7 in) relative to the line of sight. Soldiers are instructed to fire at any target within this range by simply placing the sights on the center of mass (the belt buckle) of the enemy target. Any errors in range estimation are tactically irrelevant, as a well-aimed shot will hit the torso of the enemy soldier.[19]

Optical sights[edit]

For the AK-74, the East German Zeiss ZFK 4×25, 1P29, PO 3.5×21P, and the 1P78 Kashtan dedicated side rail mounted optical sights were developed. These optical sights are primarily designed for rapid target acquisition and first round hits out to 400 m, but by various means these optical sights also offer bullet drop compensation (BDC) (sometimes referred to as ballistic elevation) for aiming at more distant targets. The BDC feature compensates for the effect of gravity on the bullet at given distances (referred to as "bullet drop") in flat fire scenarios. The feature must be tuned for the particular ballistic trajectory of a particular combination of gun and cartridge at a predefined muzzle velocity and air density. Since the usage of standardized ammunition is an important prerequisite to match the BDC feature to the external ballistic behaviour of the employed projectiles, these military optical sights are intended to assist with field shooting at varying medium to longer ranges rather than precise long range shots.

The standard Russian side rail mounted optical sight was the 4×26 1P29 Universal sight for small arms, an aiming optic similar to the British SUIT and SUSAT and Canadian C79 optical sights. When mounted the 1P29 sight is positioned centered above the receiver at a height that allows the use the iron sights. It weighs 0.8 kg, offers 4x magnification with a field of view of 8° and 35 mm eye relief. The 1P29 is issued with a canvas pouch, a lens cleaning cloth, combination tool, two rubber eyecups, two eyecup clamps and three different bullet drop compensation (BDC) cams for the AK-74, RPK-74 and PK machine gun. The 1P29 is intended for quickly engaging point and area targets at various ranges and is zeroed for both windage and elevation at 400 m (437 yd). On the right side of the field of view a stadiametric rangefinder is incorporated that can be used to determine the distance from a 1.5 meters (4 ft 11.1 in) tall object from 400 to 1,200 m (437 to 1,312 yd). The reticle is an inverted aiming post in the top half of the field of view and is tritium-illuminated for low-light condition aiming.[21][22][23]

The current Russian standard side rail mounted optical sight for the AK-74M is the 2.8×17 1P78 Kashtan, an aiming optic more similar to the American ACOG.[24] When mounted the 1P78 sight is positioned centered above the receiver. It weighs 0.5 kg, offers 2.8x magnification with a field of view of 13° and 32 mm eye relief. The 1P78 comes in several versions for the AK-74 (1P78-1), RPK-74 (1P78-2), AKM (1P78) and RPK (1P78-3). The 1P78 is intended for quickly engaging point and area targets at various ranges and is zeroed for both windage and elevation at 400 m (437 yd). A stadiametric rangefinder is incorporated that can be used to determine the distance for a soldier sized target from 400 to 700 m (437 to 766 yd). The reticle consist of a main 400 m "chevron" (^), a 500 m (547 yd) holdover dot and smaller additional holdover chevrons for 600 m (656 yd) and 700 m (766 yd) and is tritium-illuminated for low-light condition aiming.[25][26]

New features[edit]

The AK-74 stripped down to its major components.

The AK-74 was equipped with a new buttstock, handguard (which retained the AKM-type finger swells) and gas cylinder. The stock has a shoulder pad different from that on the AKM, which is rubber and serrated for improved grip. In addition, there are lightening cuts on each side of the buttstock. The buttstock, lower handguard and upper heatguard were first manufactured from laminated wood, this later changed to a synthetic (fiberglass) plum.

The AK-74 gas tube has a spring washer attached to its rear end designed to retain the gas tube more securely. The lower handguard is fitted with a leaf spring that reduces play in the rifle's lateral axis by keeping the wood tensioned between the receiver and the handguard retainer. The receiver remains nearly identical to that of the AKM; it is a 1 mm (0.04 in) thick sheet steel pressing supported extensively by pins and rivets. The internal guide rails on which the bolt carrier travels are stamped and spot welded to the inside of the receiver housing. Minor changes were made to the front barrel and rear stock trunnions as well as the magazine well. All external metal surfaces are coated with a glossy black enamel.

Magazines[edit]

The original AK-74 magazine was identical to that of the AKM, except for minor dimensional changes required by the 5.45×39mm cartridge. These rust-colored magazines are often mistakenly identified as being made of Bakelite (a phenolic resin), but were actually fabricated from a two-part glass-reinforced polyethylene plastic molding, assembled using an epoxy resin adhesive.[27] Noted for their durability, the magazines did however compromise the rifle's camouflage.[27] A new steel-reinforced dark-brown (newer magazines are black) 30-round magazine was introduced in the early 1980s, fabricated from ABS plastic. All AK-74 magazines have a raised horizontal rib on each side of the rear lug to prevent their use in a 7.62×39mm AK. The magazines can be quickly recharged from stripper clips. The empty weight of a 30-round AK-74 box magazine is 230 g (8.1 oz). The 45-round plastic box magazine of the RPK-74 light machine gun[28] are also interchangeable with that of the AK-74.

The transition to mainly plastic magazines and the relatively small sized, light weight, high velocity 5.45×39mm cartridge yielded a significant weight reduction and allow a soldier to carry considerably more rounds for the same weight compared to the previous Soviet AK-47 and AKM and later 7.62×39mm chambered AK platform assault rifles.

Rifle Cartridge Cartridge weight Weight of loaded magazine Max. 5,510 g (12.15 lb) ammunition load
AK-47 (1949) 7.62×39mm 16.3 g (252 gr) 30-round magazine @ 916 g (32.3 oz)[29] 6 magazines @ 5,496 g (12.117 lb) for 180 rounds
AKM (1957) 7.62×39mm 16.3 g (252 gr) 30-round magazine @ 819 g (28.9 oz)[30][31] 6 magazines @ 4,914 g (10.834 lb) for 180 rounds
AK-103 (1994) 7.62×39mm 16.3 g (252 gr) 30-round magazine @ 739 g (26.1 oz)[30][31] 7 magazines @ 5,173 g (11.405 lb) for 210 rounds
AK-74 (1974) 5.45×39mm 10.7 g (165 gr) 30-round magazine @ 551 g (19.4 oz)[31][32] 10 magazines @ 5,510 g (12.15 lb) for 300 rounds

Note: The 1949 pattern slab-sided steel AK-47 30-round 7.62×39mm box magazines had an empty weight of 430 g (15 oz). The 1957 pattern steel AKM magazines had lighter sheet-metal bodies with prominent reinforcing ribs weighing 330 g (12 oz). The current issue 7.62×39mm 30-round magazines have an empty weight of 250 g (8.8 oz) are backwards compatible to the older 7.62×39mm AK assault rifle variants and are made of steel-reinforced plastic similar to the AK-74 magazines.

North Korea has developed an ultra-high capacity magazine for bodyguards of Kim Jong-un. Photos show a large helical magazine, believed to contain between 75 and 150 rounds, attached to domestically-produced Type 88 or Type 98 rifles.[33]

Accessories[edit]

Accessories supplied with the rifle include a 6H4 or 6H5 type bayonet, a quick-loading device, three spare magazines, four 15-round stripper clips, maintenance kit, cleaning rod and sling. The bayonet is installed by slipping the muzzle ring around the flash hider and latching the handle down on the bayonet lug under the front sight base. The rifle fires the intermediate 5.45×39mm M74 rifle ammunition that includes the jacketed, steel-core 7N6 bullet, 7T3 tracer round and a blank cartridge. The ammunition was developed by a team of designers led by Victor Sabelnikov.

Variants[edit]

AKS-74[edit]

The AKS-74. Designed for airborne infantry and equipped with a folding shoulder stock.
A Russian marine on exercise with the AKS-74 variant with plum polymer furniture.

The AKS-74 ("S"—Russian: складной; Skladnoy, or "folding"), is a variant of the AK-74 equipped with a side-folding metal shoulder stock, designed primarily for use with air assault infantry and developed alongside the basic AK-74. Unlike the AKMS's somewhat fragile underfolding stock (modeled after the MP 40 submachine gun stock), the AKS-74 stock is fabricated from stamped sheet metal struts, machine pressed into a "U" shape and assembled by punch fit and welding. The stock has a triangular shape; it lacks the folding shoulder pad found on the AKMS stock and is folded to the left side of the receiver. The hinged stock is securely locked in its extended position by a spring-loaded button catch located at the rear of the receiver. When folded, the stock is held closed by a spring-loaded capture hook situated on the left side at the front of the receiver housing. A rear-mounted sling swivel is also provided on the right side at the beginning of the stock frame.

AKS-74U[edit]

A pair of AKS-74U carbines.
A Ukrainian Marine displaying an AKS-74U.

By Soviet TTT (тактико-технические требования) order number 008407 from 19.17.1973 a design competition (codenamed "Modern"—Модерн) was started for the adoption of a fully automatic carbine, no doubt inspired by observing the US experience in Vietnam with the XM177. The Soviet planners also drew from the unsolicited design AO-46 built in 1969 by Peter Andreevich Tkachev, which weighed only 1.9 kg. The TTT specifications required a weight no greater than 2.2 kg, a length of 75/45 cm with the stock unfolded/folded, and a muzzle velocity of at least 700 m/s. The competition was joined by designs of M.T. Kalashnikov (PP1), I.Y. Stechkin (TKB-0116), S.G. Simonov (AG-043), A.S. Konstantinov (AEK-958), and E.F. Dragunov (who called his model "MA"). Kalashnikov also presented an additional design (A1-75) which differed from PP1 by having a modified muzzle for flash and noise suppression. By 1977 the GRAU decided to adopt Kalashnikov's model, which was largely a shortened AKS-74, because it was no worse than the competition in terms of performance and promised significant production cost savings by utilizing existing equipment for the AK-74 line. A final round of large scale testing with Kalashinkov's model was performed by airborne divisions in the Transcaucasian Military District in March 1977. The AKS-74U ("U"—Russian: укороченный; Ukorochenniy, or "shortened") was officially adopted in 1979, and given the official, but seldom used GRAU designation 6P26.[34]

In terms of tactical deployment, the AKS-74U bridges the gap between a submachine gun and an assault rifle. It was intended for use mainly with special forces, airborne infantry, rear-echelon support units and armored vehicle crews. It is still used in these roles, but has been augmented by various submachine guns, and the AK-105. It is also commonly used by law enforcement; for example, each urban police foot patrol is issued at least one.

The rifle's compact dimensions, compared to the AKS-74, were achieved by using a short 210 mm (8.3 in) barrel (this forced designers to simultaneously reduce the gas piston operating rod to an appropriate length). In order to effectively stabilize projectiles, the barrel’s twist rate was increased from 200 mm (1:7.87 in) to 160 mm (1:6.3 in) to adapt the AKS-74U for muzzle velocities of 720 m/s (2,362 ft/s) and higher. A new gas block was installed at the muzzle end of the barrel with a muzzle booster, which features an internal expansion chamber inside the cylindrical section of the booster while the conical end acts as a nozzle to increase net pressure inside the gas chamber by supplying an increased amount of propellant gasses from the barrel. The chrome-lined muzzle booster also burns any remaining propellant which would normally reduce muzzle blast. However, due to the extremely short barrel and conical end of the booster, the muzzle blast is nevertheless extremely large and visible. The muzzle device locks into the gas block with a spring-loaded detent pin and features two parallel notches cut into the edge of the flash hider cone, used for unscrewing it using the cleaning rod stored under the barrel. The forward sling loop was relocated to the left side of the carbine and the front sight was integrated into the gas block.

The AKS-74U also has a different sighting system with a U-shaped flip sight instead of the standard sliding notch rear sight. This sight has two settings: "P" (calibrated for firing at 350 m) and "4–5" (used for firing at distances between 400–500 m). The rear sight is housed in a semi-shrouded protective enclosure that is riveted to the receiver's spring-loaded top cover. This top cover hinges from the barrel trunnion, pivoting forward when opened, which also works to unlock the gas tube cover. Both the gas tube and handguard are also of a new type and are shorter than the analogous parts in the AKS-74.

The AKS-74U is significantly more maneuverable in tight quarters than the AKS-74; however, the significant decline in muzzle velocity from 900 m/s (2,953 ft/s) to 735 m/s (2,411 ft/s) resulted in a decrease in effective range (the effective hitting distance for a "running"-type silhouette target was reduced from 625 m (684 yd) to 350 m (383 yd). The carbine cannot mount a bayonet or standard under-barrel grenade launcher. However, a suppressed 30 mm BS-1 grenade launcher was developed specifically for that platform that fires a high-explosive dual purpose (HEDP) grenade. The grenades for the BS-1 are launched by special blank cartridges that are inserted into the grenade launcher via a detachable magazine. The majority of AKS-74U carbines were manufactured at the Tula Arms Factory rather than Izhmash. The AKS-74U was also used as the basis for several other unique weapons, including the bullpup OTs-14 Groza specialist carbine which is now in limited service in the Russian military, and the Gepard series of multi-caliber submachine guns (none of which evolved past prototype stage).

In the United States, the AKS-74U is called a "Krinkov". The origin of this term is uncertain. A hypothesis was circulating that the name came from the mujahadeen who supposedly had captured a high-ranking Soviet officer armed with an AKS-74U, and that they had named it after him. However, investigation by Patrick Sweeney could not confirm this hypothesis, for no Soviet officer with a resembling name was captured in Afghanistan.[35] US journalist C. J. Chivers reported that the gun was nicknamed "the Osama" in Jihadist circles, after Osama bin Laden was photographed next to an AKS-74U.[13]

Specialized variants[edit]

The AK-74 is also available in several "night-fighting" configurations, equipped with a side-rail used to mount night vision sights (these variants, the AK-74N, AKS-74N and AKS-74UN are used in conjunction with NSPU and NSPUM sights). The AKS-74UB ("B"—Russian: бесшумный; Besshumniy or "silent") is a sound-suppressed variant of the AKS-74U adapted for use with the PBS-4 suppressor (used in combination with subsonic 5.45×39mm Russian ammunition).[36] Very little is known about this model.

AK-74M[edit]

AK-74M
AK-74M with GP-34 grenade launcher

In 1991 the Izhmash factory in the city of Izhevsk began full scale production of a modernized variant of the AK-74—the AK-74M (M—Russian: Модернизированный; Modernizirovanniy or "modernized") assault rifle that offers more versatility compared to its predecessor. Apart from several minor production improvements, such as a lightened bolt and carrier assembly, the rifle features a new synthetic stock made from a black, glass-filled polyamide that is shaped like the AK-74 fixed stock, but also side-folds like in the AKS-74. Additionally the AK-74M features an improved muzzle device, a reinforced smooth dust cover and a redesigned guide rod return spring retainer that allows firing the GP-25, GP-30 and GP-34 under-slung grenade launchers without having to use the previously necessary additional receiver cover fastener. Each AK-74M is fitted with a side-rail bracket for mounting optics. The AK-74M would have been adopted by the Soviet Union as the standard service rifle, and has been accepted as the new service rifle of the Russian Federation with some AK-74Ms featuring a Picatinny rail for easier mounting of optics.

AK-100 series[edit]

The AK-74M was also the basis for the new Russian AK-100 family of Kalashnikov firearms: the 5.56 mm AK-101 assault rifle and 5.56 mm AK-102 carbine (both use the NATO-standard 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge), 7.62 mm AK-103 assault rifle and 7.62 mm AK-104 (both chambered for the 7.62×39mm M43 round) and the 5.45 mm AK-105 carbine (adapted to use 5.45×39mm M74 ammunition). The AK-101, 102, 103 and 104 are destined primarily for export, while the AK-105 is slated to replace the AKS-74U with the Russian Armed Forces. Additionally, the AK-107 (5.45×39mm M74) and AK-108 (5.56×45mm NATO) rifles have a balanced recoil system to reduce felt recoil and muzzle rise. This balanced recoil system is derived from the AEK-971 rifle.

AK-12[edit]

AK-12

In 2010 a new variant, the AK-12 series, was unveiled. It differs in weight, introduces a new recoil compensation technology, and has improved ergonomics. The rear iron sight is rail-mounted and is moved all the way to the back of the upper receiver for enhanced accuracy, and the full top length of the weapon is covered in a Picatinny rail for easy mounting of accessories such as aftermarket iron sights and optics while the handguard has Picatinny rails on both sides and on its underside for mounting of tactical lights, laser sights and grenade launchers. Minor flaws in the design unveiled in preliminary testing coupled with a lack of interest from top officials resulted in the AK-12 being passed over. The AK-74M remains the standard service rifle of the Russian Federation.

Users[edit]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d http://world.guns.ru/assault/as02-e.htm
  2. ^ militaryparitet.com (Russian)
  3. ^ http://world.guns.ru/assault/rus/ak-74-e.html
  4. ^ Izhmash—manufacturer's website 5.45 mm Kalashnikov assault rifles AK74M, AK105
  5. ^ http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/weg2001.pdf OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, Sep 2001, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, TRADOC DCSINT, Threat Support Directorate, 700 Scott Avenue, Bldg 53, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS, 66027-1323, page 1-3
  6. ^ http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/weg2001.pdf OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, Sep 2001, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, TRADOC DCSINT, Threat Support Directorate, 700 Scott Avenue, Bldg 53, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS, 66027-1323, page 1-3
  7. ^ http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/weg2001.pdf OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, Sep 2001, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, TRADOC DCSINT, Threat Support Directorate, 700 Scott Avenue, Bldg 53, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS, 66027-1323, page 1-3
  8. ^ Izhmash—manufacturer's website 5.45 mm Kalashnikov assault rifles AK74M, AK105
  9. ^ http://fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/row/weg2001.pdf OPFOR Worldwide Equipment Guide, Sep 2001, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, TRADOC DCSINT, Threat Support Directorate, 700 Scott Avenue, Bldg 53, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KS, 66027-1323, page 1-3
  10. ^ a b c d Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001.
  11. ^ Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.
  12. ^ McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001.
  13. ^ a b C. J. Chivers (12 October 2010). The Gun. Simon & Schuster. pp. 382–383. ISBN 978-1-4391-9653-3. Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  14. ^ Kokalis, Peter: Weapons Tests And Evaluations: The Best Of Soldier Of Fortune, page 45. Paladin Press, 2001.
  15. ^ Woźniak, 26
  16. ^ Kokalis, 46
  17. ^ Hogg, Ian & Weeks, John. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century, 7th Edition Krause Publications. (2000) ISBN 0-87341-824-7.
  18. ^ AK-74 Muzzle Brakes/Compensators
  19. ^ a b Gordon Rottman (24 May 2011). The AK-47: Kalashnikov-series Assault Rifles. Osprey Publishing. pp. 42–. ISBN 978-1-84908-835-0. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  20. ^ Using a 400 meter zero with 5.45x39
  21. ^ 1P29 4.0x Magnification. Russianoptics.net
  22. ^ 1P29 Universal sight for small arms NPZ Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant
  23. ^ Image collection of 1P29 sights
  24. ^ Dedicated 5.45x39 Optics
  25. ^ 1P78 Kashtan 2.8x Magnification. Russianoptics.net
  26. ^ 1P78 rifle sight NPZ Novosibirsk Instrument-Making Plant
  27. ^ a b Kokalis, 49
  28. ^ http://home.comcast.net/~shooter2_indy/ak74_mag_guide.html
  29. ^ Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102. ISBN 0-425-21750-7. 
  30. ^ a b "Ak 47 Technical Description - Manual". Scribd.com. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  31. ^ a b c Dockery, Kevin (2007). Future Weapons. p. 102.
  32. ^ "Официальный сайт группы предприятий "ИЖМАШ"". Izhmash.ru. 2001-09-02. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  33. ^ North Korea Ultra High Capacity Helical AK Magazines. Thefirearmblog.com, March 10, 2013
  34. ^ Monetchikov, pp. 165-177
  35. ^ Patrick Sweeney. The Gun Digest Book of the AK & SKS: A Complete Guide to Guns, Gear and Ammunition. Gun Digest Books. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-89689-678-9. 
  36. ^ Cutshaw, 19-20
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
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  42. ^ http://www.greekmilitary.net/cypriottroops.html
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  45. ^ Marchington, James (2004). The Encyclopedia of Handheld Weapons. Lewis International, Inc. ISBN 1-930983-14-X.

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