|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
AKB48 (APINACA, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide) is a drug that acts as a reasonably potent agonist for the cannabinoid receptors, with a Ki of 304.5nM and a EC50 of 585nM at CB1. It had never previously been reported in the scientific or patent literature, and was first identified by laboratories in Japan in March 2012 as an ingredient in synthetic cannabis smoking blends, along with a related compound APICA. Structurally it closely resembles cannabinoid compounds from patent WO 2003/035005 but with a simple pentyl chain on the indazole 1-position, and AKB48 falls within the claims of this patent despite not being disclosed as an example. AKB48 was made illegal in Japan in 2012, and was banned as a temporary class drug in New Zealand from 13 July 2012. It has been banned in Latvia since 14 November 2013. The DEA announced its intent to schedule 16 May 2013. 
A forensic standard of AKB48 is available, and the compound has been posted on the Forendex website of potential drugs of abuse.
- Uchiyama, N.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "URB-754: A new class of designer drug and 12 synthetic cannabinoids detected in illegal products". Forensic Science International 227 (1–3): 21–32. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.08.047. PMID 23063179.
- Uchiyama, N.; Kawamura, M.; Kikura-Hanajiri, R.; Goda, Y. (2012). "Identification of two new-type synthetic cannabinoids, N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indole-3-carboxamide (APICA) and N-(1-adamantyl)-1-pentyl-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide (APINACA), and detection of five synthetic cannabinoids, AM-1220, AM-2233, AM-1241, CB-13 (CRA-13), and AM-1248, as designer drugs in illegal products". Forensic Toxicology 30 (2): 114. doi:10.1007/s11419-012-0136-7.
- "Designation of "Shitei Yakubutsu" (designated substances) based on the provision of the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (1960, Law No.145)" (PDF).
- "Temporary Class Drug Notice". Department of Internal Affairs. New Zealand. 5 July 2012.
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