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Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase)
Aldose reductase 1us0.png
PDB rendering based on 1us0.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols AKR1B1 ; ADR; ALDR1; ALR2; AR
External IDs OMIM103880 MGI1353494 HomoloGene133743 IUPHAR: 2768 ChEMBL: 1900 GeneCards: AKR1B1 Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE AKR1B1 201272 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 231 11677
Ensembl ENSG00000085662 ENSMUSG00000001642
UniProt P15121 P45376
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001628 NM_009658
RefSeq (protein) NP_001619 NP_033788
Location (UCSC) Chr 7:
134.13 – 134.14 Mb
Chr 6:
34.3 – 34.32 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase), also known as AR, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AKR1B1 gene.[1][2]


This gene encodes a member of the aldo/keto reductase superfamily, which consists of more than 40 known enzymes and proteins. This member catalyzes the reduction of a number of aldehydes, including the aldehyde form of glucose, and is thereby implicated in the development of diabetic complications by catalyzing the reduction of glucose to sorbitol.[2]


There are a few putative pseudogenes for this gene, and one of them has been confirmed and mapped to chromosome 3.[2]


  1. ^ Graham A, Heath P, Morten JE, Markham AF (March 1991). "The human aldose reductase gene maps to chromosome region 7q35". Hum. Genet. 86 (5): 509–14. doi:10.1007/BF00194644. PMID 1901827. 
  2. ^ a b c "Entrez Gene: AKR1B1 aldo-keto reductase family 1, member B1 (aldose reductase)". 

Further reading[edit]

  • Borhani DW, Harter TM, Petrash JM (1992). "The crystal structure of the aldose reductase.NADPH binary complex.". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (34): 24841–7. PMID 1447221. 
  • Wilson DK, Bohren KM, Gabbay KH, Quiocho FA (1992). "An unlikely sugar substrate site in the 1.65 A structure of the human aldose reductase holoenzyme implicated in diabetic complications.". Science 257 (5066): 81–4. doi:10.1126/science.1621098. PMID 1621098. 
  • Graham A, Heath P, Morten JE, Markham AF (1991). "The human aldose reductase gene maps to chromosome region 7q35.". Hum. Genet. 86 (5): 509–14. doi:10.1007/BF00194644. PMID 1901827. 
  • Graham A, Brown L, Hedge PJ et al. (1991). "Structure of the human aldose reductase gene.". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (11): 6872–7. PMID 1901857. 
  • Grundmann U, Bohn H, Obermeier R, Amann E (1990). "Cloning and prokaryotic expression of a biologically active human placental aldose reductase.". DNA Cell Biol. 9 (3): 149–57. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.149. PMID 2111143. 
  • Nishimura C, Matsuura Y, Kokai Y et al. (1990). "Cloning and expression of human aldose reductase.". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (17): 9788–92. PMID 2112546. 
  • Morjana NA, Lyons C, Flynn TG (1989). "Aldose reductase from human psoas muscle. Affinity labeling of an active site lysine by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate and pyridoxal 5'-diphospho-5'-adenosine.". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (5): 2912–9. PMID 2492527. 
  • Bohren KM, Bullock B, Wermuth B, Gabbay KH (1989). "The aldo-keto reductase superfamily. cDNAs and deduced amino acid sequences of human aldehyde and aldose reductases.". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (16): 9547–51. PMID 2498333. 
  • Chung S, LaMendola J (1989). "Cloning and sequence determination of human placental aldose reductase gene.". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (25): 14775–7. PMID 2504709. 
  • Graham A, Hedge PJ, Powell SJ et al. (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of cDNA for human aldose reductase". Nucleic Acids Res. 17 (20): 8368. doi:10.1093/nar/17.20.8368. PMC 334974. PMID 2510130. 
  • Akagi Y, Kador PF, Kuwabara T, Kinoshita JH (1984). "Aldose reductase localization in human retinal mural cells". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 24 (11): 1516–9. PMID 6417042. 
  • Ko BC, Lam KS, Wat NM, Chung SS (1995). "An (A-C)n dinucleotide repeat polymorphic marker at the 5' end of the aldose reductase gene is associated with early-onset diabetic retinopathy in NIDDM patients". Diabetes 44 (7): 727–32. doi:10.2337/diabetes.44.7.727. PMID 7789640. 
  • Wilson DK, Tarle I, Petrash JM, Quiocho FA (1993). "Refined 1.8 A structure of human aldose reductase complexed with the potent inhibitor zopolrestat". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90 (21): 9847–51. doi:10.1073/pnas.90.21.9847. PMC 47669. PMID 8234324. 
  • Tarle I, Borhani DW, Wilson DK et al. (1994). "Probing the active site of human aldose reductase. Site-directed mutagenesis of Asp-43, Tyr-48, Lys-77, and His-110". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (34): 25687–93. PMID 8245005. 
  • Robinson B, Hunsaker LA, Stangebye LA, Vander Jagt DL (1994). "Aldose and aldehyde reductases from human kidney cortex and medulla". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1203 (2): 260–6. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(93)90092-6. PMID 8268209. 
  • Jaquinod M, Potier N, Klarskov K et al. (1994). "Sequence of pig lens aldose reductase and electrospray mass spectrometry of non-covalent and covalent complexes". Eur. J. Biochem. 218 (3): 893–903. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb18445.x. PMID 8281941. 
  • Liu SQ, Bhatnagar A, Ansari NH, Srivastava SK (1993). "Identification of the reactive cysteine residue in human placenta aldose reductase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1164 (3): 268–72. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(93)90258-S. PMID 8343525. 
  • Nishimura C, Furue M, Ito T et al. (1993). "Quantitative determination of human aldose reductase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunoassay of human aldose reductase". Biochem. Pharmacol. 46 (1): 21–8. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(93)90343-U. PMID 8347133. 
  • Sato S, Lin LR, Reddy VN, Kador PF (1993). "Aldose reductase in human retinal pigment epithelial cells". Exp. Eye Res. 57 (2): 235–41. doi:10.1006/exer.1993.1119. PMID 8405190. 
  • Ferraretto A, Negri A, Giuliani A et al. (1993). "Aldose reductase is involved in long-term adaptation of EUE cells to hyperosmotic stress". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1175 (3): 283–8. doi:10.1016/0167-4889(93)90218-E. PMID 8435445.