American Library Association

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American Library Association
Ala logo.svg
ALA Logo
Abbreviation ALA
Formation 1876
Type Non-profit
NGO
Purpose "To provide leadership for the development, promotion and improvement of library and information services and the profession of librarianship in order to enhance learning and ensure access to information for all."[1]
Headquarters Chicago, Illinois
Location Chicago, Illinois and Washington, DC
Region served
United States
Membership 59,675[2]
Keith Michael Fiels
Barbara Stripling
Budget $33.5 million[3]
Staff approx. 300
Website American Library Association

The American Library Association (ALA) is a non-profit organization based in the United States that promotes libraries and library education internationally. It is the oldest and largest library association in the world,[4] with more than 62,000 members.[5]

History[edit]

Founded by Justin Winsor, Charles Ammi Cutter, Samuel S. Green, James L. Whitney, Melvil Dewey (Melvil Dui), Fred B. Perkins, Charles Evans, and Thomas W. Bicknell in 1876 in Philadelphia and chartered[6] in 1879 in Massachusetts, its head office is now in Chicago.

During the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, 103 librarians, 90 men and 13 women, responded to a call for a "Convention of Librarians" to be held October 4–6 at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. At the end of the meeting, according to Ed Holley in his essay "ALA at 100," "the register was passed around for all to sign who wished to become charter members," making October 6, 1876 to be ALA's birthday. In attendance were 90 men and 13 women, among them Justin Winsor (Boston Public, Harvard), William Frederick Poole (Chicago Public, Newberry), Charles Ammi Cutter (Boston Athenaeum), Melvil Dewey, and Richard Rogers Bowker. Attendees came from as far west as Chicago and from England.[citation needed] The aim of the Association, in that resolution, was "to enable librarians to do their present work more easily and at less expense."[7] The Association has worked throughout its history to define, extend, protect and advocate for equity of access to information.[8]

Library activists in the 1930s pressured the American Library Association to be more responsive to issues put forth by young members involved with issues such as peace, segregation, library unions and intellectual freedom. In 1931, the Junior Members Round Table (JMRT) was formed to provide a voice for the younger members of the ALA, but much of what they had to say resurfaced in the social responsibility movement to come years later.[9] During this period, the first Library Bill of Rights (LBR) was drafted by Forrest Spaulding to set a standard against censorship and was adopted by the ALA in 1939. This has been recognized as the moment defining modern librarianship as a profession committed to intellectual freedom and the right to read over government dictates.[10] The ALA formed the Staff Organization's Round Table in 1936 and the Library Unions Round Table in 1940.

The ALA appointed a committee to study censorship and recommend policy after the banning of The Grapes of Wrath and the implementation of the LBR. The committee reported in 1940 that intellectual freedom and professionalism were linked and recommended a permanent committee – Committee on Intellectual Freedom.[11] The ALA made revisions to strengthen the LBR in June 1948, approved the Statement on Labeling in 1951 to discourage labeling material as subversive, and adopted the Freedom to Read Statement and the Overseas Library Statement in 1953.[11]

In 1961, the ALA took a stand regarding service to African Americans and others, advocating for equal library service for all. An amendment was passed to the LBR in 1961 that made clear that an individual's library use should not be denied or abridged because of race, religion, national origin, or political views. Some communities decided to close their doors rather than desegregate.[12] In 1963, the ALA commissioned a study, Access to Public Libraries, which found direct and indirect discrimination in American libraries.[13]

In 1967 some librarians protested against a pro-Vietnam War speech given by General Maxwell D. Taylor at the annual ALA conference in San Francisco; the former president of Sarah Lawrence College, Harold Taylor, spoke to the Middle-Atlantic Regional Library Conference about socially responsible professionalism; and less than one year later a group of librarians proposed that the ALA schedule a new round table program discussion on the social responsibilities of librarians at its next annual conference in Kansas City. This group called themselves the Organizing Committee for the ALA Round Table on Social Responsibilities of Libraries. This group drew in many other under-represented groups in the ALA who lacked power, including the Congress for Change in 1969.[14] This formation of the committee was approved in 1969 and would change its name to the Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) in 1971). After its inception, the Round Table of Social Responsibilities began to press ALA leadership to address issues such as library unions, working conditions, wages, and intellectual freedom. The Freedom to Read Foundation was created by ALA's Executive Board in 1969.[15] The Black Caucus of the ALA and the Office for Literacy and Outreach were set up in 1970.[16]

In June 1990, the ALA approved “Policy on Library Services to the Poor” and in 1996 the Task Force on Hunger Homelessness, and Poverty was formed to resurrect and promote the ALA guidelines on library services to the poor.[17]

The ALA archival materials, non-current records, are currently held in the University of Illinois archives.[18] These materials can only be used at the University of Illinois.

American Library Association conference, New Monterey Hotel, Asbury Park, New Jersey, June 25, 1919 (Library of Congress)

Membership[edit]

ALA membership is open to any person or organization, though most of its members are libraries or librarians. Most members live and work in the United States, with international members comprising 3.5% of total membership.[19]

Governing structure[edit]

Camila Alire, 2009–2010 President of the ALA

The ALA is governed by an elected council and an executive board. Since 2002, Keith Michael Fiels has been the ALA executive director (CEO).[20] Policies and programs are administered by various committees and round tables. One of the organization's most visible tasks is overseen by the Office for Accreditation, which formally reviews and authorizes American and Canadian academic institutions that offer degree programs in library and information science. The ALA's current President is Molly Raphael (2011–2012).[21] Notable past presidents of the ALA include Theresa Elmendorf, its first female president (1911–1912),[22] Clara Stanton Jones, its first African-American president (1976–1977),[23] Loriene Roy, its first Native American president (2007–2008),[24][25] Michael Gorman (2005-6), and Roberta Stevens.[26] (See List of presidents of the American Library Association.)

Activities[edit]

The official purpose of the association is "to promote library service and librarianship." Members may join one or more of eleven membership divisions that deal with specialized topics such as academic, school, or public libraries, technical or reference services, and library administration. Members may also join any of seventeen round tables that are grouped around more specific interests and issues than the broader set of ALA divisions.

Notable divisions[edit]

Notable offices[edit]

  • Office of Intellectual Freedom (OIF)
  • Office for Accreditation (OA)
  • Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS)
  • Office for Information Technology Policy (OITP)

Notable sub-organizations[edit]

In 1970, the ALA founded the first lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender professional organization, called the "Task Force on Gay Liberation", now known as the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Round Table or GLBT Round Table.[28][29] In the early 1970s, the Task Force on Gay Liberation campaigned to have books about the gay liberation movement at the Library of Congress reclassified from HQ 71–471 (“Abnormal Sexual Relations, Including Sexual Crimes”). In 1972, after receiving a letter requesting the reclassification, the Library of Congress agreed to make the shift, reclassifying those books into a newly created category, HQ 76.5 (“Homosexuality, Lesbianism—Gay Liberation Movement, Homophile Movement”). In 2010, the GLBT Round Table announced a new committee, the Over the Rainbow Committee. This committee annually compiles a bibliography of books that show the GLBT community in a favorable light and reflects the interests of adults. The bibliographies provide guidance to libraries in the selection of positive GLBT materials.[30]

On July 23, 1976, the Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship was established as a Council Committee of the ALA on recommendation of the Ad Hoc Committee with the same name (which had been appointed by the President of the ALA in December 1975) and of the Committee on Organization. The Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship works to "officially represent the diversity of women's interest within ALA and to ensure that the Association considers the rights of the majority (women) in the library field; to promote and initiate the collection, analysis, dissemination, and coordination of information on the status of women in librarianship; to coordinate the activities of ALA units which consider questions of special relevance for women; to identify lags, gaps, and possible discrimination in resources and programs relating to women; in cooperation with other ALA units, to help develop and evaluate tools, guidelines, and programs designed to enhance the opportunities and the image of women in the library profession, thus raising the level of consciousness concerning women; to establish contacts with committees on women within other professional groups and to officially represent ALA concerns at interdisciplinary meetings on women's equality; and to provide Council and Membership with reports needed for establishment of policies and actions related to the status of women in librarianship; and to monitor ALA units to ensure consideration of the rights of women." [31][32] In 1979 the Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship received the Bailey K. Howard - World Book Encyclopedia - ALA Goal Award to develop a profile of ALA personal members, known as the COSWL Study. In 1980 the Committee on the Status of Women in Librarianship was awarded the J. Morris Jones - World Book Encyclopedia - ALA Goals Award with the OLPR Advisory Committee to undertake a special project on equal pay for work of equal value.[32]

National outreach[edit]

The ALA is affiliated with regional, state, and student chapters across the country. It organizes conferences, participates in library standards development, and publishes a number of books and periodicals. The ALA publishes the magazines American Libraries and Booklist. Along with other organizations, it sponsors the annual Banned Books Week the last week of September. Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA) also sponsors Teen Read Week, the third week of each October, and Teen Tech Week, the second week of each March. In addition, the ALA helps to promote diversity in the library profession with various outreach activities, including the Spectrum Scholarship program, which awards academic scholarships to minority library students each year.[33]

Awards[edit]

Main article: List of ALA awards

The ALA annually confers numerous book and media awards, primarily through its children's and young adult divisions (others are the Dartmouth Medal, Coretta Scott King Awards, Schneider Book Awards, and Stonewall Book Award).

The children's division ALSC administers the Caldecott Medal, Newbery Medal, Batchelder Award, Belpré Awards, Geisel Award, and Sibert Medal, all annual book awards;[34] the Odyssey Award for best audiobook (joint with YALSA), and the (U.S.) Carnegie Medal and for best video. There are also two ALSC lifetime recognitions, the Wilder Medal and the Arbuthnot Lecture.

The young-adult division YALSA administers the Margaret Edwards Award for significant and lasting contribution to YA literature, a lifetime recognition of one author annually, and some annual awards that recognize particular works: the Michael L. Printz Award for a YA book judged on literary merit alone, the William C. Morris Award for an author's first YA book, the new "YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults", and the "Alex Award" list of ten adult books having special appeal for teens. Jointly with the children's division ALSC there is the Odyssey Award for excellence in audiobook production.[35]

The award for YA nonfiction was inaugurated in 2012, defined by ages 12 to 18 and publication year November 2010 to October 2011. The first winner was The Notorious Benedict Arnold: A True Story of Adventure, Heroism & Treachery by Steve Sheinkin (Roaring Brook Press, November 2010) and four other finalists were named.[36][37]

Beside the Alex Awards, ALA disseminates some annual lists of "Notable" and "Best" books and other media.

The annual awards roster includes the John Cotton Dana Award for excellence in library public relations.

In 2000 the Office for Literacy and Outreach Services (OLOS) launched the Jean E. Coleman Library Outreach Lecture in tribute to the work of the first OLOS director, Dr. Jean E. Coleman. Barbara J. Ford gave the inaugural lecture, "Libraries, Literacy, Outreach and the Digital Divide."

Since 2006, the ALA has selected a class of Emerging Leaders, typically comprising about 100 librarians and library school students. This minor distinction is a form of organizational outreach to new librarians. The Emerging Leaders are allocated to project groups tasked with developing solutions to specified problems within ALA divisions. The class meets at the ALA Midwinter and Annual Meetings, commonly January and June. Project teams may present posters of their completed projects at the Annual.[38]

Conferences[edit]

The ALA and its divisions hold numerous conferences throughout the year. The two largest conferences are the annual conference and the midwinter meeting. The latter is typically held in January and focused on internal business, while the annual conference is typically held in June and focused on exhibits and presentations. The ALA annual conference is notable for being one of the largest professional conferences in existence, typically drawing over 25,000 attendees.[39]

Political positions[edit]

ALA Seal

The ALA advocates positions on United States political issues that it believes are related to libraries and librarianship. For court cases that touch on issues about which the organization holds positions, the ALA often files amici curiae briefs, voluntarily offering information on some aspect of the case to assist the court in deciding a matter before it. The ALA has an office in Washington, D.C., that lobbies Congress on issues relating to libraries, information and communication. It also provides materials to libraries that may include information on how to apply for grants, how to comply with the law, and how to oppose a law.[40]

Intellectual freedom[edit]

The primary documented expressions of the ALA's intellectual freedom principles are the Freedom to Read Statement[41] and the Library Bill of Rights; the Library Bill of Rights urges libraries to "challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment."[42] The ALA Code of Ethics also calls on librarians to "uphold the principles of intellectual freedom and resist all efforts to censor library resources."[43]

The ALA maintains an Office for Intellectual Freedom (OIF) headed by Barbara M. Jones, former University Librarian for Wesleyan University and internationally known intellectual freedom advocate and author.[44] She is the second director of the Office for Intellectual Freedom, succeeding Judith Krug, who headed the office for four decades. OIF is charged with "implementing ALA policies concerning the concept of intellectual freedom,"[45] that the ALA defines as "the right of every individual to both seek and receive information from all points of view without restriction. It provides for free access to all expressions of ideas through which any and all sides of a question, cause or movement may be explored."[46] Its goal is "to educate librarians and the general public about the nature and importance of intellectual freedom in libraries." [45] The OIF compiles lists of challenged books as reported in the media and submitted to them by librarians across the country.[47]

In 1950, the Intellectual Freedom Committee, the forerunner of the OIF, investigated the termination of Ruth W. Brown as librarian of the Bartlesville Public Library, a position she held in the Oklahoma town for 30 years. Brown's termination was based on the false allegation that she was a communist and that she had as part of the library's serials collection two left wing publications, The New Republic and The Nation. The ALA support for her and the subsequent legal case was the first such investigation undertaken by the ALA or one of its state chapters.[48]

In 1999, radio personality Laura Schlessinger campaigned publicly against the ALA's intellectual freedom policy, specifically in regard to the ALA's refusal to remove a link on its web site to a specific sex-education site for teens.[49] Sharon Priestly said, however, that Schlessinger "distorted and misrepresented the ALA stand to make it sound like the ALA was saying porno for 'children' is O.K."[50]

In 2002, the ALA filed suit with library users and the ACLU against the United States Children's Internet Protection Act (CIPA), which required libraries receiving federal E-rate discounts for Internet access to install a "technology protection measure" to prevent children from accessing "visual depictions that are obscene, child pornography, or harmful to minors."[51] At trial, the federal district court struck down the law as unconstitutional.[52] The government appealed this decision, and on June 23, 2003, the Supreme Court of the United States upheld the law as constitutional as a condition imposed on institutions in exchange for government funding. In upholding the law, the Supreme Court, adopting the interpretation urged by the U.S. Solicitor General at oral argument, made it clear that the constitutionality of CIPA would be upheld only "if, as the Government represents, a librarian will unblock filtered material or disable the Internet software filter without significant delay on an adult user's request."[53]

Privacy[edit]

In 2003, the ALA passed a resolution opposing the USA PATRIOT Act, which called sections of the law "a present danger to the constitutional rights and privacy rights of library users".[54] Since then, the ALA and its members have sought to change the law by working with members of Congress and educating their communities and the press about the law's potential to violate the privacy rights of library users. ALA has also participated as an amicus curiae in lawsuits filed by individuals challenging the constitutionality of the USA PATRIOT Act, including a lawsuit filed by four Connecticut librarians after the library consortium they managed was served with a National Security Letter seeking information about library users.[55] After several months of litigation, the lawsuit was dismissed when the FBI decided to withdraw the National Security Letter.[56] In 2007 the "Connecticut Four" were honored by the ALA with the Paul Howard Award for Courage for their challenge to the National Security Letter and gag order provision of the USA PATRIOT Act.[57]

In 2006, the ALA sold humorous "radical militant librarian" buttons for librarians to wear in support of the ALA's stances on intellectual freedom, privacy, and civil liberties.[58] Inspiration for the button’s design came from documents obtained from the FBI by the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) through a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request. The request revealed a series of e-mails in which FBI agents complained about the "radical, militant librarians" while criticizing the reluctance of FBI management to use the secret warrants authorized under Section 215 of the USA PATRIOT Act.[59]

Copyright[edit]

The ALA "supports efforts to amend the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) and urges the courts to restore the balance in copyright law, ensure fair use and protect and extend the public domain".[60] It supports changing copyright law to eliminate damages when using orphan works without permission;[61] is wary of digital rights management; and, in ALA v. FCC, successfully sued the Federal Communications Commission to prevent regulation that would enforce next-generation digital televisions to contain rights-management hardware. It has joined the Information Access Alliance to promote open access to research.[62] The Copyright Advisory Network of the Association's Office for Information Technology Policy provides copyright resources to libraries and the communities they serve. The ALA is a member of the Library Copyright Alliance, along with the Association of Research Libraries and the Association of College and Research Libraries, which provides a unified voice for over 300,000 information professionals in the United States.[63]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.ala.org/aboutala/missionhistory/mission
  2. ^ http://www.ala.org/membership/membershipstats_files/annual_memb_stats
  3. ^ http://www.ala.org/aboutala/governance/annualreport/annualreport/financials/financials
  4. ^ "American Library Association - MSN Encarta". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  5. ^ "Report to Council and Executive Board," by ALA Executive Director Keith Michael Fiels, EBD#12.36 2009-2010, 18 June 2010 (misdated as 18 June 2009). "Overall ALA Membership as of May 2010 stands at 62,251."
  6. ^ (ALA Charter)
  7. ^ http://www.ala.org/aboutala/missionhistory/history
  8. ^ "Rocks in the Whirlpool: Equity of Access and the American Library Association". | Submitted to the Executive Board of the American Library Association June 14, 2002.| ERIC (Education Resources Information Center)| ED462981| Retrieved December 21, 2011
  9. ^ (Samek, 2001, p. 7
  10. ^ (Robbins, 1996, p. 166)
  11. ^ a b (McCook, 2011, p. 63)
  12. ^ Rubin, R. E. (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman, p.294
  13. ^ (McCook, 2011, p. 55)
  14. ^ (Samek, 2001, pp. 67–8)
  15. ^ (Samek, 2001, p. 69)
  16. ^ (Rubin, 2004, p. 296)
  17. ^ (Berman, 2001, p. 12)
  18. ^ "ALA Archives". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  19. ^ "ALA International Member Survey". ALA. Retrieved 2006-11-14. 
  20. ^ "Keith Michael Fiels named ALA's new Executive Director" (Press release). ALA. 2002-04-22. Retrieved 2006-11-14. 
  21. ^ "Molly Raphael inaugurated 2011 ALA President". American Library Association. June 29, 2011. 
  22. ^ http://www.libraryhistorybuff.com/hall-of-fame-wi.htm
  23. ^ McCook, Kathleen de la Peña. Women of Color in Librarianship, Chicago: American Library Association, 1998
  24. ^ http://www.ala.org/Template.cfm?Section=news&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=125170
  25. ^ http://www.ebscohost.com/public/the-american-indian-experience
  26. ^ "Roberta Stevens elected ALA President for 2010-2011". ALA. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  27. ^ Home page. ALA Editions. Retrieved on January 29, 2011.
  28. ^ "Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgendered Round Table (GLBTRT)". ALA. Archived from the original on 16 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  29. ^ Gittings, Barbara (1990). Gays in Library Land: The Gay and Lesbian Task Force of the American Library Association: The First Sixteen Years. Philadelphia. 
  30. ^ http://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/news/ala/glbt-round-table-announces-new-over-rainbow-committee
  31. ^ http://www.ala.org/offices/hrdr/abouthrdr/hrdrliaisoncomm/statusofwomen/committeestatus
  32. ^ a b http://www.library.illinois.edu/archives/ala/holdings/?p=creators/creator&id=3540
  33. ^ http://www.ala.org/offices/diversity/spectrum
  34. ^ "Awards and Grants". ALA. Archived from the original on 2 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  35. ^ "Welcome to the Odyssey Award home page!". Association for Library Service to Children (ALSC). American Library Association (ALA). Retrieved 2012-04-19. 
  36. ^ "The Notorious Benedict Arnold: A True Story of Adventure, Heroism & Treachery wins 2012 YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults". ALA Press Release. January 23, 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
  37. ^ "YALSA Award for Excellence in Nonfiction for Young Adults". YALSA. ALA. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
  38. ^ Emerging Leaders Program Info: http://www.ala.org/educationcareers/leadership/emergingleaders
  39. ^ "Conference Services". ALA. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-14. 
  40. ^ "Washington Office". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  41. ^ "Freedom to Read Statement". ALA. Archived from the original on 26 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  42. ^ "Library Bill of Rights". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  43. ^ "Article II, ALA Code of Professional Ethics". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  44. ^ "Barbara Jones, Ex-Director at Wesleyan, Named Head of ALA OIF and FTRF". Library Journal. MediaSource, Inc. 2009-12-02. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  45. ^ a b "Office for Intellectual Freedom". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-02. 
  46. ^ "Intellectual Freedom and Censorship Q & A". ALA. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  47. ^ "Frequently Challenged Books". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  48. ^ Robbins, L.S. (2000). The dismissal of Miss Ruth Brown. Norman, The University of Oklahoma Press.
  49. ^ ""Dr. Laura" Continues Criticism of ALA". Library Journal. MediaSource, Inc. 1999-05-10. Retrieved 2006-11-14. 
  50. ^ Priestly, Sharon (Winter 2001). "Don't Listen to Dr. Laura". Free Inquiry 41 (1). Retrieved 2007-03-08. 
  51. ^ "Text of the Children's Internet Protection Act". 
  52. ^ United States v. Am. Lib. Asso., 201 F.Supp.2d 401, 490 (2002)
  53. ^ "US v ALA 539 U.S. 194, 2003". FindLaw. Archived from the original on 19 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-21. 
  54. ^ "Resolution on the USA PATRIOT Act and Related Measures that Infringe on the Rights of Library Users". ALA. 2003-01-29. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  55. ^ Cowan, Alison Leigh (2006-05-31). "Four Librarians Finally Break Silence in Records Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
  56. ^ "FBI drops demand for information from Connecticut library group". Raw Story. 2006-06-26. Archived from the original on 2013-07-15. Retrieved 2007-02-07. 
  57. ^ McCook, Kathleen de la Peña (2011), Introduction to Public Librarianship, pp. 63–64. 2nd ed. New York, Neal-Schuman.
  58. ^ ""Radical, Militant Librarian" Button". ALA. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  59. ^ "ALA introduces "Radical, Militant Librarian" button" (Press release). ALA. 2006-01-17. Archived from the original on 4 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-07. 
  60. ^ Nisbet, Miriam (October 2006). "2006 Copyright Agenda" (PDF). ALA. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  61. ^ "Re: Orphan Works Notice of Inquiry". Library Copyright Alliance / U.S. Copyright Office. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-12. 
  62. ^ "Open Access". ALA. Archived from the original on 20 September 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  63. ^ "Background". Library Copyright Alliance. 

External links[edit]