AMS Euler

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AMS Euler
AMS Euler.svg
Category Script
Designer(s) Hermann Zapf
Donald Knuth
Foundry AMS
Date released 1983
AMS Euler sample text

AMS Euler is an upright cursive typeface, commissioned by the American Mathematical Society (AMS) and designed and created by Hermann Zapf with the assistance of Donald Knuth. It tries to emulate a mathematician's style of handwriting mathematical entities on a blackboard, which is upright rather than italic.[1][2] It blends very well with other typefaces made by Hermann Zapf, such as Palatino, Aldus and Melior, but very badly with the default TeX font Computer Modern. All the alphabets were executed with the computer-assisted design system Metafont developed by Knuth. Work on the design took place 1980–81 with copyright by American Mathematical Society in 1983.

The AMS Euler typeface is named after Leonhard Euler.

First implemented in METAFONT, AMS Euler was first used in the book Concrete Mathematics, co-authored by Knuth, which was dedicated to Euler.[3] This volume also saw the debut of Knuth's Concrete Roman font, designed to complement AMS Euler. The typeface is now also available in other formats, including PostScript Type 1 and TrueType.

Equations written in AMS Euler.

The family consists of seven alphabets: Text, Greek, Fraktur, Text Bold, Greek Bold, Script Bold and Fraktur Bold.

Reshaping Euler[edit]

In 2009, AMS released version 3.0 of AMS fonts, in which Hermann Zapf reshaped many of the Euler glyphs, with implementation and assistance from Hans Hagen, Taco Hoekwater, and Volker RW Schaa.

The updated version 3.0 was presented to Donald Knuth on his birthday, January 10, 2008.

These updates were designed to work with the metrics for version 2.2, so no changes to the .tfm files were needed. Since the updates were made directly to the Type 1 files, the (incompatible) MetaFont sources have been removed from the distribution.[4][5]

The reshaped version has been released under the OFL.[4]

Neo Euler is largely based on the above, but with OpenType math features added.[6][7]


  1. ^ Knuth, Donald E.; Zapf, Hermann (April 1989). "AMS Euler — a new typeface for mathematics". Scholarly Publishing (Toronto: University of Toronto Press) 20 (3): 131–157. 
  2. ^ Zapf, Hermann (1987). Hermann Zapf and his design philosophy — selected articles and lectures on calligraphy and contemporary developments in type design, with illustrations and bibliographical notes, and a complete list of his typefaces. Chicago: Society of Typographic Arts. 
  3. ^ Knuth, Donald E. (April 1989). "Typesetting Concrete Mathematics" (PDF). TUGboat (Providence, RI: TeX Users Group) 10 (1): 31–6. Retrieved 2012-02-11. 
    Beeton, Barbara, ed. (November 1989). "Erratum: Typesetting Concrete Mathematics, TUGboat Vol. 10, No. 1" (PDF). TUGboat (Providence, RI: TeX Users Group) 10 (3): 342. Retrieved 2012-02-11. 
  4. ^ a b AMSFonts README file
  5. ^ Hagen, Hans; Hoekwater, Taco; Schaa, Volker RW (June 2008). "Reshaping Euler — a collaboration with Hermann Zapf" (PDF). TUGboat (Providence, RI: TeX Users Group) 29 (2): 283–7. Retrieved 2012-02-11. 
  6. ^
  7. ^

External links[edit]