AMX International AMX
|National origin||Italy and Brazil|
|First flight||15 May 1984|
|Primary users||Italian Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
|Number built||~ 200|
The AMX International AMX is a ground-attack aircraft for battlefield interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance missions. It was built until 1999 by AMX International, an Italian-Brazilian joint venture. The AMX is designated A-1 by the Brazilian Air Force, and A-11 Ghibli by the Italian Air Force.
The AMX is capable of operating at high subsonic speed and low altitude, by day or night, and if necessary, from bases with poorly equipped or damaged runways. Low IR signature and reduced radar equivalent cross-section help prevent detection, while low vulnerability of structure and systems aid survivability, while integrated ECM, air-to-air missiles and nose-mounted guns provide self-defence capabilities.
Development and design
In 1977, the Italian Air Force issued a requirement for a strike fighter to replace its Aeritalia G.91 and some of its F-104 Starfighters. Rather than competing for the contract, Aeritalia (now Alenia Aeronautica) and Aermacchi agreed to make a joint proposal, as both firms had been considering the development of a similar class of aircraft for some years. Aermacchi, for example, had worked on a design study for a light ground attack aircraft, designated MB-340, in the early 1970s. Development work began in April 1978. In July 1981, the Italian and Brazilian governments agreed on joint requirements for the aircraft, and Embraer was invited to join the partnership. Planned requirements were 187 aircraft for Italy and 100 for Brazil.
The resultant design is a shoulder-winged monoplane, constructed mainly of aluminium, but with carbon fibre fin and elevators. The wing is fitted with both leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps and overwing spoilers ahead of the flaps. These are used to both improve take-off and landing performance and manoeuvrability. A hybrid flight control system is fitted, with spoilers, rudder and variable incidence tailplane operated by a fly-by-wire system, while the ailerons and elevators are operated hydraulically. Manual reversion is provided for the ailerons, elevator and rudder to allow the aircraft to be flown even in the event of complete hydraulic failure.
A Rolls-Royce Spey turbofan was chosen to power the new aircraft. While this was heavier and less modern than some of the alternatives, it was considered to be reliable, relatively cheap and was free of the export restrictions that would be imposed for American engines. Four underwing and one centreline hardpoint carry air-to-ground munitions, including bombs, missiles and rockets, and drop tanks, while wingtip rails are provided for infra-red guided air-to-air missiles such as the AIM-9 Sidewinder and MAA-1 Piranha. Italian aircraft are fitted with a M61 Vulcan 20 mm rotary cannon on the port side of the lower fuselage. As the United States did not permit the sale of the M61 to Brazil, its AMXs are instead fitted with two 30 mm DEFA 554 revolver cannons.
The first prototype flew on 15 May 1984. Although it was lost on its fifth flight (killing its pilot), the test programme, which used seven aircraft, progressed reasonably smoothly otherwise. Deliveries to Italy started in 1988, with the first examples delivered to the Brazilian Air Force in 1989. Since then, some 200 AMXs have been built.
The first operational squadron of the Italian air force, the 103° Gruppo of 51° Stormo formed in November 1989, with the first Italian unit also forming in 1989. Both the Italian and Brazilan AMX fleets were grounded in February 1992, following the crash of an Italian AMX due to engine failure. Operations were allowed to restart in May that year, following modification of the engines.
Italy assigned six AMXs from 103° Gruppo to operations over Bosnia in 1995 as part of Operation Deny Flight, which was followed by a similar deployment in support of the IFOR peacekeepers in Bosnia. This deployment was interrupted by another grounding, again due to engine failure, between January and March 1996. Italian AMX aircraft were used in 1999 in the Kosovo war. Instead of using unguided or more traditional laser-guided bombs, the Italian Air Force used dozens of Mk 82 bombs fitted with Opher Israeli guidance kits, effectively converting the "dumb" bombs into an infrared-guided bomb.
In the late 1990s, AMX International was considering a major engine refit, a non-afterburning variant of the Eurojet EJ200 was proposed, having considerably more thrust than the existing powerplant. In 2005, the Italian Air Force launched an upgrade programme (ACOL Aggionamento Capacità Operative e Logistiche – Operational and Logistical Capability Upgrade) for 55 of its AMXs, adding a new laser INS, new cockpit displays and allowing the aircraft to drop Joint Direct Attack Munition guided bombs. In August 2007, Embraer began a major midlife upgrade programme and modernisation of 53 Brazilian Air Force AMX A-1s, focusing on avionics systems and new armament additions; the programme is estimated to have extended the lifespan of the fleet beyond 2027.
Since Autumn 2009, four Italian AMX are located in Afghanistan, replacing the same number of Italian Tornado IDS in the recce role. Of particular note is the aircraft's ability to share digital electro-optical and infrared sensor information with ground troops in real time, providing valuable reconnaissance information and helping to minimise threat exposure; by the end of 2010 over 700 combat missions had been flown in the Afghan theatre.
In 2011, Italian AMX aircraft were employed during the 2011 military intervention in Libya. Italian military aircraft deployed 710 guided bombs and missiles during sorties: Italian Air Force Tornados and AMX fighter bombers deployed 550 bombs and missiles, while Navy AV-8Bs deployed 160 guided bombs. AMX aircraft for the first time used Litening III targeting pods paired with Paveway and JDAM guided bombs.
As of March 2012, the Philippines is in negotiations with Italy for the possible procurement of used AMX aircraft, although no official information has been released. Jane's also reported that the AMX is being considered for the PAF's Lead-in Fighter Trainer (LIFT) / Surface Attack Aircraft (SAA) project.
In 1986, development of a two-seat advanced trainer variant was undertaken. This was intended to provide trainee pilots with experience on fast jets, while still retaining the single-seater's attack capabilities. The AMX-T first flew in 1990 and equips both the Italian and Brazilian air forces.
The AMX Advanced Trainer Attack (AMX-ATA) is a new AMX two-seater multi-mission attack fighter developed for combat roles and advanced training. The AMX-ATA incorporates new sensors, a forward-looking infrared helmet-mounted display, a new multi-mode radar for air-to-air and air-to-surface capability, and new weapons systems including anti-ship missiles and medium-range missiles. The Venezuelan Air Force ordered eight AMX-ATA in 1999 for the advanced trainer and attack aircraft role, but the U.S. Congress vetoed the sale because the aircraft systems include U.S. technology.
- AMX-R (RA-1)
The AMX for reconnaissance, used by the Brazilian Air Force, with a reconnaissance pallet.
- Italian military designation for the AMX from 2012.
- Italian military designation for the AMX-T from 2012.
- Italian military designation for the AMX ACOL from 2012.
- Italian military designation for the AMX-T ACOL from 2012.
- Brazilian Air Force operates 60 AMX-A/T (including eight AMX-T for training). 43 aircraft to be modernized to A-1M, delivered between 2013 and 2017, and to be retired in 2032.
- 1 Esquadrão/16 Grupo de Aviação Esquadrão Adelphi
- 1 Esquadrão/10 Grupo de Aviação
- 3 Esquadrão/10 Grupo de aviação
- Italian Air Force operates 43× A-11B (originally AMX ACOL) and 12× TA-11B (originally AMX-T ACOL) (out of four prototypes, 110 one-seaters and 26 two-seaters delivered)
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94
- Crew: 1
- Length: 13.23 m (43 ft 5 in)
- Wingspan: 8.87 m (29 ft 11⁄2 in)
- Height: 4.55 m (14 ft 111⁄4 in)
- Wing area: 21.0 m² (226 ft²)
- Aspect ratio: 3.75:1
- Empty weight: 6,700 kg (14,771 lb)
- Loaded weight: 10,750 kg (23,700 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 13,000 kg (28,700 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce Spey 807 turbofan, 49.1 kN (11,030 lbf)
- Internal fuel capacity: 3,555l (2,700kg) internal.
- External fuel capacity: 2x 1,000l (760kg) in inner wing and 2x 500l (380kg) in outer wing.
- Maximum speed: 914 km/h (493 knots, 568 mph) at 10,975 m (36,000 ft)
- Combat radius: 889 km (480 nmi, 553 mi) (hi-lo-hi profile, 900 kg (2,000 lb) of external stores)
- Ferry range: 3,336 km (1,800 nmi, 2,073 mi)
- Endurance: 4h 15min
- Service ceiling: 13,000 m (42,650 ft)
- Rate of climb: 52.1 m/s (10,250 ft/min)
- Wing loading: 512 kg/m² (105 lb/ft²)
- Thrust/weight: 0.47
- Missiles: 2× AIM-9 Sidewinders or MAA-1 Piranhas or MAA-1B Piranha II (under development) or A-Darter (under development), carried on wingtip rails
- Bombs: 3,800 kg (8,380 lb) on 5 external hardpoints, including MAR-1 missiles, general-purpose and laser-guided bombs, air-to-ground missiles, and rockets
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- Braybrook 1989, p.267.
- Warwick 1981, p. 1544.
- Lambert 1993, pp. 129–131.
- Warwick 1981, pp. 1544–1545.
- Braybrook 1989, p. 270.
- Jackson 1991, p. 135.
- Braybrook 1989, p.275.
- Meitus 1992, pp. 223–224.
- Lambert 1993, p. 126.
- Nicolli 1997, p. 351.
- Jackson 1991, p. 138.
- Nicolli 1997, pp. 351–352.
- "Brazil and Italy lift AMX Ban". Flight International, 6 – 12 May 1992, p. 14.
- Nicolli 1997, p. 352.
- "Opher bomb deployed in Kosovo". Flight Global.
- Norris, Guy. "EJ200 engine proposed for AMX." Flight International, 20 April 1999.
- "Alenia lands $390m AMX upgrade contract". Flight International. Flight Global. 8 February 2005. Retrieved 7 November 2009.
- Niccoli 2009, p.44.
- Gething, Michael J. "Embraer commences AMX modifications for the Brazilian Air Force." Jane's, 9 June 2007.
- Peruzzi, Luca. "Italy's JATF in Afghanistan boosts air-to-ground and C-IED capabilities." Jane's, 9 November 2012.
- "Italian Air Force: a year of missions for the AMX airplanes in Afghanistan." AvioNews, 3 December 2010.
- Kingston, Tom (14 December 2011). "Italy Gives Bombing Stats for Libya Campaign". Defense News.
- "DND signs five-year agreement with Italy". The Philippine Star. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
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- Donald and Lake 1996, p. 31.
- "Directory: Military Aircraft". Flight Global, 21–25 May 2004. Retrieved: 2 February 2012.
- "Defesa ganha mais espaço na Odebrecht" (in Portuguese). Estadão, 8 April 2011. Retrieved: 29 January 2012.
- "South Africa, Brazil to Develop A-Darter SRAAM". Defense Industry Daily, 26 April 2010. Retrieved: 29 December 2012.
- Braybrook, Roy. "Assessing the AMX". Air International, June 1989, Vol 36 No 6. Bromley, UK:Fine Scroll. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 267–278.
- Donald, David and Jon Lake. Encyclopedia of World Military Aircraft. London: Aerospace Publishing, Single Volume Edition, 1996. ISBN 1-874023-95-6.
- Jackson, Paul. "AMX: The 'Pocket Tornado'". World Air Power Journal. Volume 5, Spring 1991. ISSN 0959-7050. pp. 132–139.
- Lambert, Mark. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsdon, Surry, UK: Jane's Data Division, 1993. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.
- Metius, Wojtek. "AMX IOC: Service use for Italy's new agile attacker". Air International, October 1992, Vol 43 No 4. Stamford, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 222–225.
- Niccoli, Ricardo. "AMX In Italian Service". Air International, June 1997, Vol 52 No 6. Stamford, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 349–353.
- Niccoli, Ricardo. "AMX: Upgraded and Ready for Combat". Air International, November 2009, Vol 77 No 5. Stamford, UK:Key Publishing. ISSN 0306-5634. pp. 42–45.
- Warwick, Graham. "AMX design reflects Tornado experience". Flight International, 21 November 1981. pp. 1544–1545.
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