|PAVE Phased Array Warning System|
(Scanner Buildings with Technical Facilities)
The Cape Cod AFS AN/FPS-115 (white structure with circular array) on 1 October 1986 was 1 of 2 while two more FPS-115s were being built. At the beginning of the Cold War, the Cape Cod landform had a Permanent System radar station (1951 North Truro AFS), and the offshore Texas Tower 2 was at George's Bank (closed 1963).
|Radar stations||Massachusetts, California, Florida, Texas|
|ESD System Program Office: (in MA)|
|Raytheon Equipment Division (named April 1977)
IBM Federal Systems
Gilbane Construction Company (MA)
|1976 October 27
1980 August 15
1995 (GA, TX closed)
The PAVE Phased Array Warning System (PAVE PAWS) Cold War system of computer and radar equipment was developed "to detect and characterize a sea-launched ballistic missile attack against the United States". With the "first solid-state phase-scanned array deployed", the system at the perimeter of the Continental United States used a pair of Raytheon AN/FPS-115 Radar Sets at each site (2 sites in 1980, then 2 more used 1987-95) as part of the Air Force Space Surveillance System.
Fixed-reflector radars with mechanically-scanned beams such as the 1955 GE AN/FPS-17 Fixed Ground Radar and 1961 RCA AN/FPS-50 Radar Set were deployed for missile tracking, and the USAF tests of modified AN/FPS-35 mechanical radars at Virginia and Pennsylvania SAGE radar stations had "marginal ability" to detect Cape Canaveral missiles in summer 1962. A Falling Leaves mechanical radar in New Jersey built for BMEWS successfully tracked a missile during the October 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis, and "an AN/FPS-85 long-range phased array (Passive electronically scanned array) radar was constructed at Eglin AFB" Site C-6, Florida beginning on 29 October 1962 (the Bendix Radio Division's FPS-85 contract had been signed 2 April 1962.) Early military phased array radars were also deployed for testing: ESAR at Towson MD (powered up in November 1960), White Sands' Multi-function Array Radar (1963), and the Kwajalein Missile Site Radar (1967).
The Avco 474N SLBM Detection and Warning System (SLBMD&W System) was deployed as "an austere…interim line-of-sight system" after approval in July 1965 to modify some Air Defense Command (ADC) Avco AN/FPS-26 Frequency Diversity Radars into Avco AN/FSS-7 SLBM Detection Radars (Fuzzy-7, colloq.). The 474N sites planned for 1968 also were to include AN/GSQ-89 data processing equipment (for synthesizing tracks from radar returns), as well as site communications equipment that NORAD requested on 10 May 1965 to allow "dual full period dedicated data circuits" to the Cheyenne Mountain 425L System, which was "fully operational" on 20 April 1966. (Cheyenne Mountain relayed 474N data to "SAC, the National Military Command Center, and the Alternate NMCC over BMEWS circuits", for presentation by Display Information Processors—impact ellipses and "threat summary display" with a count of incoming missiles and "Minutes Until First Impact" countdown.)
By December 1965 NORAD decided to use the Project Space Track "phased-array radar at Eglin AFB…for SLBM surveillance on an “on-call” basis" "at the appropriate DEFCON". By June 1966 the refined FPS-85 plan was for it "to have the capability to operate in the SLBM mode simultaneously [sic] [interlaced transmissions] with the [Spacetrack surveillance and tracking modes" Rebuilding of the "separate faces for transmitting and receiving" began in 1967 after the under-construction Eglin FPS-85 was "almost totally destroyed by fire on 5 January 1965". FPS-85 IOC was in 1969, 474N interim operations began in July 1970 (474N IOC was 5 May 1972), and in 1972 20% of Eglin FPS-85 "surveillance capability…became dedicated to search for SLBMs, and new SLBM software was installed in 1975.) (the FPS-85 was expanded in 1974.)
The Army's nuclear ABM weapons complex with North Dakota phased arrays (dual-face Missile Site Radar and single-face GE Perimeter Acquisition Radar, PAR) became operational in 1975 for defending against enemy ballistic missiles (e.g., SLBMs launched from Hudson Bay to the North).
The SLBM Phased Array Radar System (SPARS)* was the USAF program initiated In November 1972 by the JCS while the Army's PAR was under construction. A 1974 SPARS proposal for "two new SLBM Phased Array Warning Radars" was submitted[who?] to replace the east/west coast 474N detection radars, which had "limitations against Soviet SLBMs, particularly the longer range SS-N-8" on 1973 "Delta" class submarines. Development began in August 1973, SPARS was renamed** PAVE PAWS on 18 February 1975,:37 and system production was requested by a 13 June 1975 RFP. RADC "was responsible for the design, fabrication installation, integration test, and evaluation of" PAVE PAWS (through 1980).
The differing USAF AN/FPS-109 COBRA DANE phased array radar in Alaska achieved IOC on 13 July 1977 for "providing intelligence on Soviet test missiles fired at the Kamchatka peninsula from locations in southwestern Russia". The Army's PAR station that closed in 1976, had its radar "modified for the ADCOM mission during 1977 [and] ADCOM accepted [the Concrete Missile Early Warning Station] from the Army on 3 October 1977" for "SLBM surveillance of Arctic Ocean areas". By December 1977 RADC had developed the 322 watt PAVE PAWS "solid state transmitter and receiver module", and the SPO (ESD/OCL) issued the AN/FPS-115 "System Performance Specification…SS-OCLU-75-1A" on 15 December 1977. IBM's PAVE PAWS "beam-steering and pulse schedules from the CYBER-174" duplexed computers to the MODCOMP IV duplexed radar control computers were "based upon" PARCS program(s) installed for attack characterization in 1977 when the USAF received the Army's PAR. Bell Labs enhanced[clarification needed] the PARCS beginning December 1978, e.g., "extending the range" by 1989 for the Enhanced PARCS configuration (EPARCS).
The 1st Raytheon AN/FPS-115 Radar Sets were controlled by PAVE PAWS computers to have a "3 dB Beam Width" of 2.2 deg and had 27 October 1976 "ground-breaking ceremonies" at the East Coast Site. The East Coast site had been announced as Otis Air Force Base on 26 May (Beale Air Force Base was announced as the West Coast site), then Raytheon was contracted on 23 May. After first energized (Otis' south face for 1.5 hours on 3–4 April 1978 ), System Performance Testing at "the Otis AFB PAVE PAWS facility" was completed 16 January 1979. To mitigate interference at the FPS-115 site on Flatrock Hill from the Cape & Islands Emergency Medical Service (EMS), on 8 February 1979 ESD installed six high pass filters—then Raytheon was contracted 24 May to move the EMS Repeater Station to Bourne, Massachusetts (completed 13 July). After a 5–7 March "final review of the East Coast PAVE PAWS EIS was held at Hq AFSC", the site was accepted by ESD on 12 April. The "first radio frequency transmission" from the West Coast Site was 23 March 1979 (it was completed in October 1979.) "ADCOM wanted four [PAVE PAWS] sites, but by the end of 1979 only two had been funded".
Initial operating capability was in 1980: "Cape Cod Missile Early Warning Station" on 4 April with IOT&E completed 21 May; Beale AFB IOC on 15 August. and Otis Also in 1980, the 2 PAVE PAWS, 3 BMEWS, and the PARCS & FPS-85 radar stations transferred to Strategic Air Command (then Space Command in 1983.) By 1981 Cheyenne Mountain was providing 6,700 messages per hour including those based on input from the PAVE PAWS and the remaining FSS-7 stations. Also in 1981 as part of the WWMCCS Information System (WIS), Pentagon's National Military Command Center was receiving data "directly from the Satellite Early Warning System (SEWS) and directly from the PAVE PAWS sensor systems". Beam Steering Unit (BSU) and Receiver Beam Former (REX) replacements were replaced on the 4 Cape Cod/Beale radars in the 1980s.
The PAVE PAWS Expansion Program had begun by February 1982 to replace "older FPS-85 and FSS-7 SLBM surveillance radars in Florida with a new PAVE PAWS radar to provide improved surveillance of possible SLBM launch areas southeast of the United States [and for another] to the Southwest. After a 3 June 1983 RFP, Raytheon Company was contracted on 10 November and had a 22–23 February 1984 System Design Review for the Southeast and Southwest radars. The Expansion's DT&E testing commenced on 3 February 1986 at the Southeast Site (PAVE PAWS Site 3, Robins Air Force Base--completed 5 June) and 15 August at the Southwest Site (PAVE PAWS Site 4, Eldorado Air Force Station). The Gulf Coast FPS-115s were operational in 1986 (Robins) and May 1987 (Eldorado IOC). In February 1995, all 4 radars were being netted by the "missile warning center at Cheyenne Mountain AS [which was] undergoing a $450 million upgrade program". Other centers receiving PAVE PAWS output were the 19xx Missile Correlation Center and 19xx Space Control Center.
During the End of Cold War drawdown, the Eldorado and Robins radar stations closed[specify] in 1995, and an AN/FPS-115[which?] was sold to Taiwan in 2000  (installed at Loshan Mountain in 2006, commissioned 2013.) By October 1999, Cape Cod and Beale radars were providing data via Jam Resistant Secure Communication (JRSC) circuits to the Command Center Processing and Display System in the NMCC. The transition of BMEWS and PAVE PAWS to SSPARS had begun with the 4 AN/FPS-50 BMEWS radars near Thule Air Force Base being replaced with a Raytheon AN/FPS-120 Solid State Phased Array Radar at Thule Site J (operational "2QFY87").
SSPARS & GMD Early Warning Radars
The Solid State Phased Array Radar System began replacing PAVE PAWS when the first AN/FPS-115 face was taken off-line for the radar upgrade. New Raytheon AN/FPS-123 Early Warning Radars became operational in 19xx (Beale) and 19xx (Cape Cod) in each base's existing PAVE PAWS "Scanner Building". The UK and Alaska BMEWS stations became SSPARS radar stations when their respective AN/FPS-126 radar (3 faces) and 2001 AN/FPS-120 became operational. In 2007, 100 owners/trustees of amateur radio repeaters near AN/FPS-123 radars were notified to lower their power output to mitigate interference, and AN/FPS-123s were part of the Air Force Space Surveillance System by 2009. The Beale AN/FPS-123 was upgraded to a Boeing AN/FPS-132 Upgraded Early Warning Radar (UEWR) in tbd with capabilities to operate in the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) ABM system—the Beale UEWR included "Avionics", "T/R modules", "FEX/TTG", "BSG", "Signal Processor", and other changes. After additional UEWR installations for GMD at Thule Site J and the UK (contracted 2003), a 2012 ESD/XRX Request for Information for replacement, and remote operation, of the remaining "PAVE PAWS/BMEWS/PARCS systems" at Cape Cod, Alaska, and North Dakota was issued. The Alaska FPS-132 was contracted in fall 2012 and in 2013, the U.S. announced a plan to sell an AN/FPS-132 to Qatar.
|rear of Scanner Building|
|element diagram with subarrays (p. 18 Fig. 4)|
|interior of Beale Scanner Building|
*PAVE PAWS was one of the earliest large USAF Support Systems not developed with a 3 digit number and an appended letter, such as the preceding 474N SLBM system and the "Big L" systems that included the Burroughs "425L Command/Control and Missile Warning" ("fully operational" at Cheyenne Mountain on 20 April 1966) and the "496L Spacetrack" systems which networked PAVE PAWS.
**The PAVE identifier used when PAVE PAWS was designated on 18 February 1975:37 was "a code word for the Air Force unit in charge of the project" and which developed other PAVE systems--cf[disambiguation needed] the unit for "the COBRA system" with the COBRA DANE (AN/FPS-108) radar. By 1979, PAVE systems used the term Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry defined for the identifier, e.g., the 1980 PAVE Pillar and c. 1977 Pave Mover (JSTARS) programs initiated by the USAF. In particular, on 1 October 1999 the Department of the Air Force identified PAVE PAWS as "Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased Array Warning System", a term publicized as early as 1979.
- Cold War Historic Properties of the 21st Space Wing Air Force Space Command (Report). OSTI.gov accessdate=2014-06-10. 1996.
Cold War era (36 CFR 60.4)
- http://www.whshistoryproject.org/1950s/missiles.html Wayland Plant
- Engineering Panel on the PAVE PAWS Radar System (1979). Radiation Intensity of the PAVE PAWS Radar System (Report) (ADA 088323). National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
The [Cape Cod] PAVE PAWS antenna consists of a circular array of 5,354 elements, of which only half, or 2,677, are to be active when the facility begins operation in April 1979, and of the active elements only 1,792 are powered. At some future date, which is not yet determined, the entire antenna may be placed in operation. The beam of radiation is focused and pointed in a specific direction by controlling the way the individual elements radiate. If the beam is to be directed to the left of center (or "boresight"), the signals radiated from the elements on the left side of the array are delayed relative to those emitted from the elements on the right, the period of the delay increasing progressively across the array from right to left.
- Photographs [and] Written Historical and Descriptive Data: Cape Cod Air Station Technical Facility/Scanner Building and Power Plant (Report). Retrieved 2014-06-10.
Technical Facility/Scanner Building (HAER No. MA-151-A), which houses the AN/FPS-1152 radar and related equipment… PAVE PAWS Site 1 … AN/FSS-7…designed by Avco Electronics Division… The first two PAVE PAWS sites in Massachusetts and California represented the first two-faced phased array radars deployed by the U.S.
- https://archive.org/stream/MilitaryInSpace/Space-306_djvu.txt Normally, the radar worked on commer'cial power, but six diesel generators had been provided for backup in case that source was disrupted. For the radar's ejtergy pulse to reach out to its maximum range, electrical^ power was drawn into a capacitor bank, built up, then discharged or surged into space. This procedure, called power surging happened every 51 milliseconds. … reviewed plans for EPARCS and they had concluded its location limited its ability to provide adequate warning of low angle trajectory ICBM reentry vehicles … About a 24 percent reduction in [Thule] O&M costs would be realized using an upgraded PAVE PAWS[-type] phased array.
- Smith, John Q.; Byrd, David A (c. 1991). Forty Years of Research and Development at Griffis Air Force Base: June 1951 – June 1991 (Report) (AD-A250 435). Rome Laboratory. Retrieved 2014-03-10. Check date values in:
|date=(help) (PAVE PAWS concept drawing on p. 141)
- http://www.microwavejournal.com/articles/2080-major-advances-in-phased-arrays-part-1 "diameter of 102 feet for a total of approximately 5300 elements. The elements in this outer ring beyond the 72.5 feet are reserved for a future 10 dB increase in system sensitivity."
- Winkler, David F; Webster, Julie L (June 1997). Searching the Skies: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program (Report). Champaign, IL: U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories. LCCN 97020912. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
The [PAVE PAWS] structure consists of two AN/FPS-115 phased-array radars mounted on a triangular building. … AN/FPS-35 search radars located at Manassas, Virginia, and Benton, Pennsylvania, received modifications and began to be tested during the summer of 1962. During these tests, both radars attempted to track Polaris, Minuteman, Titan, and the Thor-Delta missile launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The tests revealed that the AN/FPS-35 had only marginal ability to detect missile launches.73(transcription available at the Federation of American Scientists website)
- "20th Space Control Squadron". Retrieved 21 February 2011.
- http://www.criticalpast.com/video/65675069283_Spacetrack-Radar_Eglin-Air-Force-Base_construction-at-base_men-at-work " A man surveying and aligning each member on the 45DG scanner face with delicate optical equipment."
- Cite NORAD Historical Summary |year=1962 (Jan-Jul)
- Cite NORAD Historical Summary |year=1964B |quote=on 22 June 1965 the JCS directed CONAD to prepare a standby plan for use of the USAF AN/FPS-85 facility at Eglin AFB as a backup to the SDC, and an interim backup plan for use in the event of catastrophic failure prior to availability of the AN/FPS-85. An interim backup plan was submitted to the JCS in August 1965 and was approved on 12 October. This plan, 393C-65, was published on 15 November 1965. A draft plan for use of the AN/FPS-85 had also been submitted to the JCS in August 1965. This plan was approved on 21 October 1965. It was published as Operations Plan 392C-66 on 10 October 1966 and was to be implemented on the FOC date of the AN/FPS-85.
- Cite NORAD Historical Summary |year=1965 (Jul-Dec) |quote=The Spacetrack radar at Moorestown and the cooperating radar at Trinidad were not to be closed until the FPS-85 at Eglin AFB proved its operational capability. … By 20 October, U.S. -U.K. agreement had been reached to let the U.K. Operations Centre[specify] pass BMEWS warning data to SHAPE. … Satellite Reconnaissance Advance Notice (SATRAN), was developed jointly by DIA, the Foreign Technology Division, and NORAD. …commanders would be able to plot the track of a satellite over their areas and take defensive action, such as dispersal, camouflage, etc.
- "NORAD Center Located At Colorado Springs Site" (Google news archive). The Othello Outlook. 26 November 1964. p. 3. Retrieved 2014-03-09.
- Cite NORAD Historical Summary |year=1966 |quote=AN/GSQ-89 (SLBM Detection and Warning System) … On 31 July 1964, NORAD concurred with the main conclusions of the study. NORAD recommended to USAF that funds for an austere interim system… DDR&E approved the interim line-of-sight system concept on 5 November 1964 and made $20.2 million available for development. The SLBM Contractor Selection Board, with NORAD representation, recommended the selection of the AVCO Corporation. In July 1965, DDR&E approved AVCO's plan to modify FPS-26 height finder radars at six sites and to install one at Laredo AFB, Texas (Laredo would then be designated site Z-230). … The modified radars were to be termed AN/FSS-7's and the system was to be designated the AN/GSQ-89.
- Leonard, Barry (2009). History of Strategic Air and Ballistic Missile Defense. , Vol II, 1955-1972. Fort McNair, DC: Center for Military History. ISBN 9781437921311. Retrieved date tbd. Check date values in:
- "Brief History of Aerospace Defense Command" (transcript of USAF document). Histories for HQ Aerospace Defense Command, Ent AFB, Colorado. Military.com Unit Pages.
AN/FSS-7 radars located on the Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf coasts. The network, eventually controlled by the 4783rd Surveillance Squadron of the 14th [sic] Aerospace Force, was fully operational by May 1972. … On 11 September 1978, Air Force Secretary John Stetson, at the urging of Under Secretary Hans Mark, had authorized a "Space Missions Organizational Planning Study" to explore options for the future. When published in February 1979, the study had offered five alternatives ranging from continuation of the status quo to creation of an Air Force command for space.
- Jane's Radar and Electronic Systems, 6th edition, Bernard Blake, ed. (1994), p. 31 [cited by Winkler]
- "title tbd". UN.org. date tbd. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
The Western hemisphere satellites provide the first warning of SLBM launches against the U.S. Complementary warning coverage is now supposed to be provided by the 474N SLBM "dish" warning radars. Unfortunately, these 474N radars—four on the East Coast, three on the West Coast, and one on the Gulf Coast—have limitations against Soviet SLBMs, particularly the new longer range SS-N-8. … Accordingly, we again propose to replace those radars (including the standby SLBM warning radar at Moorestown, N.J.) with two new SLBM Phased Array Warning Radars—one on the East Coast and one on the West Coast.Check date values in:
- June 2000 http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a468199.pdf "The network, eventually controlled by the 4783rd Surveillance Squadron of the 14th [sic] Aerospace Force, was fully operational by May 1972. … Early Warning Radar Systems such as PARCS and PAVE PAWS, and Space Surveillance Radars, such as the Eglin AFB Radar…are called[who?] Buried Treasure, because they already exist as National Information Source assets, but their full potential and value is greatly under utilized." NOTE: Sections of Satterthwaite's Thesis have vergatim sentences as in Brief History of Aerospace Defense Command.
- Del Papa, Dr. E. Michael; Warner, Mary P (October 1987). A Historical Chronology of the Electronic Systems Division 1947-1986 (Report) (ESD-TR-88-276 (AD-A201 708)). Retrieved 2012-07-19.
the Space Defense Center combining the Air Force's Space Track and the Navy's Spasur.
- Weinberger, Caspar; SECDEF (February 8, 1982). Annual Report to Congress: Fiscal Year 1983 (Report). United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 2014-07-08.
- System Performance Specification for Phased Array Warning System, PAVE PAWS, Radar Set AN/FPS-115 (Specification No. SS-OCLU-75-1A, Code Ident::49956 [sic]), Hanscom Air Force Base: "Prepared by PAVE PAWS System Program Office, Electronic Systems Division, OCL", 15 December 1977 (cited by ADA088323)
- [dead link]Cape radar found not to pose health risk Accessed 5 November 2007
- National Academies' National Research Council. Available Data Do Not Show Health Hazard to Cape Cod Residents From Air Force PAVE PAWS Radar. January 2005.
- Massachusetts Department of Health. Evaluation of the Incidence of the Ewing's Family of Tumors on Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the PAVE PAWS Radar Station - December 2007. (PDF)
- 2005 Radio Frequency Power Density Survey for the Precision Acquisition Vehicle Entry-Phased Array Warning System (PAVE PAWS), Cape Cod AFS, MA
- FAA - SNY - New York - Sectional Aeronautical Chart Edition 86 - 15 Nov 2012
- http://www.mda.mil/global/documents/pdf/env_gmd_eis_append_h.pdf Appendix H—Upgraded Early Warning Radar Analysis
- http://isotrope.im/blog/white_papers/Final-Test-Report-With-Appendices.pdf atop Flatrock Hill
- "AN/FPS-115 PAVE PAWS Radar". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
The active portion of the array resides in a circle 22.1 meters (72.5 feet) wide in the center of the array. Each radiating element is connected to a solid-state transmit/receive module that provides 325 watts of power and a low-noise receiver to amplify the returning radar signals. The RF signals transmitted from each array face form one narrow main beam with a width of 2.2 degrees … The far-field region begins at 439 meters (1,440 feet).
- Failures of the North American Aerospace Defense Command's (NORAD) attack warning system: (minutes of "hearings before a subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-seventh Congress; 19 and 20 May 1981") (Report). United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved 2013-01-23.
at Norad is the establishment of a Systems Integration Office
- Modernization of the WWMCCS Information System (WIS) (Report) (AdA095409). Armed Services Committee, US House of Representatives. 19 January 1981. Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- PAVE PAWS, BMEWS, and PARCS Radar Systems (Solicitation) (01262012), FedBizOpps.gov, 23 January 2012, retrieved 2014-06-11,
The PAVE PAWS and BMEWS Beam Steering Unit (BSU), Receiver Exciter (REX), Receiver Beam Former (RBF), Array Group Driver (AGD), Radio Frequency Monitor (RFM), Frequency Time Standard (FTS), and the Corporate Feed (CFD) were built for these five radars in the late 1970's and were upgraded in the 1980's. … The PARCS Signal Processing Group (SPG) has received only "band-aid" fixes since the site's Initial Operating Capability (IOC) in 1975
- http://radomes.org/museum/documents/BMEWSSite2ClearAKnewradar032001.html "...relocation of existing electronic equipment from a decommissioned PAVE PAWS site in Eldorado, Texas, to the newly constructed facility at Clear. By relocating the two 102-foot diameter transmitter/receiver arrays, electronic cabinets and computers"
- Orban, SSgt. Brian (February 1995). "The trip wire". Guardian (Air Force Space Command). p. 6.
For more than 30 years, the crews operating the missile warning center inside Cheyenne Mountain have maintained an early warning trip line [for] incoming ballistic missiles
- FAS.ORG PAVE PAWS Site
- http://www.fas.org/man/eprint/leshan.pdf "the ITT Exelis Electronic Systems segment in Clifton, N.J., is the prime sustainment and modernization contractor for these radar systems. … PARCS…analyzes more than 20,000 tracks per day, from giant satellites to space debris."
- Communications-Electronics (C-E) Manager's Handbook (Report). Department of the Air Force. 1 October 1999. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
The NMCC's CCPDS provides Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment (TW/AA) data to surveillance officers in the Emergency Actions Room and the National Military Intelligence Center (NMIC).
- "AN/FPS-115, AN/FPS-120, AN/FPS-123, AN/FPS-126". Radomes.org. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- Chatters, Maj Edward P, IV; Crothers, Maj Brian J. (2009). "Chapter 19: Space Surveillance Network". AU-18 Space Primer. Air University. p. 252. Retrieved 2014-06-06.
Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Weapons System (PAVE PAWS)
- "U.S. to Sell Large Early Warning Radar to Qatar". MostlyMissileDefense.com. 10 February 2014--original webpage on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-08. Check date values in:
- "NORAD's Information Processing Improvement Program: Will It Enhance Mission Capability?" (Report to Congress). Comptroller General. 21 September 1978. Retrieved 2013-01-24.