APOBEC ("apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like") is a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins.
A mechanism of generating protein diversity is mRNA editing. Members of this family are C-to-U editing enzymes. The N-terminal domain of APOBEC like proteins is the catalytic domain, while the C-terminal domain is a pseudocatalytic domain. More specifically, the catalytic domain is a zinc dependent cytidine deaminase domain and is essential for cytidine deamination. RNA editing by APOBEC-1 requires homodimerisation and this complex interacts with RNA binding proteins to form the editosome. A recent review discussed the structural and biophysical aspects of APOBEC3 family enzymes. Much of the APOBEC protein features are described in the widely studied APOBEC3G's page.
^PDB2NYT; Prochnow, C., Bransteitter, R., Klein, M.G., Goodman, M.F., Chen, X.S. (2007). "The APOBEC-2 crystal structure and functional implications for the deaminase AID.". Nature445 (7126): 447–451. doi:10.1038/nature05492. PMID17187054.; rendered using PyMOL.
^Wedekind JE, Dance GS, Sowden MP, Smith HC (April 2003). "Messenger RNA editing in mammals: new members of the APOBEC family seeking roles in the family business". Trends Genet.19 (4): 207–16. doi:10.1016/S0168-9525(03)00054-4. PMID12683974.
^Jaguva Vasudevan, AA; Smits SH; Höppner A; Häussinger D; Koenig BW; Münk C. (June 2013). "Structural features of antiviral DNA cytidine deaminases". Biol Chem.394 (11): 1357–1370. doi:10.1515/hsz-2013-0165. PMID23787464.