APOBEC3A

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Apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A, also known as APOBEC3A, is a gene of the APOBEC3 family found in humans, non-human primates, and some other mammals.[1] It is a DNA cytidine deaminase with antiviral effects. While other members of the family such as APOBEC3G are believed to act by editing ssDNA by removing an amino group from cytosine in DNA, introducing a cytosine to uracil change which can ultimately lead to a cytosine to thymine mutation, one study suggests that APOBEC3A can inhibit parvoviruses by another mechanism.[2] The cellular function of APOBEC3A is likely to be the destruction of foreign DNA through extensive deamination of cytosine.[3]

This gene is a member of the polynucleotide cytosine deaminase gene family. It is one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. The APOBEC3 family of DNA editing enzymes are thought to be part of the innate immune system by restricting retroviruses, mobile genetic elements like retrotransposons and endogenous retroviruses. APOBEC3A is highly expressed in monocytes and macrophages upon stimulation with interferon.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Entrez Gene: APOBEC3A apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3A". 
  2. ^ Iñigo Narvaiza, Daniel C. Linfesty, Benjamin N. Greener, Yoshiyuki Hakata, David J. Pintel, Eric Logue, Nathaniel R. Landau, Matthew D. Weitzman (2009). "Deaminase-Independent Inhibition of Parvoviruses by the APOBEC3A Cytidine Deaminase". In Jung, Jae U. PLoS Pathogens 5 (5): e1000439. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000439. PMC 2678267. PMID 19461882. 
  3. ^ a b Mark D. Stenglein, Michael B. Burns, Michael B. Burns, Joy Lengyel, Reuben S. Harris (2010). "APOBEC3 proteins mediate the clearance of foreign DNA from human cells". Nature Structural & Molecular Biology 17 (2): 222–229. doi:10.1038/nsmb.1744. PMC 2921484. PMID 20062055. 

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