|Type||Public limited company|
|Traded as||LSE: ARM NASDAQ: ARMH|
|Founder(s)||Robin Saxby, Jamie Urquhart, Mike Muller, Tudor Brown, Lee Smith, John Biggs, Harry Oldham, Dave Howard, Pete Harrod, Harry Meekings, Al Thomas, Andy Merritt, David Seal|
|Headquarters||Cambridge, England, United Kingdom|
|Key people||Stuart Chambers (Chairman)
Simon Segars (CEO)
|Products||Microprocessor designs and graphics processing unit (GPU) designs|
|Revenue||£714.6 million (2013)|
|Operating income||£153.5 million (2013)|
|Net income||£104.8 million (2013)|
|Employees||circa 2,000 (2012)|
ARM Holdings plc (ARM) is a British multinational semiconductor and software design company with its head office in Cambridge, England. Its largest business is designing processors (CPU) bearing the ARM name, although it also designs software development tools under the DS-5, RealView and Keil brands, systems and platforms, system-on-a-chip (SoC) infrastructure and software. It is considered to be market dominant in the field of processors for mobile phones (smartphones or otherwise) and tablet computers and is arguably the best-known of the 'Silicon Fen' companies.
Processors based on designs licensed from ARM, or designed by licensees of one of the ARM instruction set architectures, are used in all classes of computing devices from microcontrollers in embedded systems – including real-time safety systems (cars' ABS), smartTVs (Google TV) and all modern smartwatches (such as Qualcomm Toq) – up to smartphones (such as all Apple's iPhones), tablets (such as all Apple's iPads), laptops (some Chromebook versions), desktops (first use was in the Acorn Archimedes), servers and supercomputers/HPC.
ARM's Mali line of graphics processing units (GPU) are used in laptops (some Chromebook versions), Android tablets (over 50% market share) and smartphones (such as some versions of Samsung's products up to the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 tablet and Samsung Galaxy S III smartphone) and smartwatches (Samsung Galaxy Gear). It is third most popular in mobile devices.
ARM's main CPU competitors include Intel (Atom), Imagination Technologies (MIPS) and AMD (that will also sell 64-bit server processors), and its GPU competitors include Imagination Technologies (PowerVR), Qualcomm (Adreno) and increasingly Nvidia and Intel. Qualcomm and Nvidia combine their GPUs with an ARM licensed CPU while Intel doesn't.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Technology
- 4 Licensees
- 5 Sales and market share
- 6 Partnerships
- 7 Senior management
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The acronym ARM, first used in 1983, originally stood for "Acorn RISC Machine", the processor from Acorn Computers, its first RISC processor used in the original Acorn Archimedes and one of the first RISC processors. However, when the company was incorporated in 1990, the acronym was changed to stand for "Advanced RISC Machines" in the company name "Advanced RISC Machines Ltd." Then, at the time of the IPO in 1998, the company name was changed to "ARM Holdings", often just called ARM just as the processors.
The company was founded in November 1990 as Advanced RISC Machines Ltd and structured as a joint venture between Acorn Computers, Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and VLSI Technology. The new company intended to further the development of the Acorn RISC Machine processor, which was originally used in the Acorn Archimedes and had been selected by Apple for their Newton project. Its first profitable year was 1993. The company's Silicon Valley and Tokyo offices were opened in 1994. In 1997, ARM invested in Palmchip Corporation to provide a system on chip platforms and to enter into the disk drive market. In 1998 the Company changed its name from Advanced RISC Machines Ltd to ARM Ltd. The Company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ in 1998. Apple's shareholding had fallen to 14.8% by February 1999.
- Micrologic Solutions, a software consulting company based in Cambridge
- Allant Software, a developer of debugging software
- Infinite Designs, a design company based in Sheffield
- EuroMIPS a smart card design house in Sophia Antipolis, France
- The engineering team of Noral Micrologics, a debug hardware and software company based in Blackburn, UK
- Adelante Technologies of Belgium, creating its OptimoDE data engines business, a form of lightweight DSP engine
- Axys Design Automation, a developer of ESL design tools and Artisan Components, a designer of Physical IP (standard cell libraries, memory compilers, PHYs etc.), the building blocks of integrated circuits
- KEIL Software, a leading developer of software development tools for the microcontroller (MCU) market, including 8051 and C16x platforms. ARM also acquired the engineering team of PowerEscape.
- Falanx (now called ARM Norway), a developer of 3D graphics accelerators and SOISIC, who specialise in developing silicon-on-insulator physical IP
- Obsidian Software Inc., a privately held company that creates processor verification products
- Prolific, a developer of automated layout optimisation software tools, and the Prolific team will join the ARM physical IP team
- Internet of Things startup Sensinode
- Cadence’s PANTA family of high-resolution display processor and scaling coprocessor IP cores
Unlike most traditional microprocessor suppliers, such as: Intel, Freescale (the former semiconductor division of Motorola) and Renesas (a former joint venture between Hitachi and Mitsubishi Electric), ARM only creates and licenses its technology as intellectual property (IP), rather than manufacturing and sellIng its own physical CPUs, GPUs, SoCs or microcontrollers. This model is similar to fellow British design houses: ARC International, and Imagination Technologies who have similarly been designing and licensing GPUs, CPUs, and SoCs, along with supplying tooling and various design and support services to their licensees.
The company has offices and design centres across the world, including San Jose, California, Austin, Texas, and Olympia, Washington in the United States; Bangalore in India; Trondheim in Norway; Lund in Sweden; Sophia Antipolis in France; Munich in Germany; Yokohama in Japan; China, Taiwan, and Slovenia.
A characteristic feature of ARM processors is their low electric power consumption, which makes them particularly suitable for use in portable devices. In fact, almost all modern mobile phones and personal digital assistants contain ARM CPUs, making them the most widely used 32-bit microprocessor family in the world. Today ARMs account for over 75% of all 32-bit embedded CPUs.
ARM processors are used as the main CPU for most mobile phones, including those manufactured by Apple, HTC, Nokia, Sony Ericsson and Samsung; many PDAs and handhelds, like the Apple iPod and iPad, Game Boy Advance and Nintendo DS, Game Park GP32 and GamePark Holdings GP2X; as well as many other applications, including GPS navigation devices, digital cameras, digital televisions, network devices and storage. The WLAN processor of Sony's PlayStation Portable is an older ARM9.
ARM offers several microprocessor core designs that have been "publicly licensed" 830 times including 117 times for their newer "application processors" (non-microcontroller) used in such applications as smartphones and tablets. Six of those companies have a license for the their most powerful processor core, the 64-bit Cortex-A57 (some including ARM's other 64-bit core the Cortex-A53) and four have a license to their most powerful 32-bit core, the Cortex-A15.
Cores for 32-bit architectures include Cortex-A15, Cortex-A12, Cortex-A17, Cortex-A9, Cortex-A8, Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A5, and older "Classic ARM Processors", as well as variant architectures for microcontrollers that include these cores: ARM Cortex-R7, ARM Cortex-R5, ARM Cortex-R4, ARM Cortex-M4, ARM Cortex-M3, ARM Cortex-M1, ARM Cortex-M0+, and ARM Cortex-M0 for licencing; the three most popular licensing models are the "Perpetual (Implementation) License", "Term License" and "Per Use License".
Companies often license these designs from ARM to manufacture and integrate into their own System on chip (SoC) with other components such as GPUs (sometimes ARM's Mali) or radio basebands (for mobile phones).
In addition to licenses for their core designs, ARM offers an "architectural license" for their instruction sets, allowing the licensees to design their own cores that implement one of those instruction sets. An ARM architectural licence is more costly than a regular ARM core licence, and also requires the necessary engineering power to design a CPU based on the instruction set.
Processors believed to be designed independently from ARM, by vendors for whom no architecture license has been announced, include Apple's A6, A6X, and A7 (used in iPhone 5, iPad and iPhone 5S), and Qualcomm's Snapdragon (used in smartphones such as the US version of the Samsung Galaxy S4).
ARM core licensees
Companies that are current licensees of the 64-bit ARMv8-A core designs include: AMD, AppliedMicro (X-Gene), Broadcom, Calxeda, HiSilicon, Rockchip, Samsung, and STMicroelectronics.
Companies that are current or former licensees of 32-bit ARM core designs include AMD, Broadcom, Freescale, Huawei (HiSilicon division), IBM, Infineon Technologies (Infineon XMC 32-bit MCU families), Intel (older "ARM11 MPCore"), LG, NXP Semiconductors, Renesas, Rockchip, Samsung, STMicroelectronics, and Texas Instruments.
ARM architectural licensees
ARM-based CPU market share in 2010: over 95% in smartphone market; 10% in mobile computers; 35% in digital TVs and set-top boxes; however, ARM did not have any market share in servers and desktop PCs.
As of 2014[update], over 50 billion ARM chips have been produced, 10 billion of which were produced in 2013, and "ARM-based chips are found in nearly 60 percent of the world’s mobile devices".
In the fourth quarter of 2010, 1.8 billion chips based on an ARM design were manufactured.
With Microsoft's ARM-based OS, market research firm IHS predicted that in 2015 23% of all the PCs in the world will use ARM processors.
In May 2012, Dell announced the Copper platform, a server based on Marvell’s ARM powered devices. In October 2012, ARM announced the first set of early licensees of the 64-bit-capable Cortex-A57 processor.
ARM's goal is by 2015 to have ARM-based processors in more than half of all tablets, mini-notebooks and other mobile PCs sold.
|ARM core sales|
At 2011 CES, Microsoft revealed that Windows 8 operating system will run on ARM architecture platforms. Following this, Microsoft demonstrated Internet Explorer 10. For around 30 seconds of the 90-minute talk, they mentioned that some of the demos were running on an ARM computer. During Microsoft's presentation of Windows 8 on 1 June 2011, a handful of the company's hardware partners showed off tablets and notebooks running the OS, including ARM instead of Intel or AMD.
University of Michigan
In 2011, ARM renewed a five-year, $5 million research partnership with University of Michigan, which extended their existing research partnership to 2015. This partnership will focus on ultra-low energy and sustainable computing.
Warren East was appointed Chief Executive Officer of ARM Holdings in October 2001. In the 2011 financial year, East received a total compensation of £1,187,500 from ARM, comprising a salary of £475,000 and a bonus of £712,500. East said in March 2013 that he would retire from ARM in May, with president Simon Segars taking over as CEO. In March 2014, former Rexam chairman Stuart Chambers succeeded John Buchanan as chairman. Chambers, a non-executive director of Tesco and former chief executive of Nippon Sheet Glass Group, had previously worked at Mars and Royal Dutch Shell.
- Saxby, Robin (23 November 2006). "Chips With Everything" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "Preliminary Results 2013". ARM Holdings. Retrieved 8 March 2014.
- "Company profile". ARM Holdings. Retrieved 17 March 2012.
- ARM I, Arm II, Peterhouse Technology Park
- "ARM CPU Core Dominates Mobile Market – Nikkei Electronics Asia – Tech-On!". Techon.nikkeibp.co.jp. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- ARMv8-R Architecture Webpage; ARM Holdings.
- Building Windows for the ARM processor architecture
- ARM and Canonical to Bring Full Ubuntu Desktop Experience to Low-Power, ARM Technology-Based Computing Devices ARM, 13 November 2008
- Red Hat Deploys ARM-Based Servers for Fedora Project Eweek, 15 May 2013
- nCore HPC Rolls Out BrownDwarf ARM DSP Supercomputer Inside HPC, 17 June 2013
- Nvidia: ARM supercomputer to be more efficient than x86 EE Times, 12 June 2011
- Smartphone chips may power servers, researchers say PC World, 25 May 2013
- Multimedia - Graphics Processing from ARM
- Clarke, Peter (26 September 2013). "ARM Closes in on Imagination in GPU Shipments".
- "AMD announces plans to sample 64-bit ARM Opteron A “Seattle” processors" (Press release). AMD Business. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- "ARM Holdings, plc, Company Description – NASDAQ.com". Quotes.nasdaq.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- ARM milestones, ARM company website. Retrieved 5 February 2008
- Andrews, Jason (2005). "3 SoC Verification Topics for the ARM Architecture". Co-verification of hardware and software for ARM SoC design. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. p. 69. ISBN 0-7506-7730-9. "ARM started as a branch of Acorn Computer in Cambridge, England, with the formation of a joint venture between Acorn, Apple and VLSI Technology. A team of twelve employees produced the design of the first ARM microprocessor between 1983 and 1985."
- Weber, Jonathan (28 November 1990). "Apple to Join Acorn, VLSI in Chip-Making Venture". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). Retrieved 6 February 2012. "Apple has invested about $3 million (roughly 1.5 million pounds) for a 30% interest in the company, dubbed Advanced Risc Machines Ltd. (ARM) [...]"
- "PALMCHIP Introduces Fully-Integrated, Low-Power Controller Core for OEM Mass Storage Design". EE Times. 16 May 1997.
- "ARM Company Milestones". ARM Holdings.
- "Advanced RISC Machines Ltd is now ARM Ltd". Findarticles.com. 19 October 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM wins billion dollar valuation in IPO". Findarticles.com. 20 April 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Davis, Jim (3 February 1999). "Short Take: Apple sells ARM shares". CNET. Retrieved 6 February 2012. "Apple still holds 14.8 percent of ARM [...]"
- IBM, Freescale, Samsung Form Linaro to Aid in Developing ARM-compatible Software Daily Tech, 5 June 2010
- "Robin Saxby". The Wall Street Transcript. 26 June 2000. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "ARM acquires Allant Software". Design-reuse.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Clarke, Peter (10 April 2000). "ARM acquires privately-held design firm". EE Times. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- "Samsung and Incard Launch World's First 32-BitSmart Card for High-Volume SIM Applications". Allbusiness.com. 24 October 2000. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM buys Noral debug design team". Electronicsweekly.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM buys Adelante's design office, leaves core". Eetimes.eu. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM Holdings agrees to buy Aachen EDA company". Commsdesign.com. 16 August 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Coates, Ron. "ARM to buy designer of systems on a chip". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM Purchases Keil Software". Microcontroller.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Smith, Tony (23 June 2006). "ARM buys Falanx". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM acquires SOISIC". Channel-e.biz. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Peter Clarke, EE Times. "ARM buys processor verification firm Obsidian." 22 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Anton Shilov, XbitLabs. "ARM Acquires Developer of Automated Chip Layout Tools." 1 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- ARM Acquires Internet Of Things Startup Sensinode To Move Beyond Tablets And Phones
- ARM acquires advanced display technology from Cadence
- Processor Licensees, ARM company website. Retrieved 5 February 2008
- ARM offices, ARM company website. Retrieved 12 March 2014
- ARM Processor Overview, ARM company website. Retrieved 5 February 2008
- Product Backgrounder[dead link]
- "ARM is the market-leading architecture in mobile devices worldwide, with 80% of all handsets containing at least one ARM core.", Symbian website. Retrieved 5 February 2008
- "What processor does the iPod, iPod mini, iPod nano, iPod touch, and iPod shuffle use?". Everymac.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- iPhone powered by Samsung, not Intel?, engadget, 11 January 2007
- "ARM powered products" (Press release). ARM Holdings. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Sony PlayStation Portable – PSP" (Press release). ARM Holdings. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Processor Licensees
- "Licensing ARM IP". ARM Holdings. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Shimpi, Anand Lal (28 June 2013). "The ARM Diaries, Part 1: How ARM’s Business Model Works". Anandtech. p. 3. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- Lai Shimpi, Anand (10 September 2013). "Apple Announces A7, World's First 64-bit Smartphone SoC". AnandTech. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Whitwam, Ryan (26 August 2011). "How Qualcomm’s Snapdragon ARM chips are unique". Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- ARM, "ARM Launches Cortex-A50 Series, the World’s Most Energy-Efficient 64-bit Processors." Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "AppliedMicro Showcases World’s First 64-bit ARM v8 Core". AppliedMicro. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "ROCKCHIP EXTENDS PARTNERSHIP WITH ARM BY SUBSCRIPTION LICENSE OF ARM PROCESSOR AND GPU TECHNOLOGIES" (Press release). ARM Holdings. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- "AMD Strengthens Security Solutions through Technology Partnership with ARM" (Press release). 13 June 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Advanced Low-Cost HSPA/EDGE Multimedia Baseband Processor - BCM21654". Broadcom. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "i.MX Applications Processors". Freescale. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Vybrid Controller Solutions based on ARM® Technology". Freescale. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Merritt, Rick (26 February 2012). "Huawei claims quad-core chip outguns Tegra3".
- "IBM and ARM to Collaborate on Advanced Semiconductor Technology for Mobile Electronics" (Press release). 17 January 2011.
- "32-bit Industrial Microcontrollers based on ARM® Cortex™-M".
- Savov, Vlad (26 April 2011). "LG licenses ARM Cortex-A15 and Mali-T604 graphics, starts scheming up mobile processors of its own". Engadget. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "LG Electronics Becomes Lead Partner For ARM Cortex-A50 Family Of Products And Next-Generation Mali GPUs" (Press release). 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Microcontrollers :: NXP Semiconductors". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "R-Car M1A/S". Renesas. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Samsung announce 1GHz ARM CORTEX-A8 Hummingbird CPU". GSMArena. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Samsung Exynos 5 Dual". Samsung. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "STM32 32-bit ARM Cortex MCUs". STMicroelectronics. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "ARM-Based Processor Platforms". Texas Instruments. Retrieved September 19, 1013.
- ARM and Broadcom Extend Relationship with ARMv7 and ARMv8 Architecture Licenses. Business Wire (2013-01-08). Retrieved on 2013-08-02.
- "ARM and Cavium Extend Relationship with ARMv8 Architecture License" (Press release). 1 August 2012.
- "Huawei announces global agreement to licence ARMv8 architecture" (Press release). 4 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Faraday Technology Corporation - ARM Cores".
- "HDD Markets and Technologies". Retrieved 19 September 2013. "As one of a few select companies to hold a full ARM architecture license, Marvell is uniquely positioned to leverage the pervasiveness of the ARM architecture."
- Clarke, Peter (23 July 2010). "Microsoft takes ARM architectural license". Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "NVIDIA Announces "Project Denver" To Build Custom CPU Cores Based On ARM Architecture, Targeting Personal Computers To Supercomputers" (Press release). 5 January 2011. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Allwinner A33 Processor Goes Official, Cortex-A7 Quad-core And Mali-400 MP2 GPU". GSM Insider. Retrieved 2014-06-05.
- Timothy Prickett Morgan, The Register. "ARM Holdings eager for PC and server expansion Record 2010, looking for Intel killer 2020." 1 February 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- "ARM 50 Billion Chips". ARM Holdings. Retrieved 1 April 2014.
- "Q4 revenue came from the sale of 1.8 billion ARM-processor based chips", ARM press release, 1 February 2011
- Ashok Bindra, TMCnet. "ARM, Windows 8 to Power Future Notebooks, says IHS." 28 July 2011. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- Dell, "Copper enables the ARM server ecosystem." Retrieved 9 January 2013.
- Martyn Williams, IDG News. "ARM Expects Half of Mobile PC Market by 2015." 29 May 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Arm Holdings - Annual Reports
- Hexus - ARM Everywhere
- Tony Bradley, PCWorld. "Windows 8 on ARM Expands Microsoft's Mobile Horizons." 6 January 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Keir Thomas, PCWorld. "Microsoft Demos IE10 on ARM, and It Looks Good." 14 April 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Keir Thomas, PCWorld. "Windows 8 and the ARM Revolution: The Pros and Cons." 2 June 2011. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- Peter Clarke, EE Times. "ARM extends Michigan research deal." 31 August 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- Chris Edwards, Electronics Weekly. "ARM extends Michigan low-power work." 31 August 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- "Warren East: Executive Profile & Biography". BusinessWeek. Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Warren East profile". Forbes. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
- "ARM CEO Warren East steps down". PC Pro. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- "Appointment Of New Chairman". ARM Investor Relations. ARM Investor Relations. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to ARM Limited.|