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ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit
Protein ATP5E PDB 1e79.png
PDB rendering based on 1e79.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols ATP5E ; ATPE; MC5DN3
External IDs OMIM606153 HomoloGene128187 IUPHAR: 800 GeneCards: ATP5E Gene
EC number
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ATP5E 217801 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 514 n/a
Ensembl ENSG00000124172 n/a
UniProt P56381 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_006886 n/a
RefSeq (protein) NP_008817 n/a
Location (UCSC) Chr 20:
57.6 – 57.61 Mb
PubMed search [1] n/a
Mitochondrial ATP synthase epsilon chain
PDB 2jdi EBI.jpg
ground state structure of f1-atpase from bovine heart mitochondria (bovine f1-atpase crystallised in the absence of azide)
Symbol ATP-synt_Eps
Pfam PF04627
InterPro IPR006721
SCOP 1e79

ATP synthase subunit epsilon, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ATP5E gene.[1][2]

This gene encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase. Mitochondrial ATP synthase catalyzes ATP synthesis, utilizing an electrochemical gradient of protons across the inner membrane during oxidative phosphorylation. ATP synthase is composed of two linked multi-subunit complexes: the soluble catalytic core, F1, and the membrane-spanning component, Fo, comprising the proton channel. The catalytic portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase consists of 5 different subunits (alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon) assembled with a stoichiometry of 3 alpha, 3 beta, and a single representative of the other 3. The proton channel consists of three main subunits (a, b, c). This gene encodes the epsilon subunit of the catalytic core. Two pseudogenes of this gene are located on chromosomes 4 and 13.[2]

The epsilon subunit is located in the stalk region of the F1 complex, and acts as an inhibitor of the ATPase catalytic core. The epsilon subunit can assume two conformations, contracted and extended, where the latter inhibits ATP hydrolysis. The conformation of the epsilon subunit is determined by the direction of rotation of the gamma subunit, and possibly by the presence of ADP. The extended epsilon subunit is thought to become extended in the presence of ADP, thereby acting as a safety lock to prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis.[3]


  1. ^ Tu Q, Yu L, Zhang P, Zhang M, Zhang H, Jiang J, Chen C, Zhao S (Jun 2000). "Cloning, characterization and mapping of the human ATP5E gene, identification of pseudogene ATP5EP1, and definition of the ATP5E motif". Biochem J. 347 Pt 1: 17–21. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3470017. PMC 1220925. PMID 10727396. 
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ATP5E ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit". 
  3. ^ Feniouk BA, Junge W (September 2005). "Regulation of the F0F1-ATP synthase: the conformation of subunit epsilon might be determined by directionality of subunit gamma rotation". FEBS Lett. 579 (23): 5114–8. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2005.08.030. PMID 16154570. 

Further reading[edit]

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR006721