Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

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An image of global sea surface temperatures acquired from the NOAA/ AVHRR satellite

Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments are a type of space-borne sensor that measure the reflectance of the Earth in 5 relatively wide (by today's standards) spectral bands. Most AVHRR instruments are or have been carried by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) family of polar orbiting platforms (POES). The first two are centered on the red (0.6 micrometres, 500 THz) and near-infrared (0.9 micrometres, 300 THz) regions, the third one is located around 3.5 micrometres, and the last two sample the thermal radiation emitted by the planet, around 11 and 12 micrometres, respectively. The NOAA satellite has equator crossing times of 0730 and 1930 local solar time.[1]

The first AVHRR instrument was a 4-channel radiometer, while the latest version (known as AVHRR/3, first carried on the NOAA-15 platform launched in May 1998) acquires data in a 6th channel located at 1.6 micrometres.

Operational procedures[edit]

NOAA has at least two polar-orbiting meteorological satellites in orbit at all times, with one satellite crossing the equator in the early morning and early evening and the other crossing the equator in the afternoon and late evening. The primary sensor on board both satellites is the AVHRR instrument. Morning-satellite data are most commonly used for land studies, while data from both satellites are used for atmosphere and ocean studies. Together they provide twice-daily global coverage, and ensure that data for any region of the earth are no more than six hours old. The swath width, the width of the area on the Earth's surface that the satellite can "see", is approximately 2,500 kilometers (about 1,500 miles). The satellites orbit between 833 or 870 kilometers (+/- 19 kilometers, between 516 and 541 miles) above the surface of the Earth.[2]

The highest ground resolution that can be obtained from the current AVHRR instruments is 1.1-kilometer (0.68 mi), which means that the satellite records discrete information for areas on the ground that are 1.1 by 1.1 kilometers. This smallest recorded unit is called a pixel. AVHRR data have been collected continuously since 1981.[2]

Applications[edit]

The primary purpose of these instruments is to monitor clouds and to measure the thermal emission (cooling) of the Earth. These sensors have proven useful for a number of other applications, however, including the surveillance of land surfaces, ocean state, aerosols, etc. AVHRR data are particularly relevant to study climate change and environmental degradation because of the comparatively long records of data already accumulated (over 20 years). The main difficulty associated with these investigations is to properly deal with the many limitations of these instruments, especially in the early period (sensor calibration, orbital drift, limited spectral and directional sampling, etc.).

The AVHRR instrument also flies on the MetOp series of satellites. The three planned MetOp satellites are part of the EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) run by EUMETSAT.

Calibration and validation[edit]

Remote sensing applications of the AVHRR sensor are based on validation (matchup) techniques of co-located ground observations and satellite observations. Alternatively, radiative transfer calculations are performed. There are specialized codes which allow simulation of the AVHRR observable brightness temperatures and radiances in near infrared and infrared channels.[3][4]

Pre-Launch Calibration of Visible Channels (Ch. 1 and 2)[edit]

Prior to launch, the visible channels (Ch. 1 and 2) of AVHRR sensors are calibrated by the instrument manufacturer, ITT, Aerospace/Communications Division, and are traceable to NIST standards. The calibration relationship between electronic digital count response (C) of the sensor and the albedo (A) of the calibration target are linearly regressed:[2]

A = S * C + I

where S and I are the slope and intercept (respectively) of the calibration regression [NOAA KLM]. However, the highly accurate prelaunch calibration will degrade during launch and transit to orbit as well as during the operational life of the instrument [Molling et al., 2010]. Halthore et al. [2008] note that sensor degradation is mainly caused by thermal cycling, outgassing in the filters, damage from higher energy radiation (such as ultraviolet (UV)), and condensation of outgassed gases onto sensitive surfaces.

One major design fault of AVHRR instruments is that they lack the capability to perform accurate, onboard calibrations once on orbit [NOAA KLM]. Thus, post-launch on-orbit calibration activities (known as vicarious calibration methods) must be performed to update and ensure the accuracy of retrieved radiances and the subsequent products derived from these values [Xiong et al., 2010]. Numerous studies have been performed to update the calibration coefficients and provide more accurate retrievals versus using the pre-launch calibration.

On-Orbit Individual/Few Sensor Absolute Calibration[edit]

Rao and Chen[edit]

Rao and Chen [1995] use the Libyan Desert as a radiometrically stable calibration target to derive relative annual degradation rates for Channels 1 and 2 for AVHRR sensors on board the NOAA -7, -9, and -11 satellites. Additionally, with an aircraft field campaign over the White Sands desert site in New Mexico, USA [See Smith et al., 1988], an absolute calibration for NOAA-9 was transferred from a well calibrated spectrometer on board a U-2 aircraft flying at an altitude of ~18 km in a congruent path with the NOAA-9 satellite above. After being corrected for the relative degradation, the absolute calibration of NOAA-9 is then passed onto NOAA -7 and -11 via a linear relationship using Libyan Desert observations that are restricted to similar viewing geometries as well as dates in the same calendar month [Rao and Chen, 1995], and any sensor degradation is corrected for by adjusting the slope (as a function of days after launch) between the albedo and digital count signal recorded [Rao and Chen, 1999].

Loeb[edit]

In another similar method using surface targets, Loeb [1997] utilizes spatiotemporal uniform ice surfaces in Greenland and Antarctica to produce second-order polynomial reflectance calibration curves as a function of solar zenith angle; calibrated NOAA-9 near-nadir reflectances are used to generate the curves that can then derive the calibrations for other AHVRRs in orbit (e.g. NOAA -11, -12, and -14).

It was found that the ratio of calibration coefficients derived by Loeb [1997] and Rao and Chen [1995] are independent of solar zenith angle, thus implying that the NOAA-9-derived calibration curves provide an accurate relation between the solar zenith angle and observed reflectance over Greenland and Antarctica.

Iwabuchi[edit]

Iwabuchi [2003] employed a method to calibrate NOAA -11 and -14 that utilizes clear-sky ocean and stratus cloud reflectance observations in a region of the NW Pacific Ocean and radiative transfer calculations of a theoretical molecular atmosphere to calibrate AVHRR Ch. 1. Using a month of clear-sky observations over the ocean, an initial minimum guess to the calibration slope is made. An iterative method is then used to achieve the optimal slope values for Ch. 1 with slope corrections adjusting for uncertainties in ocean reflectance, water vapor, ozone, and noise. Ch. 2 is then subsequently calibrated under the condition that the stratus cloud optical thickness in both channels must be the same (spectrally uniform in the visible) if their calibrations are correct [Iwabuchi, 2003].

Vermote and Saleous[edit]

A more contemporary calibration method for AVHRR utilizes the on-orbit calibration capabilities of the VIS/IR channels of MODIS. Vermote and Saleous [2006] present a methodology that uses MODIS to characterize the BRDF of an invariant desert site. Due to differences in the spectral bands used for the instruments’ channels, spectral translation equations were derived to accurately transfer the calibration accounting for these differences. Finally, the ratio of AVHRR observed to that modeled from the MODIS observation is used to determine the sensor degradation and adjust the calibration accordingly.

Others[edit]

Methods for extending the calibration and record continuity also make use of similar calibration activities [Heidinger et al., 2010].

Long Term Calibration and Record Continuity[edit]

In the discussion thus far, methods have been posed that can calibrate individual or are limited to a few AVHRR sensors. However, one major challenge from a climate point of view is the need for record continuity spanning 30+ years of 3 generations of AVHRR instruments as well as more contemporary sensors such as MODIS and VIIRS. Several artifacts may exist in the nominal AVHRR calibration, and even in updated calibrations, that cause a discontinuity in the long-term radiance record constructed from multiple satellites [Cao et al., 2008].

International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) method[edit]

Brest and Rossow [1992], and the updated methodology [Brest et al., 1997], put forth a robust method for calibration monitoring of individual sensors and normalization of all sensors to a common standard. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) method begins with the detection of clouds and corrections for ozone, Rayleigh scatter, and seasonal variations in irradiance to produce surface reflectances. Monthly histograms of surface reflectance are then produced for various surface types, and various histogram limits are then applied as a filter to the original sensor observations and ultimately aggregated to produce a global, cloud free surface reflectance.

After filtering, the global maps are segregated into monthly mean SURFACE, two bi-weekly SURFACE, and a mean TOTAL reflectance maps. The monthly mean SURFACE reflectance maps are used to detect long-term trends in calibration. The bi-weekly SURFACE maps are compared to each other and are used to detect short-term changes in calibration.

Finally, the TOTAL maps are used to detect and assess bias in the processing methodology. The target histograms are also examined, as changes in mode reflectances and in population are likely the result of changes in calibration.

Long-term Record Continuity[edit]

Long-term record continuity is achieved by the normalization between two sensors. First, observations from the operational time period overlap of two sensors are processed. Next, the two global SURFACE maps are compared via a scatter plot. Additionally, observations are corrected for changes in solar zenith angle caused by orbital drift. Ultimately, a line is fit to determine the overall long-term drift in calibration, and, after a sensor is corrected for drift, normalization is performed on observations that occur during the same operational period [Brest et al., 1997].

Calibration using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer[edit]

Another recent method for the absolute calibration of the AHVRR record makes use of the contemporary MODIS sensor onboard NASA’s TERRA and AQUA satellites. The MODIS instrument has high calibration accuracy and can track its own radiometric changes due to the inclusion of an onboard calibration system for the VIS/NIR spectral region [MCST]. The following method utilizes the high accuracy of MODIS to absolutely calibrate AVHRRs via simultaneous nadir overpasses (SNOs) of both MODIS/AVHRR and AVHRR/AVHRR satellite pairs as well as MODIS-characterized surface reflectances for a Libyan Desert target and Dome-C in Antarctica [Heidinger et al., 2010]. Ultimately, each individual calibration event available (MODIS/AVHRR SNO, Dome C, Libyan Desert, or AVHRR/AVHRR SNO) is used to provide a calibration slope time series for a given AVHRR sensor. Heidinger et al. [2010] use a second-order polynomial from a least-squares fit to determine the time series.

The first step involves using a radiative transfer model that will convert observed MODIS scenes into those that a perfectly calibrated AVHRR would see. For MODIS/AVHRR SNO occurrences, it was determined that the ratio of AVHRR to MODIS radiances in both Ch1 and Ch2 are modeled well by a second-order polynomial of the radio of MODIS reflectances in channels 17 and 18. Channels 17 and 18 are located in a spectral region (0.94mm) sensitive to atmospheric water vapor, a quantity that affects the accurate calibration of AVHRR Ch. 2. Using the Ch17 to Ch 18 ratio, an accurate guess at the total precipitable water (TPW) is obtained to further increase the accuracy of MODIS to AVHRR SNO calibrations. The Libyan Desert and Dome-C calibration sites are used when MODIS/AVHRR SNOs do not occur. Here, the AVHRR to MODIS ratio of reflectances is modeled as a third-order polynomial using the natural logarithm of TWP from the NCEP reanalysis. Using these two methods, monthly calibration slopes are generated with a linear fit forced through the origin of the adjusted MODIS reflectances versus AVHRR counts.

To extend the MODIS reference back for AVHRRs prior to the MODIS era (pre-2000), Heidinger et al. [2010] use the stable Earth targets of Dome C in Antarctica and the Libyan Desert. MODIS mean nadir reflectances over the target are determined and are plotted versus the solar zenith angle. The counts for AVHRR observations at a given solar zenith angle and corresponding MODIS reflectance, corrected for TWP, are then used to determine what AVHRR value would be provided it had the MODIS calibration. The calibration slope is now calculated.

Calibration using direct AVHRR/AVHRR SNOs[edit]

One final method used by Heidinger et al. [2010] for extending the MODIS calibration back to AVHRRs that operated outside of the MODIS era is through direct AVHRR/AVHRR SNOs. Here, the counts from AVHRRs are plotted and a regression forced through the origin calculated. This regression is used to transfer the accurate calibration of one AVHRRs reflectances to the counts of an un-calibrated AVHRR and produce appropriate calibration slopes. These AVHRR/AVHRR SNOs do not provide an absolute calibration point themselves; rather they act as anchors for the relative calibration between AVHRRs that can be used to transfer the ultimate MODIS calibration.

Next-generation system[edit]

Operational experience with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer MODIS[5] sensor onboard NASA's Terra and Aqua led to the development of AVHRR's follow-on, VIIRS.[6] VIIRS is currently operating on board the NPOESS Preparatory Project satellite and will be deployed on board the Joint Polar Satellite System in the late 2016 timeframe.[7]

Launch and service dates[edit]

Satellite name Launch date Service start Service end
TIROS-N ['tairəus]

[Television and Infrared Observation Satellite]

13 Oct 1978 19 Oct 1978 30 Jan 1980
NOAA-6 27 Jun 1979 27 Jun 1979 16 Nov 1986
NOAA-7 23 Jun 1981 24 Aug 1981 7 Jun 1986
NOAA-8 28 Mar 1983 3 May 1983 31 Oct 1985
NOAA-9 12 Dec 1984 25 Feb 1985 11 May 1994
NOAA-10 17 Sep 1986 17 Nov 1986 17 Sep 1991
NOAA-11 24 Sep 1988 8 Nov 1988 13 Sep 1994
NOAA-12 13 May 1991 14 May 1991 15 Dec 1994
NOAA-14 30 Dec 1994 30 Dec 1994 23 May 2007
NOAA-15 13 May 1998 13 May 1998 Present
NOAA-16 21 Sep 2000 21 Sep 2000 Present
NOAA-17 24 Jun 2002 24 Jun 2002 10 Apr 2013
NOAA-18 20 May 2005 30 Aug 2005 Present
NOAA-19 6 Feb 2009 2 Jun 2009 Present
MetOp-A[8] 19 Oct 2006 20 Jun 2007 Present
TIROS/NOAA dates from USGS website[9] and from NOAA POES Status website[10]

References[edit]

Brest, C.L. and W.B. Rossow. 1992. Radiometric calibration and monitoring of NOAA AVHRR data for ISCCP. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 13. pp. 235–273.

Brest, C.L. et al. 1997. Update of Radiance Calibrations for ISCCP. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. Vol 14. pp. 1091–1109.

Cao, C. et al. 2008. Assessing the consistency of AVHRR and MODIS L1B reflectance for generating Fundamental Climate Data Records. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 113. D09114. doi: 10.1029/2007JD009363.

Halthore, R. et al. 2008. Role of Aerosol Absorption in Satellite Sensor Calibration. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. Vol. 5. pp. 157–161.

Heidinger, A. K. et al. 2002. Using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) to calibrate Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer reflectance channels. Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 107. doi: 10.1029/2001JD002035.

Heidinger, A.K. et al. 2010. Deriving an inter-sensor consistent calibration for the AVHRR solar reflectance data record. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 31. pp. 6493–6517.

Iwabuchi, H. 2003. Calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of NOAA-11 and NOAA-14 AVHRRs by using reflections from molecular atmosphere and stratus cloud. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 24. pp. 5367–5378.

Loeb, N.G. 1997. In-flight calibration of NOAA AVHRR visible and near-IR bands over Greenland and Antarctica. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 18. pp. 477–490.

MCST. MODIS Level 1B Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Version 3. Goddard Space Flight Center. Greenbelt, MD. December 2005.

Molling, C.C. et al. 2010. Calibrations for AVHRR channels 1 and 2: review and path towards consensus. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 31. pp. 6519–6540.

NOAA KLM User’s Guide with NOAA-N, -N’ Supplement. NOAA NESDIS NCDC. Asheville, NC. February 2009.

Rao, C.R.N. and J. Chen. 1995. Inter-satellite calibration linkages for the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-7, -9, and -11 spacecraft. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 16. pp. 1931–1942.

Rao, C.R.N. and J. Chen. 1999. Revised post-launch calibration of the visible and near-infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA-14 spacecraft. International Journal of Remote Sensing. Vol. 20. pp. 3485–3491.

Smith, G.R. et al. 1988. Calibration of the Solar Channels of the NOAA-9 AVHRR Using High Altitude Aircraft Measurements. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. Vol. 5. pp. 631–639.

Vermote, E.F. and N.Z. Saleous. 2006. Calibration of NOAA16 AVHRR over a desert site using MODIS data. Remote Sensing of Environment. Vol. 105. pp. 214–220.

Xiong, X. et al. 2010. On-Orbit Calibration and Performance of Aqua MODIS Reflective Solar Bands. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Vol 48. pp. 535–546.

External links[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • Frey, C.; Kuenzer, C.; Dech, S. (2012). "Quantitative comparison of the operational NOAA AVHRR LST product of DLR and the MODIS LST product V005". International Journal of Remote Sensing. doi:10.1080/01431161.2012.699693.