Audio and video interfaces and connectors

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The existence of many different audio and video standards necessitates the definition of hardware interfaces, which define the physical characteristics of the connections between electrical equipment. This includes the types and numbers of wires required along with the strength and frequency of the signal. It also includes the physical design of the plugs and sockets.

An interface may define a connector that is used only by that interface (e.g., DVI) or may define a connector that is also used by another interface; for example, RCA connectors are defined both by the composite video and component video interfaces.

Audio connectors and video connectors are electrical connectors (or optical connectors) for carrying audio signal and video signal, of either analog or digital format. Analog A/V connectors often use shielded cables to inhibit radio frequency interference (RFI) and noise.

Since both analog and digital signals are used with some styles of connectors, knowledge of the interface used is necessary for a successful transfer of signals. Some interface types use only a distinctive connector or family of connectors, to ensure compatibility. Especially with analog interfaces, physically interchangeable connectors may not carry compatible signals.

Some of these connectors, and other types of connectors, are also used at radio frequency (RF) to connect a radio or television receiver to an antenna or to a cable system; RF connector applications are not further described here.

Interfaces and their connectors[edit]

Interface Connectors
Audio or Video Digital or Analog Description
Audio Only Analog PC System Design Guide. Audio Color Coding 3.5 mm TRS minijack
Digital S/PDIF (Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format). Via Coaxial or Optical cables. RCA Jack (Coaxial),
TOSLINK (Optical),
BNC (Rare)
Video Only Analog Video Graphics Array (VGA) D-subminiature 15 pin
Composite. Often designated by the CVBS acronym, meaning "Color, Video, Blank and Sync". RCA jack, normally yellow (often accompanied with red and white for right and left audio channels respectively)
S-Video aka Separate Video. Carries standard definition video and does not carry audio on the same cable. Mini-DIN 4 Pin
Component. In popular use, it refers to a type of analog video information that is transmitted or stored as three separate signals. Either RGB Interfaces or YPbPr 3 RCA Jacks
Composite, S-Video, and Component VIVO = Mini-DIN 9 Pin with breakout cable.
Digital And Analog Digital Visual Interface (DVI) DVI connector
Video and Audio Analog SCART (Peritel) SCART
Digital High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI),BNC HDMI connector
DisplayPort DisplayPort connector
IEEE 1394 "FireWire" FireWire or i.LINK connectors

Interfaces[edit]

PC System Design Guide Audio[edit]

Older sound cards had no common standard color codes until after PC99. The PC System Design Guide (also known as the PC 97, PC 98, PC 99, or PC 2001 specification) is a series of hardware design requirements and recommendations for IBM PC compatible personal computers, compiled by Microsoft and Intel Corporation during 1997–2001. PC 99 introduced a color code for the various standard types of plugs and connectors used on PCs.

The color code for audio plugs follow:[1]

Orange TRS 3.5 mm Output, subwoofer
Blue TRS 3.5 mm Input, line level
Pink TRS† 3.5 mm microphone input
Lime TRS 3.5 mm Output, front channels
Brown TRS 3.5 mm Output, 'Right-to-left speaker'
Gold TRS 3.5 mm MIDI/game

† Though the input is often mono, the actual connector is usually still a 3-conductor TRS phone minijack. Many mono computer microphones have 3-conductor TRS plugs.

S/PDIF[edit]

The electrical coaxial cable (with RCA jacks) or optical fibre (TOSLINK).

Note that there are no differences in the signals transmitted over optical or coaxial S/PDIF connectors—both carry exactly the same information. Selection of one over the other rests mainly on the availability of appropriate connectors on the chosen equipment and the preference and convenience of the user. Connections longer than 6 meters or so, or those requiring tight bends, should use coaxial cable, since the high light signal attenuation of TOSLINK cables limits its effective range.

HDMI[edit]

HDMI Type A socket

High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) is a compact audio/video standard for transmitting uncompressed digital data.

There are three HDMI connector types. Type A and Type B were defined by the HDMI 1.0 specification. Type C was defined by the HDMI 1.3 specification.

Type A is electrically compatible with single link DVI-D. Type B is electrically compatible with dual link DVI-D but has not yet been used in any products.

IEEE 1394 "FireWire"[edit]

The 6-circuit and 4-circuit alpha FireWire 400 connectors

IEEE 1394 FireWire is a digital data transfer protocol commonly used for digital cameras (common on MiniDV tape camcorders), but also used for computer data and audio data transfers. In the United States, cable TV converter set top boxes by law[2] also have the connection for transferring content directly to a TV (if equipped with a port) or computer for viewing. 1394 can also use coaxial cable as a medium for longer runs.

Unlike Point-to-Point connections listed above, IEEE 1394 is able to host several signals on the same wire, with the data delivered and shown on the destination set. It is also fully bi-directional, with its full bandwidth used in one direction or the other, or split directions up to its maximum.[3]

DisplayPort[edit]

pinout_caption=External connector (source-side) on PCB

DisplayPort is a digital display interface standard (approved May 2006, current version 1.1a approved on January 11, 2008). It defines a new license-free, royalty-free, digital audio/video interconnect, intended to be used primarily between a computer and its display monitor, or a computer and a home-theater system.

The video signal is not compatible with DVI or HDMI, but a DisplayPort connector can pass these signals through. DisplayPort is a competitor to the HDMI connector, the de facto digital connection for high-definition consumer electronics devices.

Combined audio/video interfaces[edit]

Some connectors can carry both audio and video signals simultaneously:

Other composite connectors that carry video, audio, power, and USB:

Audio connectors[edit]

Audio connectors are used for audio frequencies. They can be analog or digital.

Single wire connectors used frequently for analog audio include:

A myriad of multi-conductor cable plug connectors and matching sockets are used for analog and digital audio connections.

Phone connector[edit]

2.5 mm (3/32") mono (TS), 3.5 mm (1/8") mono and stereo (TRS), and 6.3 mm (1/4") stereo (TRS) phone connectors

A phone connector (tip, ring, sleeve) also called an audio jack, phone plug, jack plug, stereo plug, mini-jack, or mini-stereo. This includes the original 6.35mm (quarter inch) jack and the more recent 3.5mm (miniature or 1/8 inch) and 2.5mm (subminiature) jacks, both mono and stereo (balanced) versions.

DIN[edit]

Five-pin male 180° DIN connector

A DIN connector is a connector that was originally standardized by the Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN).

BNC[edit]

Male 50 ohm BNC connector

The BNC (Bayonet Neill Concelman) connector is a very common type of RF connector used for terminating coaxial cable.

TOSLINK[edit]

Clear TOSLINK cable with a round connector

TOSLINK or Optical Cable is a standardized optical fiber connection system.

XLR[edit]

XLR3 cable connectors, female on left and male on right

XLR connector plugs and sockets are used mostly in professional audio and video electronics cabling applications. XLR connector are also known as Cannon plugs after their original manufacturer. They are used for analog or digital balanced audio with a balanced line

Digital audio interfaces and interconnects with the AES/EBU interface also normally use an XLR connector.

RCA[edit]

RCA Plugs for composite video (yellow) and stereo audio (white and red)

RCA connectors, also known as phono connectors or phono plugs, are used for analog or digital audio or analog video. These were first used inside pre-World-War-II radio-phonographs to connect the turntable pickup to the radio chassis. They were not intended to be disconnected and reconnected frequently, and their retaining friction was quite sufficient for their original purpose. Furthermore, the design of both cable and chassis connectors was for minimum cost. Initially intended for audio frequency connections only, the RCA plug was also used for analog composite video and non-critical radio-frequency applications.

Video connectors[edit]

Video connectors carry only video signals. Common video-only connectors include:

Mini-DIN[edit]

mini-DIN 4 pin for S-Video

The Mini-DIN connectors are a family of multi-pin electrical connectors used in a variety of applications. Mini-DIN is similar to the larger, older DIN connector. Both are standards of the Deutsches Institut für Normung, the German standards body.

D-subminiature[edit]

DA, DB, DC, DD, and DE sized connectors

D-subminiature or D-sub is a common type of electrical connector used particularly in computers. Calling them "subminiature" was appropriate when they were first introduced, but today they are among the largest common connectors used in computers. The DB25 is used for multi-track recording and other multi-channel audio, analog or digital (ADAT interface (DB25)).

Video In Video Out[edit]

A graphics card with VGA, VIVO and DVI outputs
A 6-connector VIVO splitter cable. From left to right: S-Video In, Component Pb out, Component Pr out, Component Y out/Composite out, Composite in, S-Video Out

Video In Video Out, usually seen as the acronym VIVO (commonly pronounced vee-voh), is a graphics card port which enables some video cards to have bidirectional (input and output) video transfer through a Mini-DIN, usually of the 9-pin variety, and a specialised splitter cable (which can sometimes also transfer sound).

VIVO is found predominantly on high-end ATI video cards, although a few high-end NVIDIA video cards also have this port. VIVO on these graphics cards typically supports Composite, S-Video, and Component as outputs, and composite and S-Video as inputs. Many other video cards only support component and/or S-Video outputs to complement Video Graphics Array or DVI, typically using a component breakout cable and an S-Video cable.

DVI Connector[edit]

Color codes[edit]

white RCA/TS analogue audio, left channel;
also mono (RCA/TS), stereo (TRS only),
or undefined/other
black RCA/TS/TRS
grey RCA/TS/TRS
red RCA/TS analogue audio, right channel
orange RCA SPDIF digital audio
yellow RCA/BNC composite video
red RCA/BNC red or Pr/Cr chrominance
green RCA/BNC green or luminance
blue RCA/BNC blue or Pb/Cb chrominance
white BNC horizontal sync
black BNC vertical sync

Newer connectors are identified by their shape and not their colour.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ PC 99 System Design Guide, Intel Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, 14 July 1999. Chapter 3: PC 99 basic requirements (99 System Design Guide (Self extracting .exe). Requirement 3.18.3: Systems use a color-coding scheme for connectors and ports. Accessed 2009-02-05
  2. ^ http://www.1394ta.org/consumers/FCC_complaint.html All Cable TV box have working 1394 ports, FCC rule CS Docket 97-80" and "section 47 C.F.R. 76.640(b)(4)
  3. ^ http://www.1394ta.org/about/HANA/HANA_Presentation_041808.pdf Demonstrating the multi-device capabilities of IEEE A/V network.

External links[edit]