A Clockwork Orange (soundtrack)
|Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange|
|Soundtrack album by Wendy Carlos|
|Wendy Carlos chronology|
The music is a thematic extension of Alex's (and the viewer's) psychological conditioning. The soundtrack of A Clockwork Orange comprises classical music and electronic synthetic music composed by Wendy Carlos (who, having not yet transitioned, was credited as "Walter Carlos"). Some of the music is heard only as excerpts, e.g. Edward Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1 (aka Land of Hope and Glory) ironically heralding a politician's appearance at the prison. The main theme is an electronic transcription of Henry Purcell's Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary, composed in 1695, for the procession of Queen Mary's cortège through London en route to Westminster Abbey. "March from A Clockwork Orange" was the first recorded song featuring a vocoder for the singing; synthpop bands often cite it as their inspiration. Neither the end credits nor the soundtrack album identify the orchestra playing the Ninth Symphony excerpts, however, in Alex's bedroom, there is a close-up of a microcassette tape labeled: Deutsche Grammophon – Ludwig van Beethoven – Symphonie Nr. 9 d-moll, op. 125 – Berliner Philharmoniker – Chor der St. Hedwigskathedrale – Ferenc Fricsay – Irmgard Seefried, Maureen Forrester, Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau, Ernst Haefliger.
In the novel, Alex is conditioned against all classical music, but in the film, only against L. v. Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, the soundtrack of a violent Ludovico Technique film. The audience does not see every violent film Alex is forced to view during Ludovico conditioning, yet the symphony's fourth movement is heard. Later, using the symphony's second movement, Mr Alexander, and fellow plotters, impel Alex to attempt suicide.
|1.||"Title Music From A Clockwork Orange" (From Henry Purcell's Music for the Funeral of Queen Mary)||Carlos, Rachel Elkind||Wendy Carlos||2:21|
|2.||"The Thieving Magpie (Abridged)"||Gioachino Rossini||A Deutsche Grammophon Recording||5:57|
|3.||"Theme from A Clockwork Orange (Beethoviana)"||Carlos, Elkind||Wendy Carlos||1:44|
|4.||"Ninth Symphony, Second Movement (Abridged)"||Ludwig van Beethoven||A Deutsche Grammophon Recording conducted by Ferenc Fricsay||3:48|
|5.||"March from A Clockwork Orange (Ninth Symphony, Fourth Movement, Abridged)"||Beethoven, arr. Carlos
Friedrich Schiller (lyric)
(Articulations: Rachel Elkind)
|6.||"William Tell Overture (Abridged)"||Rossini||Wendy Carlos||1:17|
|7.||"Pomp and Circumstance March No. I"||Edward Elgar||(not credited)||4:28|
|8.||"Pomp and Circumstance March No. IV (Abridged)"||Elgar||(not credited)||1:33|
|9.||"Timesteps (Excerpt)"||Carlos||Wendy Carlos||4:13|
|10.||"Overture to the Sun" (rerecorded instrumental from Sound of Sunforest, 1969)||Tucker||Terry Tucker||1:40|
|11.||"I Want to Marry a Lighthouse Keeper" (rerecorded song from Sound of Sunforest, 1969; film version differs from soundtrack version)||Eigen||Erika Eigen||1:00|
|12.||"William Tell Overture (Abridged)"||Rossini||A Deutsche Grammophon Recording||2:58|
|13.||"Suicide Scherzo (Ninth Symphony, Second Movement, Abridged)"||Beethoven, arr. Carlos||Wendy Carlos||3:07|
|14.||"Ninth Symphony, Fourth Movement, (Abridged)"||Beethoven||A Deutsche Grammophon Recording (Von Karajan, 1963, uncredited)||1:34|
|15.||"Singin' in the Rain"||lyrics by Arthur Freed, music by Nacio Herb Brown||Gene Kelly||2:36|
Although two excerpts from Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade are heard during Alex's Biblical daydreams while reading the Bible in jail, this piece does not appear on the soundtrack album, nor is it listed in the closing credits.
However, its presence in the film is acknowledged by critic Michel Ciment in the filmography in the back of his book Kubrick, and at least the composer's name is mentioned as used in the soundtrack in three other books on either Kubrick or the film.
According to the book Kristopher Spencer's book on film scores both Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade and Terry Tucker's Overture to the Sun were used by Kubrick originally as temp tracks for the film, but he ultimately chose to stick to these rather than the pieces Carlos composed for those sections. He states the original LP omitted the first due to lack of space on a traditional vinyl LP recording.
Three months after the official soundtrack's release, composer Carlos released Wendy Carlos' Clockwork Orange (1972) (Columbia KC 31480), a second version of the soundtrack containing unused cues and musical elements unheard in the film. For example, Kubrick used only part of "Timesteps", and a short version of the synthesiser transcription of the Ninth Symphony's Scherzo. The second soundtrack album contains a synthesiser version of Rossini's "La Gazza Ladra" (The Thieving Magpie); the film contains an orchestral version. In 1998, a digitally-remastered album edition, with tracks of the synthesiser music was released. It contains Carlos's compositions, including those unused in the film, and the "Biblical Daydreams" and "Orange Minuet" cues excluded from the 1972 edition.
Carlos composed the first three minutes of "Timesteps" before reading the novel A Clockwork Orange. Originally intending it as the introduction to a vocoder rendition of the Ninth Symphony's Choral movement; it was completed approximately when Kubrick completed the photography; "Timesteps" and the vocoder Ninth Symphony were the foundation for the Carlos–Kubrick collaboration.
Moreover, Stanley Kubrick asked Pink Floyd bassist Roger Waters to use elements of the Atom Heart Mother suite. Waters refused when he found that Kubrick wanted the freedom to cut up the piece to fit the film. Later, Waters asked Kubrick if he could use sounds from 2001: A Space Odyssey; Kubrick duly refused.
It is said that Carlos was so insulted by Kubrick's decision to jettison most of the synthesizer score that she and Elkind refused to work with Kubrick again until The Shining.
Reuse of music
Wendy Carlos reused many of the musical motifs from this score (including the main themes by Purcell, Rossini, and Beethoven) in Clockwork Black, the 4th movement of her (1998) musical composition Tales of Heaven and Hell.
- Thomas Nelson Kubrick, inside a film artist's maze p. 303, Stanley Kubrick's A clockwork orange by Stuart MacDougal - Page 157, Stanley Kubrick: a narrative and stylistic analysis by Mario Falsetto - Page 193
- Film and television scores, 1950-1979: a critical survey by genre by Kristopher Spencer pp.191-192
- Blake, Mark (2007). Pigs Might Fly: The Inside Story of Pink Floyd. London, United Kingdom: Aurum Press Limited. p. 153. ISBN 978-1-84513-366-5.
- Blake, Mark (2007). Pigs Might Fly: The Inside Story of Pink Floyd. London, United Kingdom: Aurum Press Limited. p. 349. ISBN 978-1-84513-366-5.