A. R. Rahman
|A. R. Rahman|
|Birth name||A. S. Dileepkumar|
|Also known as||A. R. Rahman, A. R. R., Allah Rakha Rahman|
|Born|| Madras, Tamil Nadu, India 6 January 1967|
|Genres||Film score, electronic, dance, classical|
|Occupations||Singer, songwriter, composer, record producer, music director, arranger, entrepreneur, philanthropist, conductor|
|Instruments||Vocals, guitar, percussion, drums, harpejji, continuum fingerboard, keyboard, piano, accordion, goblet drum, concert harp|
|Labels||K. M. Musiq|
|Associated acts||Nemesis Avenue, SuperHeavy|
|This article is part of a series on
A. R. Rahman
Allah-Rakha Rahman ( pronunciation (help·info); born A. S. Dileep Kumar, 6 January 1967) is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, music producer, musician, multi-instrumentalist and philanthropist. Described as the world's most prominent and prolific film composer by Time, his works are notable for integrating Eastern classical music with electronic music sounds, world music genres and traditional orchestral arrangements. He has won two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, four National Film Awards, fifteen Filmfare Awards and thirteen Filmfare Awards South in addition to numerous other awards and nominations. His extensive body of work for film and the stage earned him the nickname "the Mozart of Madras" and several Tamil commentators and fans have coined him the nickname Isai Puyal (English: Music Storm). In 2009, Time placed Rahman in its list of World's Most Influential People. The UK-based World Music magazine Songlines named him one of 'Tomorrow's World Music Icons' in August 2011.
Having set up his own in-house studio called Panchathan Record Inn at Chennai, arguably one of Asia’s most sophisticated and high-tech studios, Rahman's film scoring career began in the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's various film industries, international cinema and theatre, Rahman is one of the world's all-time top selling recording artists. In a notable career spanning two decades, Rahman has garnered particular acclaim for redefining contemporary Indian film music and thus contributing to the success of several films. Rahman is currently one of the highest paid composers of the motion picture industry. He has also become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for beneficial causes and supporting charities.
A. R. Rahman was born in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India to a musically affluent Mudaliar Tamil family. His father R. K. Shekhar, was a film music composer and conductor for Tamil as well as Malayalam films. Rahman used to assist his father during recordings and play keyboard for the songs. Rahman lost his father at the age of 9 and his family had to rent out his father's musical equipment as their source of income. Rahman was raised by his mother Kareema (born Kashturi). During these formative years, Rahman served as a keyboard player and an arranger in bands such as "Roots", with childhood friend and percussionist Sivamani, John Anthony, Suresh Peters, JoJo and Raja. Rahman is the founder of the Chennai-based rock group, "Nemesis Avenue". He mastered various music instruments like Keyboard, Piano, Synthesizer, Harmonium and Guitar. His curiosity in Synthesizer in particular, increased because, he says, it was the "ideal combination of music and technology".
He began early training in music under Master Dhanraj. At the age of 11, he started playing musical instruments in the orchestra of Malayalam composer and a close friend of Rahman's father, M. K. Arjunan. Soon he started working with other composers such as M. S. Viswanathan, Ilaiyaraaja, Ramesh Naidu, Raj-Koti and also accompanied Zakir Hussain, Kunnakudi Vaidyanathan and L. Shankar on world tours and obtained a scholarship with Trinity College, London, board of the Trinity College of Music. Studying in Chennai, he graduated with graded examinations and a diploma in Western classical music via the college. He was introduced to Qadiri Islam when his younger sister fell severely ill in 1984. Subsequently, Rahman along with other members of his family converted to Islam, his mother's faith, in 1989, when he was 23 years old. He changed his name from R. S. Dileep Kumar to Allah Rakha Rahman (A. R. Rahman).
Rahman's film career began in 1992, when he started Panchathan Record Inn, a music recording and mixing studio attached to the backyard of his house. Over time it would become the most advanced recording studio in India, and arguably one of Asia’s most sophisticated and high-tech studios. He initially composed scores for documentaries, jingles for advertisements and Indian Television channels and other projects. In 1987 Rahman, then still known as Dileep got his first opportunity to compose jingles for new range of watches being launched by Allwyn. In 1992, he was approached by film director Mani Ratnam to compose the score and soundtrack for Ratnam's Tamil film Roja. During the filming, it's Cinematographer Santosh Sivan signed A. R. Rahman up for the Malayalam movie Yodha, directed by his brother Sangeeth Sivan released later in September 1992. The debut led Rahman to receive the Rajat Kamal (Silver Lotus) award for Best Music Director at the National Film Awards, an unprecedented win for a first-time film composer. Rahman has since been awarded the Silver Lotus three more times for Minsara Kanavu (Tamil) in 1997, Lagaan (Hindi) in 2002, Kannathil Muthamittal (Tamil) in 2003, the most ever by any composer.
Roja's score met with high sales and acclaim in both its original and dubbed versions, led by the theme song "Chinna Chinna Aasai" bringing about a marked change in film music at the time. Rahman followed this with successful scores for Tamil–language films of the Chennai film industry including Ratnam's politically charged Bombay, the urbanite Kadhalan, Thiruda Thiruda and S. Shankar's debut film Gentleman, spurred by the popular dance song "Chikku Bukku Rayile". Rahman worked with director Bharathiraaja's Kizhakku Cheemayile and Karuththamma, producing successful Tamil rural folk inspired scores and delivered the grand saxophonic score for K. Balachander's Duet. The 1995 film Indira and the romantic comedies Mr. Romeo and Love Birds all gained him considerable notice. His fanbase in Japan increased with Muthu 's success there. His soundtracks gained him recognition in the Tamil Nadu film industry and around the world for his stylistic versatility incorporating Western classical, Carnatic and Tamil traditional/folk music traditions, jazz, reggae and rock music. The soundtrack of Bombay sold 12 million copies worldwide. The "Bombay Theme"—from Ratnam's Bombay—would later reappear in his score of Deepa Mehta's Fire and various compilations and media around the world. It was featured in the Palestinian film Divine Intervention in 2002, and in the Nicolas Cage film Lord of War, in 2005. Rangeela, directed by Ram Gopal Varma, marked Rahman's debut for Hindi-language films made in the Mumbai film industry. Many successful scores for films including Dil Se.. and the percussive Taal followed. Sufi mysticism would inspire the track "Chaiyya Chaiyya" from the former, as well as the composition "Zikr" from his score for the film Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero for which he created large symphonic orchestral and choral arrangements. His score for the Chennai production Minsaara Kanavu garnered Rahman his second National Film Award for Best Music Direction in 1997, and a South FilmFare Award for Best Music Direction in a Tamil film, breaking a record with six consecutive wins in the latter category. Rahman would go onto win the award a further three consecutive times. Musical cues in scores for Sangamam and Iruvar employed Carnatic vocals and instruments such as the veena with leads of rock guitar and jazz. In the 2000s Rahman created hit scores for Rajiv Menon's Kandukondain Kandukondain, Alaipayuthey, Ashutosh Gowariker's Swades and Rang De Basanti. He composed songs with Hindustani motifs for Water (2005).
Rahman has worked with Indian poets and lyricists such as Javed Akhtar, Gulzar, Vairamuthu and Vaali. He has consistently produced commercially successful soundtracks when collaborating with particular film directors such as Mani Ratnam, who he has worked with since Roja, and the director S. Shankar in the films Gentleman, Kadhalan, Indian, Jeans, Mudhalvan, Nayak, Boys, Sivaji and lately for Enthiran.
In 2005, Rahman extended his Panchathan Record Inn studio by establishing AM Studios in Kodambakkam, Chennai, thereby creating the most cutting-edge studio in Asia. In 2006, Rahman launched his own music label, KM Music. Its first release was his score to the film Sillunu Oru Kaadhal. Rahman scored the Mandarin-language picture Warriors of Heaven and Earth in 2003 after researching and utilising Chinese and Japanese classical music, and won the Just Plain Folks Music Award For Best Music Album for his score of the 2006 film Varalaru (God Father). He co-scored the Shekhar Kapur project and his first British film, Elizabeth: The Golden Age, in 2007. He garnered an Asian Film Award nomination for Best Composer at the Hong Kong International Film Festival for his Jodhaa Akbar score. His compositions have been sampled for other scores within India, and appeared in such films as Inside Man, Lord of War, Divine Intervention and The Accidental Husband. In 2008, Rahman scored his first Hollywood picture, the comedy Couples Retreat released the next year, which won him the BMI London Award for Best Score. Rahman scored the film Slumdog Millionaire in 2008, for which he won a Golden Globe and two Academy Awards, becoming the first Asian to do so. The songs "Jai Ho" and "O…Saya" from the soundtrack of this film met with commercial success internationally. In 2008 Bollywood film Jaane tu ya jaane na had music by Rahman, released to great popularity among Indian youth. In 2010, Rahman composed scores for the romance film Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, blockbuster sci-fi romance film Enthiran and Danny Boyle's 127 Hours. Rahman started off the year 2011 by scoring Imtiaz Ali's musical film Rockstar. The soundtrack became a phenomenal success and earned Rahman immense critical praise.
In 2012, Rahman scored for Ekk Deewana Tha and also for the American-drama film People Like Us He also made his first and last collaboration with the director Yash Chopra by scoring for Jab Tak Hai Jaan. The music got a general positive reception. By end of 2012, Rahman's music for Mani Ratnam's Kadal garnered tremendous critical applause. The entire album remained on top position on iTunes India for the last month of 2012.
In 2013, Rahman composed two soundtracks: Raanjhanaa and Maryan. Raanjhanaa is a Bollywood movie and Maryan is a Tamil movie. Both became highly successful and termed as chart busting soundtracks. Especially, "Maryan" album was a colossal hit and it was chosen as "iTunes India best Tamil album of 2013". Early 2014 saw the soundtrack release of Highway, his second collaboration with director Imtiaz Ali. In this film, Rahman sang two songs - "Patakha Guddi" and "Maahi Ve". Music Aloud rated the album 9 out of 10 and wrote,"The A R Rahman-Imtiaz Ali-Irshad Kamil team delivers yet another musical treat! Totally worth the wait" Critic Pawan Jha for BBC World Service stated, "Another winner from A. R. Rahman and Irshad Kamil" and gave it 3.5 on 5.
Apart from very successful soundtracks, he is also known for soul-stirring and highly acclaimed background scores. He is often considered as one of the finest ever background score composers.
His scores are considered innovative, unique and very unusual. Previously, film scoring consisted of traditional orchestra and strings sections. But Rahman revolutionised the art of scoring and brought unique and fresh sound to his film scores. He introduced vocals, relatively new instruments, different sounds and restrained orchestration into his film scores, due to which his scores sound subtle, yet powerful.
His background scores for films such as Roja, Yodha, Thiruda Thiruda, Bombay, Dil Se.., Lagaan, Warriors of Heaven and Earth, The Legend of Bhagat Singh, Swades, Mangal Pandey: The Rising, Guru, Jodhaa Akbar, Slumdog Millionaire, Enthiran and 127 Hours are highly acclaimed.
He won the "Academy Award" and the "Golden Globe Award" for the score of Slumdog Millionaire (where he sang to songs, namely "Jai Ho" and "O Saya"), "Filmfare Award for Best Background Score" four times for The Legend of Bhagat Singh, Swades, Guru, Jodhaa Akbar and "IIFA Best Background Music" two times for Guru and Jodhaa Akbar.
Performing and other projects
Rahman has been involved in several projects aside from film. Vande Mataram, an album of his original compositions released on India's 50th anniversary of independence in 1997, enjoyed great commercial success. Vande Mataram is one of the largest selling Indian non-film album to date. He followed it up with an album for the Bharat Bala–directed video Jana Gana Mana, a conglomeration of performances by many leading exponents and artists of Indian classical music. Rahman has written jingles for ads and composed several orchestrations for athletic events, television and internet media publications, documentaries and short films. He frequently enlists the Czech Film Orchestra, Prague and the Chennai Strings Orchestra.
In 1999, Rahman partnered with choreographers Shobana and Prabhu Deva and a Tamil cinema dancing troupe to perform with Michael Jackson in Munich, Germany at his "Michael Jackson and Friends" concert. In 2002, he composed the music for his maiden stage production, Bombay Dreams, commissioned by musical theatre composer Andrew Lloyd Webber. Finnish folk music band Värttinä collaborated with Rahman to write the music for The Lord of the Rings theatre production and in 2004, Rahman composed the piece "Raga's Dance" for Vanessa-Mae's album Choreography performed by Mae and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra.
Since 2004, Rahman has performed three successful world tours to audiences in Singapore, Australia, Malaysia, Dubai, the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States and India. He has been collaborating with Karen David for her upcoming studio album. A two-disc soundtrack, Introducing A. R. Rahman (2006) featuring 25 of his pieces from Tamil film scores was released in May 2006, and his non-film album, Connections was released on 12 December 2008. Rahman also performed at the White House State dinner arranged by US President Barack Obama during the official visit of Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on 24 November 2009. Rahman is one of over 70 artists who performed on "We Are the World 25 for Haiti", a charity single to raise emergency relief funds in the wake of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. In 2010, Rahman composed "Jai Jai Garvi Gujarat" in honour of the 50th anniversary of the formation of Gujarat State, "Semmozhiyaana Thamizh Mozhiyaam" as part of World Classical Tamil Conference 2010, and the official theme song of the 2010 Commonwealth Games, "Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto". Rahman organised his first world tour, named A. R. Rahman Jai Ho Concert: The Journey Home World Tour, in 2010. The ongoing tour was kicked off on 11 June at the Nassau Coliseum in New York and will span 16 major cities worldwide.
Some of his notable compositions were performed live by the London Philharmonic Orchestra in April 2010. In February 2011, Rahman collaborated with Michael Bolton for his new studio album Gems – The Duets Collection. Rahman reworked on his song "Sajna" from the 2009 American film Couples Retreat to create the track.
On 20 May 2011, English musician Mick Jagger announced the formation of a new supergroup, SuperHeavy, which includes Dave Stewart, Joss Stone, Damian Marley, and Rahman. The band's self-titled album is slated for release in September 2011. The album will see Mick Jagger singing in Rahman's composition "Satyameva Jayate", which translates to "the truth alone triumphs".
In the month of January 2012, German Film Orchestra Babelsberg announced that it would join KM Music Conservatory musicians in 100 member concert tour in five Indian cities performing Rahman's songs. The tour was named Germany and India 2011-2012: Infinite Opportunities'. Classic Incantations" and marked the cenetary Indian cinema and of Studio Babelsberg, which is the world's oldest film studio.
In Summer 2012, Rahman composed a Punjabi song for the London Olympics opening ceremony, organised by Danny Boyle. It will be a part of a medley which will showcase Indian influence in the UK, according to Boyle's wishes. Another Indian musician Ilaiyaraja's song from Tamil-language film Ram Lakshman (1981), has also been chosen as part of the medley.
In December 2012, Rahman along with Shekhar Kapoor launched Qyuki, a social networking media which is a platform for story writers to exchange their thoughts. Cisco had made an investment of 27 crores for this startup which makes it to own 17 percent share. Qyuki makes use of Cisco’s cloud infrastructure to build their site.
On 20 December 2012, Rahman released the single "Infinite Love" in both English and Hindi, commemorating the last day of the Mayan calendar to spread hope, peace and love. His 2013 tour, Rahmanishq was announced on 29 July 2013 at Mumbai. Starting from Sydney on 24 August the tour moves to various cities in India.
Music style and impact
Skilled in Carnatic music, Western classical, Hindustani music and the Qawwali style of Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Rahman has been noted to write film songs that amalgamate elements of these music systems and other genres, layering instruments from differing music idioms in an improvisatory manner. Symphonic orchestral themes have accompanied his scores, occasionally employing leitmotif. He is one of the very few composers in India, to use symphonies in background scores. Instead of composing new themes, he mostly uses the key melody of a song in the background scores. He converts that melody into an orchestral piece and incorporates it with in the film. This kind of scoring technique plays a vital role in fulfilling the purpose of the song, thus increasing the prominence of the song in the movie. This kind of scoring technique also gives the continuity and fluency to the story movement and enables the song to fit in the right situations. His scores are often very simple and subtle. In the 1980s, Rahman recorded and played arrangements on monophonic sound, synonymous with the era of his musical predecessors K. V. Mahadevan and Vishwanathan–Ramamoorthy. In later years his methodology changed as he experimented with the fusion of traditional instruments with new electronic sounds and technology.
His career is often categorised as pre-2000 and post-2000 eras. In the former one, he used to give simple, instantly catchy and rhythmic songs which became hits as soon as the album releases. In the latter one, he gave songs which are more deep in their melody with many layers surrounding the core tune. As a result, his compositions post 2000 sound very complex and take more time to click with the listeners. He also became adept at using electronica sounds in his compositions in post 2000 era.
Rahman's musical interests and outlook stem from his love of experimentation. Rahman's compositions, in the vein of past and contemporary Chennai film composers, bring out auteuristic uses of counterpoint, orchestration and the human voice, melding Indian pop music with unique timbre, forms and instrumentation. By virtue of these qualities, broad ranging lyrics and his syncretic style, the appeal of his music cuts across the spectrum of classes and cultures within Indian society.
His first soundtrack for Roja was listed in Time's "10 Best Soundtracks" of all time in 2005. Film critic Richard Corliss felt the "astonishing debut work parades Rahman's gift for alchemizing outside influences until they are totally Tamil, totally Rahman." Rahman's initial global reach is attributed to the South Asian diaspora. The music producer Ron Fair considers Rahman to be "one of the world's great living composers in any medium".
The director Baz Luhrmann notes
|“||I had come to the music of A. R. Rahman through the emotional and haunting score of Bombay and the wit and celebration of Lagaan. But the more of AR's music I encountered the more I was to be amazed at the sheer diversity of styles: from swinging brass bands to triumphant anthems; from joyous pop to West-End musicals. Whatever the style, A. R. Rahman's music always possesses a profound sense of humanity and spirit, qualities that inspire me the most.||”|
Rahman has introduced the 7.1 technology in south Indian movies to provide better output.
Rahman was the 1995 recipient of the Mauritius National Award and the Malaysian Award for contributions to music. He was nominated for a Laurence Olivier Award for his first West-End production. A four-time National Film Award winner and recipient of six Tamil Nadu State Film Awards, fifteen Filmfare Awards and thirteen Filmfare Awards South for his music and scores. He has been conferred Kalaimamani from the Government of Tamil Nadu for excellence in the field of music, special music achievement awards from the Government of Uttar Pradesh and Government of Madhya Pradesh and the Padma Shri from the Government of India. In 2006, he received an honorary award from Stanford University for contributions to global music. In 2007, Rahman was entered into the Limca Book of Records as "Indian of the Year for Contribution to Popular Music". He is the 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award recipient from the Rotary Club of Madras. In 2009, for his score of Slumdog Millionaire, Rahman won the Broadcast Film Critics Association Award, the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Score, the BAFTA Award for Best Film Music, and two Academy Awards for Best Original Score and Best Original Song (shared with Gulzar), at the 81st Academy Awards. Rahman has received honorary doctorates from Middlesex University and Aligarh Muslim University. Later the year Rahman was conferred the honorary doctorate from Anna University in Chennai. He has also won two Grammy Awards, for Best Compilation Soundtrack Album and Best Song Written for a Visual Media. Rahman was awarded the Padma Bhushan, India's third highest civilian honour, in 2010. Rahman's work for the film 127 Hours garnered him Golden Globe, BAFTA, and two Academy Award nominations for Best Original Music Score and Best Original Song in 2011. He is an Honorary Fellow of the Trinity College of Music, presented to him by Trinity College London.
On 7 May 2012, he was conferred Honorary Doctorate from the Miami University, Ohio. During the acceptance speech, he mentioned that he received a Christmas card from the US President's family and an invitation for the dinner at White House. To honour him, a street was named after him at Markham in Ontario province of Canada in November 2013.
He is married to Saira Banu and has three children, Khatija, Rahima, and Ameen. Ameen sings the track "NaNa" from Couples Retreat and his daughter Khatija the track "Pudhiya Manidha" from Enthiran. Rahman is the uncle of composer G. V. Prakash Kumar, who is the son of Rahman's elder sister, A. R. Reihana. Prakash Kumar's first work in film was singing on the Rahman composition "Chikku Bukku Rayile" from his score to the 1993 film Gentleman. A. R. Reihana debuted in film singing on the track "Vidai Kodu Engal Naadae" from Kannathil Muthamittal and is also a music director. Rahman's younger sister Fathima is in charge of his Music conservatory in Chennai. The youngest Ishrath has her own music studio. A. R. Rahman is the co-brother of film actor Rahman.
An atheist through much of his childhood, in 1989 Rahman converted to Islam, the religion of his mother's family. After the early death of his father, his family went through hard times and Sufism had a great influence on his mother and slowly on his family. During the 81st Academy Awards ceremony, he paid tribute to his mother, saying "There is a Hindi dialogue, mere pass ma hai, which means 'even if I have got nothing I have my mother here'." He also began to say, "Ella pughazhum iraivanukke", in Tamil which literally means "All praises dedicated to God". This is the direct translation of the first sentence found in the Islamic holy book Quran. Rahman uttered it prior to his speech at the 81st Academy Awards ceremony.
Rahman is involved in various charitable causes. In 2004, he was appointed as the Global Ambassador of the Stop TB Partnership, a project by WHO. He has shown support to charities including Save the Children, India, and worked with Yusuf Islam for his song "Indian Ocean". The song featured a-ha keyboard player Magne Furuholmen and Travis drummer Neil Primrose. The proceeds of the song went towards helping orphans in Banda Aceh, that was affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. He produced the single "We Can Make It Better" by Don Asian alongside Mukhtar Sahota. In 2008, Rahman opened his KM Music Conservatory partnered with Audio Media Education facility to tutor and train aspiring musicians in vocals, instruments, music technology and sound design. The conservatory – with preeminent musicians on its panel and a newly founded symphony orchestra – is located near his studio in Kodambakkam, Chennai, offering courses at Beginners, Foundation and Diploma level. Violinist L. Subramaniam is on its board of advisors. Several of Rahman's proteges from the studio have gone onto score music for feature films. Rahman composed the theme music for a short film for The Banyan in 2006, in aid of destitute women in Chennai. In 2008, Rahman with noted percussionist Sivamani created a song titled "Jiya Se Jiya", inspired by the Free Hugs Campaign and promoted it through a video shot in various cities in India.
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|isbn=value (help). OCLC 444486924. "Music directors such as AR Rahman and Karthik Raja produce film scores that are more eclectic, incorporating rap, jazz, reggae, hard rock and fast dance beats ( as, for example, for Duet , Kadhalan  and Bombay )."
- Purie, Aroon (1995). "A. R. Rahman: Music The New Wave". India Today (Living Media) 20 (1–6): 11. "For Chikkubukku raile. a Tamil hit song, he banked on an unknown voice, its lisp and anglicised delivery. Rahman likes working with untrained voices, saying a slight "defect in the singing adds a human touch"."
- K. Naresh Kumar (1995). Indian cinema : ebbs and tides. 26–27. New Delhi: Har-Anand Publications. p. 135. ISBN 9788124103449. OCLC 33444588.
- World Saxophone Congress. North American Saxophone Alliance (2001). The saxophone symposium : journal of the North American Saxophone Alliance. 26–27. Greenville: North American Saxophone Alliance. pp. 78–85. ISSN 0271-3705. OCLC 5190155. "The famous South Indian film music director AR Rahman invited [ Kadri Gopalnath ] to work on the music for a major South Indian film. Rahman, a new music director, writes music that brings a more cosmopolitan feel to Indian cinema, and he was open to..."
- Purie, Aroon (1996). "Music love birds". India Today (Living Media) 21 (1–6): 195. ISSN 0254-8399. OCLC 2675526. "AR Rahman's latest offering is a heavy dose of synthesiser and percussion sprinkled with rap. "No Problem" by Apache Indian is the selling point."
- Kasbekar, Asha (2006). Pop Culture India!: Media, Arts and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO. p. 215. ISBN 978-1-85109-636-7. "Songs play as important a part in South Indian films and some South Indian music directors such as A. R. Rehman and Ilyaraja have an enthusiastic national and even international following"
- Chaudhuri, S. "Cinema of South India and Sri Lanka". Contemporary World Cinema: Europe, the Middle East, East Asia and South Asia. p. 149. "Now the South is believed to excel the North in many respects, including its colour labs, state of the art digital technology and sound processing facilities (which have improved the dubbing of Tamil and other South Indian languages into Hindi since the 1970s)."
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- Brégeat, Raïssa (1995). Indomania: le cinéma indien des origines à nos jours (in French). Paris: Cinémathèque française. p. 133. ISBN 9782900596142. "AR Rahman (Roja, Bombay), entre autres, exigent aujourd'hui les cachets les plus gros jamais payés à un directeur musical"
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to A. R. Rahman.|
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