Abhogi

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Abhogi (pronounced ābhōgi) is a raga in Carnatic music and has been adapted to Hindustani music.[1] It is a pentatonic scale, an audava or owdava raga. It is a derived scale (janya raga), as it does not have all the seven swaras (musical notes). Ābhōgi has been borrowed from Carnatic music into Hindustani music and is also quite popular in the latter.[2][3]

Structure and Lakshana[edit]

Ābhōgi scale with shadjam at C

Ābhōgi is a symmetric pentatonic scale that does not contain panchamam and nishadam. It is called an audava-audava raga,[2][3] in Carnatic classification, as it has 5 notes in both ascending and descending scales. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on below notation and terms):

The notes used are shadjam, chathusruti rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam and chathusruthi dhaivatham. Ābhōgi is considered a janya raga of Kharaharapriya, the 22nd Melakarta raga, though it can be derived from Gourimanohari too, by dropping both panchamam and nishadam.

Popular compositions[edit]

Abhogi is a scale that is used for compositions in a medium to fast tempo. This scale has been used by many composers and there are lots of compositions in classical music. It has been used to score film music too. Here are some popular compositions in Abhogi.

Related ragas[edit]

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this raga.

Graha bhedam[edit]

Ābhōgi's notes when shifted using Graha bhedam, yields another pentatonic rāgam Valaji. Graha bhedam is the step taken in keeping the relative note frequencies same, while shifting the shadjam to the next note in the rāgam. For more details and illustration of this concept refer Graha bhedam on Ābhōgi.

P.Moutal understands raag Kalavati as transposition of Abhogi.[4]

Scale similarities[edit]

  • Sriranjani is a rāgam which has kaisiki nishadam in both ascending and descending scales in addition to the notes in Ābhōgi. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S R2 G2 M1 D2 N2 S : S N2 D2 M1 G2 R2 S
  • Shuddha Saveri is a rāgam which has the panchamam in place of the gandharam. Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is S R2 M1 P D2 S : S D2 P M1 R2 S

List of compositions in Abhogi[edit]

Composition Tala Composer
Abhayam alithu arul Adi Bangalore Mukund
Anandam aganatamadiya Adi Nila Ramamoorthy
Abhagi nannalla Adi Ashok Madhav
Adi paramporulin Adi Subramania Bharathi
Anandam aganatamadiya Adi Nila Ramamoorthy
Anandamayi nadamadiya Adi Krithi Nila Ramamoorthy
Arul paluthelukindra Adi Krithi Lakshmanan Pillai
Chintanai chey maname Adi R Venugopal
Deenadayaparane Khanda Chapu Krishnamachariar
Dhainyaapaka Khanda Chapu Thulaseevanam
Evari bodhana Adi Patnam Subramania Iyer
Gurusvami padam pani C Eka Ambujam Krishna
Inthidum kaniye Adi N S Chidambaram
Jaya Narayana Adi Muthaiah Bhagavatar
Mahadeva Adi M D Ramanathan
Mamava sada Rupaka R N Doraiswami
Mamava Vidyadhiraja Adi Thulaseevanam
Manasaraga ne Adi G N Balasubramanian
Manasavridha Adi Poochi Srinivasa Iyengar
Manasu nilpa sakthi Adi Thyagaraja
Mane yolagado Adi Purandaradasa
Naanariyadenai Adi Lakshmanan Pillai
Nannu brova née kemi Adi Lalithadasar
Nannu brova née kintha Adi Thyagaraja
Navalooril Rupaka Ramanathan Chettiar
Neelakanta niranjana Rupaka Thyagaraja
Nekkuruki unnai Adi Papanasam Sivan
Nikepudu daya Adi Mysore Sadasiva Rao
Ninai thedadha naal (Tiruppugazh) Jhampa Arunagirinathar
Ninnu nammi nanu Eka Muthiah Bhagavatar
Paripalisau Adi M V Ramarathnam
Sabhapathikku Rupaka Gopalakrishna Bharathi
Sada smarami Jhampa Ambujam krishna
Samarakshana mam palaya Rupaka Mysore Vasudevachar
Saravanabhava Ahanmuga Adi N S Ramachandran
Sarva vigna harana Adi Krithi R Venugopal
Sevikka vendumaiya Muthuthandavar
Sri Lakshmivaraham Adi Muthuswami Dikshitar
Sri Mahaganapathe Khanda Chapu N S Ramachandran
Sri Rajagopala (Varnam) Triputa Venkataramana Bhagavathar
Sri Sive jaya vaibhave Adi Muthaiah Bhagavatar
Staranam parkka taghuma Adi Ambujam Krishna
Thamasamika talamu Rupaka G N Balasubramanian
Thiruvullakkarutthu Adi Periyaswami Thooran
Tirupathi malai Adi Lakshmikrishna
Vegamey Adi

There are also some Tamil movie songs based on the raga of abhogi. Songs in abhogi raga gives extreme pleasure to ears. Two Tamil songs are cited below for the reference.

  1. Indraiku en inta aanandame from the film vaidhegi kaathiruntal, music composed by Ilayaraja
  2. Kaalai nera poonguyil from the film Amman kovil kizhakale also composed by Ilayaraja

In Hindustani music[edit]

Arohana & Avarohana[edit]

  • Arohana (order of ascending notes in the scale): S R G M D s
  • Avarohana (order of descending notes in the scale): s D M G R S

Vadi & Samavadi[edit]

Jeeva Swaras[edit]

G and D

Pakad or Chalan[edit]

GMDS SDRSDMD_ D_SRGRS D_RSDM GMMDDSDRSD_M GMD_MGGRR_ GRSd Rd_S

Organization & Relationships[edit]

Pa and Ni are omitted. Also Re is often omitted in ascent. Flat Ga is often approached from Ma in ascent and has a slight oscillation to show the typical Kanada. In descent often the typical Kanada phrase gMRS is used.

Related ragas: Bageshree. However, Bageshree also includes flat Ni and a limited use of Pa, which gives a different flavour.[5]

Thaat: Kafi.

Samay (Time)[edit]

Night, approximately 9PM-12AM.

Important Recordings[edit]

See also[edit]

List of Film Songs based on Ragas

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bor(1999)
  2. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  3. ^ a b Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  4. ^ P.Moutal, p. 462
  5. ^ Bor 1999

Literature[edit]

Bor, Joep (ed). Rao, Suvarnalata; der Meer, Wim van; Harvey, Jane (co-authors) The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Zenith Media, London: 1999.

Moutal, Patrick (1991), Hindustāni Rāga-s Index, New Dehli: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt Ltd, ISBN 81-215-0525-7 

External links[edit]