Aammiq

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For the UNESCO “Biosphere reserve” of this name, see Aammiq Wetland.
Aammiq
830 metres (2,720 ft)
830 metres (2,720 ft)
Magnify-clip.png
Shown within Lebanon
Location southwest of Zahle
Aammiq Wetland, Lebanon
Coordinates 33°43′53″N 35°47′20″E / 33.731431°N 35.788983°E / 33.731431; 35.788983
Type Tell
Part of Settlement
History
Founded c. 12000 BC
Abandoned c. 4500 BC
Periods Natufian, Neolithic, Chalcolithic
Site notes
Excavation dates 1963, 1965, 1971
Archaeologists M. Cavalier
Jacques Cauvin
J. Besançon & Francis Hours
Condition ruins
Public access Yes

Aamiq or Aammiq II is an archaeological site southwest of Zahle in the Aammiq Wetland, Beqaa Valley, Lebanon.[1]

It was first excavated by Jacques Cauvin in 1963, then again by M. Cavalier in 1964, 1965 by Lorraine Copeland and Peter Wescombe and Jacques Besançon & Francis Hours in 1971.[2]

Two periods of inhabitation were found, the first period between 12000-10200 cal. BC was Natufian or perhaps preceramic neolithic where a skeleton was found covered with red ochre. Tools with agricultural purpose included mortars, grinders and stoneware basalt pestles. Other brown flint lithics recovered include a triangle, blades, scrapers and picks, tools suggested pre-natufian occupation. A late neolithic period was also detected at around 5000-4500 cal BC (Ubaid period) similar to late neolithic Byblos.[3] Ceramics found included some Chalcolithic sherds and lithics included Canaanite blades, axes and adzes, a long, polished plano-convex flint hatchet; many large flakes and blades and sickle elements. A fragment of a stalked arrow is the only trace of occupation between the periods, Chalcolithic occupation followed the older occupation at the edge of the marsh at Mallaha.[4]

The results of a pollen core from Aamiq was published in 2008 suggesting the area was used for grazing in the neolithic while the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains were being deforested. This is supported by Heavy Neolithic tools manufactured in specialized workshops such as Kamed el Loz I, Souwan and Wadi Msı'l el Hadd and a special design of flint called an Orange slice found at sites like Majdel Anjar I, Dakwe I and IIHabarjer III, Qaraoun I and II, Kefraya, and Beı'dar Chamou't.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Francis Hours (1994). Atlas des sites du proche orient (14000-5700 BP), pp. 33-34. Maison de l'Orient méditerranéen. ISBN 978-2-903264-53-6. Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  2. ^ Hours, F., Copeland, L., Aurenche, O., Les industries paléolithiques du Proche Orient, essai de correlation. IV. Épipaléolithique, L'Anthropologie, 77-60, 437-496, 1973.
  3. ^ Copeland, L. Wescombe, P.J., Inventory of Stone-Age-Sites in Lebanon I & II, Mélanges de l'Université Saint Joseph, 41/2 & 42/1, Beirut, 1965/66.
  4. ^ Copeland, L., Natufian Sites in Lebanon in Bar-Yosef and Valla (eds.), The Natufian Culture in the Levant, 27-42, 1991.
  5. ^ L. Hajar, M. Haı¨dar-Boustani, C. Khater, R. Cheddadi., Environmental changes in Lebanon during the Holocene: Man vs. climate impacts, Journal of Arid Environments xxx, 1–10, 2009.

External Sources[edit]