Russian icon of Aaron from the 17th Century.
|Prophet, High Priest|
Eastern Orthodox Church: September 4Maronite Church: September 4
In the Hebrew Bible and the Quran, Aaron (//;) [note 1] was the older brother of Moses, (Exodus 6:16-20, 7:7; Qur'an 28:34) and a prophet of God. He represented the priestly functions of his tribe, becoming the first High Priest of the Israelites. While Moses was receiving his education at the Egyptian royal court, and during his exile among the Midianites, Aaron and his sister Miriam remained with their kinsmen in the eastern border-land of Egypt (Goshen). There, Aaron gained a name for eloquent and persuasive speech, so that when the time came for the demand upon Pharaoh to release Israel from captivity, Aaron became his brother's "prophet" to Pharaoh. (Exodus 7:1) Various dates for his life have been proposed, ranging from approximately 1600 to 1200 BC. The Jewish Encyclopedia suggests two possible accounts of Aaron's death. The principal one gives a detailed statement that soon after the incident at Meribah, Aaron, with his son Eleazar and Moses, ascended Mount Hor. There Moses stripped Aaron of his priestly garments and transferred them to Eleazar. Aaron died in the top of the mount, and the people mourned for him thirty days. Another account is found in Deuteronomy 10:6, where Moses said that Aaron died at Moserah and was buried there. Aaron is also mentioned in the New Testament of the Bible.
- 1 Account in the Hebrew Bible
- 2 Aaron in religious traditions
- 3 Descendants
- 4 Art history
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 Footnotes
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Account in the Hebrew Bible
Great-grandfather: Levi, third of 12 sons and tribes of Israel
Aaron's function included the duties of speaker and implied personal dealings with the Egyptian royal court on behalf of Moses. The part played by Aaron in the events that preceded the Exodus was, therefore, ministerial, and not directive. He, along with Moses, performed "signs" before his people which impressed them with a belief in the reality of the divine mission of the brothers (Exodus 4:15–16).
At the command of Moses he stretched out his rod in order to bring on the first of three plagues (Exodus 7:19, 8:1,12). In the infliction of the remaining plagues, he appears to have acted merely as the attendant of Moses, whose outstretched rod drew the divine wrath upon the Pharaoh and his subjects (Exodus 9:23, 10:13,22). The display of potency from Aaron's rod had already been demonstrated in the presence of Pharaoh's magicians; when Aaron's rod was thrown down to the ground it had turned into a snake, so Pharaoh's magicians performed the same act with their own rods. However, Aaron's snake ate up all the other snakes (Exodus 7:9-12) proving his rod was victorious.
During the journey in the wilderness, Aaron was not always prominent or active; and he sometimes appeared guilty of rebellious or treasonable conduct. At the battle with Amalek, he was chosen with Hur to support the hand of Moses that held the "rod of God" (Exodus 17:9). When the revelation was given to Moses at Mount Sinai, he headed the elders of Israel who accompanied Moses on the way to the summit. Joshua, however, was admitted with his leader to the very presence of the LORD, while Aaron and Hur remained below to look after the people (Exodus 24:9-14). It was during the prolonged absence of Moses that Aaron yielded to the clamors of the people, and made a Golden Calf as a visible image of the divinity who had delivered them from Egypt (Exodus 32:1-6).[note 2] At the intercession of Moses, Aaron was saved from the plague which smote the people (Deuteronomy 9:20, Exodus 32:35), although it was against Aaron's tribe of Levi that the work of punitive vengeance was committed (Exodus 32:26).
At the time when the tribe of Levi was set apart for the priestly service, Aaron was anointed and consecrated to the priesthood, arrayed in the robes of his office, and instructed in its manifold duties (Exodus 28, Exodus 29). Aaron and his tribe are given control over the Urim and Thummim.
On the very day of his consecration, his sons, Nadab and Abihu, were consumed by fire from the LORD for having offered incense in an unlawful manner (Leviticus 10:1-10).
Scholarly consensus is that in Aaron's high priesthood the sacred writer intended to describe a model, the prototype, so to say, of the Jewish high priest. God, on Mount Sinai instituting a worship, also instituted an order of priests. According to the patriarchal customs, the firstborn son in every family used to perform the functions connected with God's worship. It might have been expected, consequently, that Reuben's family would be chosen by God for the ministry of the new altar. However, according to the biblical narrative it was Aaron who was the object of God's choice. To what jealousies this gave rise later, has been indicated above. The office of the Aaronites was at first merely to take care of the lamp that was to burn perpetually before the veil of the tabernacle (Exodus 27:21). A more formal calling soon followed (Exodus 28:1). Aaron and his sons, distinguished from the commoners by their sacred functions, were also to receive holy garments suitable to their office.
Aaron offered the various sacrifices and performed the many ceremonies of the consecration of the new priests, according to divine instructions (Exodus 29) and repeated these rites for seven days, during which Aaron and his sons were entirely separated from the rest of the people. When, on the eighth day, the high priest had inaugurated his office of sacrifice by killing the animals, he blessed the people (very likely according to the prescriptions of Numbers 6:24-26), and, with Moses, entered into the tabernacle to possess it. They "came out and blessed the people: and the glory of the LORD appeared unto all the people: And there came a fire out from before the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering and the fat "[which]" when all the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their faces." (Leviticus 9:23-24). In this way the institution of the Aaronic priesthood was established.
In later books of the Old Testament, Aaron and his kin are not mentioned as often. In Ezekial, which devotes attention to priestly matters. The group that is mentioned instead of the Aaronites are the Zadokites and the Levites.
Rebellion of Korah
From the time of the sojourn at Mount Sinai, where he became the anointed priest of Israel, Aaron ceased to be the minister of Moses, his place being taken by Joshua. He is mentioned in (Numbers 12:9) in association with Miriam in a jealous complaint against the exclusive claims of Moses as the LORD's prophet. The presumption of the murmurers was rebuked, and Miriam became leprous, as white as snow. Aaron entreated Moses to intercede for her, at the same time confessing the sin and folly that prompted the uprising. Aaron himself was not struck with the plague on account of sacerdotal immunity; and Miriam, after seven days' quarantine, was healed and restored to favor. Micah a prophet in Judaism, mentions Moses, Aaron, and Miriam as the leaders of Israel after the Exodus (a judgment wholly in accord with the tenor of the narratives). In the present instance it is made clear by the express words of the oracle  that Moses was unique among men as the one with whom the LORD spoke face to face. The failure to recognize or concede this prerogative of their brother was the sin of Miriam and Aaron.
The validity of the exclusive priesthood of the family of Aaron was attested after the ill-fated rebellion of Korah, who was a first cousin of Aaron. When the earth had opened and swallowed up the leaders of the insurgents (Numbers 16:25-35), Eleazar, the son of Aaron, was commissioned to take charge of the censers of the dead priests. And when the plague had broken out among the people who had sympathized with the rebels, Aaron, at the command of Moses, took his censer and stood between the living and the dead till the plague was stayed (Numbers 17:1-15, 16:36-50).
Another memorable transaction followed. Each of the tribal princes of Israel took a rod and wrote his name upon it, and the twelve rods were laid up over night in the tent of meeting. The next morning Aaron's rod was found to have budded and blossomed and produced ripe almonds (Numbers 17:8). The miracle proved merely the prerogative of the tribe of Levi; but now a formal distinction was made in perpetuity between the family of Aaron and the other Levites. While all the Levites (and only Levites) were to be devoted to sacred services, the special charge of the sanctuary and the altar was committed to the Aaronites alone (Numbers 18:1-7). The scene of this enactment is unknown, as is the time mentioned.
Aaron, like Moses, was not permitted to enter Canaan with the others. The reason given is that the two brothers showed impatience at Meribah (Kadesh) in the last year of the desert pilgrimage (Numbers 20:12-13), when Moses brought water out of a rock to quench the thirst of the people. The action was construed as displaying a want of deference to the LORD, since they had been commanded to speak to the rock, whereas Moses struck it with the staff, twice (Numbers 20:7-11).
Of the death of Aaron there are two accounts. The principal one gives a detailed statement that soon after the incident at Meribah, Aaron, with his son Eleazar and Moses, ascended Mount Hor. There Moses stripped Aaron of his priestly garments and transferred them to Eleazar. Aaron died on the summit of the mountain, and the people mourned for him thirty days (Numbers 20:22-29; compare 33:38-39). The other account is found in Deuteronomy 10:6, where Aaron died at Moserah and was buried. There is a significant amount of travel between these two points, as the itinerary in Numbers 33:31–37 records seven stages between Moseroth (Mosera) and Mount Hor. Aaron was 123 at the time of his death.
Aaron in religious traditions
Jewish Rabbinic literature
The older prophets and prophetical writers beheld in their priests the representatives of a religious form inferior to the prophetic truth; men without the spirit of God and lacking the will-power requisite to resist the multitude in its idolatrous proclivities. Thus Aaron, the first priest, ranks below Moses: he is his mouthpiece, and the executor of the will of God revealed through Moses, although it is pointed out that it is said fifteen times in the Pentateuch that "the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron." Under the influence of the priesthood that shaped the destinies of the nation under Persian rule, a different ideal of the priest was formed, according to Malachi 2:4–7, and the prevailing tendency was to place Aaron on a footing equal with Moses. "At times Aaron, and at other times Moses, is mentioned first in Scripture—this is to show that they were of equal rank," says Mekilta, who strongly implies this when introducing in his record of renowned men the glowing description of Aaron's ministration.
In fulfilment of the promise of peaceful life, symbolized by the pouring of oil upon his head (Leviticus Rabbah x., Midrash Teh. cxxxiii. 1), Aaron's death, as described in the Haggadah, was of a wonderful tranquility. Accompanied by Moses, his brother, and by Eleazar, his son, Aaron went to the summit of Mount Hor, where the rock suddenly opened before him and a beautiful cave lit by a lamp presented itself to his view. "Take off thy priestly raiment and place it upon thy son Eleazar!" said Moses; "and then follow me." Aaron did as commanded; and they entered the cave, where was prepared a bed around which angels stood. "Go lie down upon thy bed, my brother," Moses continued; and Aaron obeyed without a murmur. Then his soul departed as if by a kiss from God. The cave closed behind Moses as he left; and he went down the hill with Eleazar, with garments rent, and crying: "Alas, Aaron, my brother! thou, the pillar of supplication of Israel!" When the Israelites cried in bewilderment, "Where is Aaron?" angels were seen carrying Aaron's bier through the air. A voice was then heard saying: "The law of truth was in his mouth, and iniquity was not found on his lips: he walked with me in righteousness, and brought many back from sin" (Malachi 2:6). He died, according to Seder Olam Rabbah ix., R. H. 2, 3a, on the first of Ab." The pillar of cloud which proceeded in front of Israel's camp disappeared at Aaron's death (see Seder 'Olam, ix. and R. H. 2b-3a). The seeming contradiction between Numbers 20:22 et seq. and Deuteronomy 10:6 is solved by the rabbis in the following manner: Aaron's death on Mount Hor was marked by the defeat of the people in a war with the king of Arad, in consequence of which the Israelites fled, marching seven stations backward to Mosera, where they performed the rites of mourning for Aaron; wherefore it is said: "There [at Mosera] died Aaron."[note 3]
The rabbis also dwell with special laudation on the brotherly sentiment which united Aaron and Moses. When the latter was appointed ruler and Aaron high priest, neither betrayed any jealousy; instead they rejoiced in one another's greatness. When Moses at first declined to go to Pharaoh, saying: "O my Lord, send, I pray thee, by the hand of him whom thou wilt send" (Exodus 4:13), he was unwilling to deprive Aaron, his brother, of the high position the latter had held for so many years; but the Lord reassured him, saying: "Behold, when he seeth thee, he will be glad in his heart" (Exodus 4:14). Indeed, Aaron was to find his reward, says Shimon bar Yochai; for that heart which had leaped with joy over his younger brother's rise to glory greater than his was decorated with the Urim and Thummim, which were to "be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before the Lord" (Canticles Rabbah i. 10). Moses and Aaron met in gladness of heart, kissing each other as true brothers (Exodus 4:27; compare Song of Songs 8:1), and of them it is written: "Behold how good and how pleasant [it is] for brethren to dwell together in unity!" (Psalms 133:1). Of them it is said: "Mercy and truth are met together; righteousness and peace have kissed [each other]" (Psalms 85:10); for Moses stood for righteousness, according to Deuteronomy 33:21, and Aaron for peace, according to Malachi 2:6. Again, mercy was personified in Aaron, according to Deuteronomy 33:8, and truth in Moses, according to Numbers 12:7 .
When Moses poured the oil of anointment upon the head of Aaron, Aaron modestly shrank back and said: "Who knows whether I have not cast some blemish upon this sacred oil so as to forfeit this high office." Then the Shekhinah spoke the words: "Behold the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard of Aaron, that even went down to the skirts of his garment, is as pure as the dew of Hermon" (Psalm 133:2-3) .
According to Tanhuma, Aaron's activity as a prophet began earlier than that of Moses. Hillel held Aaron up as an example, saying: "Be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace; love your fellow creatures and draw them nigh unto the Law!" This is further illustrated by the tradition preserved in Abot de-Rabbi Natan 12, Sanhedrin 6b, and elsewhere, according to which Aaron was an ideal priest of the people, far more beloved for his kindly ways than was Moses. While Moses was stern and uncompromising, brooking no wrong, Aaron went about as peacemaker, reconciling man and wife when he saw them estranged, or a man with his neighbor when they quarreled, and winning evil-doers back into the right way by his friendly intercourse. The mourning of the people at Aaron's death was greater, therefore, than at that of Moses; for whereas, when Aaron died the whole house of Israel wept, including the women, (Numbers 20:29) Moses was bewailed by "the sons of Israel" only (Deuteronomy 34:8). Even in the making of the Golden Calf the rabbis find extenuating circumstances for Aaron. His fortitude and silent submission to the will of God on the loss of his two sons are referred to as an excellent example to men how to glorify God in the midst of great affliction. Especially significant are the words represented as being spoken by God after the princes of the Twelve Tribes had brought their dedication offerings into the newly reared Tabernacle: "Say to thy brother Aaron: Greater than the gifts of the princes is thy gift; for thou art called upon to kindle the light, and, while the sacrifices shall last only as long as the Temple lasts, thy light shall last forever."
While Aaron and his descendants were the high priests of Judaism, Melchizedek, a person who lived more than seven centuries before Moses, is considered a high priest and Christ is said to be of the same rite of Melchizedek of the New Covenant (see the Book of Hebrews).
However, in the Eastern Orthodox and Maronite churches, Aaron is venerated as a saint whose feast day is shared with his brother Moses and celebrated on September 4. (Those churches that follow the traditional Julian Calendar celebrate this day on September 17 of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Aaron is also commemorated with other Old Testament saints on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers, the Sunday before Christmas.
Aaron is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church on July 30. He is commemorated on July 1 in the modern Latin calendar and in the Syriac Calendar.
In the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Aaronic order is the lesser order of priesthood, comprising the grades (from lowest to highest) of deacon, teacher, and priest. The chief office of the Aaronic priesthood is the presiding bishopric; the head of the priesthood is the bishop. Each ward includes a quorum of one or more of each office of the Aaronic priesthood.
In Community of Christ, the Aaronic order of priesthood is regarded as an appendage to the Melchisedec order, and consists of the priesthood offices of deacon, teacher, and priest. While differing in responsibilities, these offices, along with those of the Melchisidec order, are regarded as equal before God. The Presiding Bishop of the Church is regarded as the president of the entire Aaronic order.
Aaron (Arabic: هارون, Hārūn) is also mentioned in the Quran as a prophet of God. The Quran praises Aaron repeatedly, calling him a "believing servant" as well as one who was "guided" and one of the "victors". Aaron is important in Islam for his role in the events of the Exodus, in which, according to the Quran and Muslim tradition, he preached with his brother Moses to the Pharaoh of the Exodus. Aaron's significance in Islam, however, is not limited to his role as the helper of Moses. Islamic tradition also accords Aaron the role of a patriarch, as tradition records that the priestly descent came through Aaron's lineage, which included the entire House of Amran.[note 4][note 5]
Aaron in the Quran
The Qur'an contains numerous references to Aaron, both by name and without name. It says that he was a descendant of Abraham (Qur'an 4: 163) and makes it clear that both him and Moses were sent together to warn the Pharaoh about God's punishment (Qur'an 10: 75). It further adds that Moses had earlier prayed to God to strengthen his own ministry with Aaron (Qur'an 20: 29-30) and that Aaron helped Moses as he too was a prophet (Qur'an 19: 53) and was very eloquent in matters of speech and discourse (Qur'an 28: 34). The Qur'an adds that both Moses and Aaron were entrusted to establish places of dwelling for the Israelites in Egypt, and to convert those houses into places of worship for God (Qur'an 10: 87).
The incident of the Golden Calf as it is narrated in the Qur'an paints Aaron in a positive light. The Qur'an says that Aaron was entrusted the leadership of Israel while Moses was up on Mount Sinai for a period of forty days (Qur'an 7: 142). It adds that Aaron tried his best to stop the worship of the Golden Calf, which was built not by Aaron but by a wicked man by the name of Samiri (Qur'an 19: 50). When Moses returned from Mount Sinai, he rebuked Aaron for allowing the worship of the idol, to which Aaron pleaded with Moses to not blame him when he had no role in its construction (Qur'an 7: 150). The Qur'an then adds that Moses here lamented the sins of Israel and said he only had the power to protect himself and Aaron (Qur'an 5: 25).
Aaron is later commemorated in the Qur'an as one who had a "clear authority" (Qur'an 23: 45) and one who was "guided to the Right Path" (Qur'an 37: 118). It further adds that Aaron's memory was left for people who came after him (Qur'an 37: 119) and he is blessed by God along with his brother (Qur'an 37: 120). The Qur'an also calls the Virgin Mary a "sister of Aaron" (Qur'an 19: 28). Muslim scholars debated as to who exactly this "Aaron" was in terms of his historical persona, with some saying that it was a reference to Aaron of the Exodus, and the term "sister" designating only a metaphorical or spiritual link between the two figures, all the more evident when Mary was a descendant of the priestly lineage of Aaron, while others held it to be another righteous man living at the time of Christ by the name of "Aaron". Most scholars have agreed to the former perspective, and have linked Mary spiritually with the actual sister of Aaron, her namesake Miriam, whom she resembled in many ways. The Qur'an also narrates that, centuries later, when the Ark of the Covenant returned to Israel, it contained "relics from the family of Moses and relics from the family of Aaron" (Qur'an 2: 248).
Aaron in Muhammad's time
Muhammad, in many of his sayings, speaks of Aaron. In the event of the Mi'raj, his miraculous ascension through the Heavens, Muhammad is said to have encountered Aaron in the fifth heaven. According to old scholars, including Ibn Hisham, Muhammad, in particular, mentioned the beauty of Aaron when he encountered him in Heaven. Martin Lings, in his biographical Muhammad, speaks of Muhammad's wonderment at seeing fellow prophets in their heavenly glory:
Of Joseph he said that his face had the splendour of the moon at its full, and that he had been endowed with no less than the half of all existing beauty. Yet this did not diminish Muhammad's wonderment at his other brethren, and he mentioned in particular the great beauty of Aaron.
Aaron was also mentioned by Muhammad in likeness to Ali. Muhammad had left Ali to look after his family, but the hypocrites of the time begun to spread the rumor that the prophet found Ali a burden and was relieved to be rid of his presence. Ali, grieved at hearing this wicked taunt, told Muhammad what the local people were saying. In reply, the Prophet said: "They lie, I bade thee remain for the sake of what I had left behind me. So return and represent me in my family and in thine. Art thou not content, O Ali, that thou should be unto me as Aaron was unto Moses, save that after me there is no prophet. "
According to Islamic tradition the tomb of Aaron is located on Jabal Harun, or Aaron's Mountain, near Petra in Jordan. At 1350 meters above sea-level it is the highest peak in the area; and it is a place of great sanctity to the local people for here. A 14th-century Mamluk mosque stands here with its white dome visible from most areas in and around Petra.
Aaron married Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab and sister of Nahshon (Exodus 6:23) of the tribe of Judah. The sons of Aaron were Eleazar, Ithamar, and Nadab and Abihu.[note 6] A descendant of Aaron is an Aaronite, or Kohen, meaning Priest. Any non-Aaronic Levite—i.e., descended from Levi but not from Aaron—assisted the Levitical priests of the family of Aaron in the care of the tabernacle; later of the temple.[note 7]
Depictions of Aaron within art history are rare. Other than Aaron's inclusion in the crowd of revelers around the Golden Calf ceremony—most notably in Nicolas Poussin's "The Adoration of the Golden Calf" (ca. 1633–34, National Gallery London)—there is little else.The depictions that we do have usually follow Exodus 28 in portraying Aaron with a breastplate with twelve stones that hangs from the shoulder by gold chains over the ephod, as well as a mitre on his head with a gold plate bearing the Hebrew words for "Holiness to the Lord." Some portraits also feature the "holy crown" of Exodus 29:6, sometimes with a pair of high horns that curve in toward each other (example). Examples are in the "Aaron" category at Wikimedia Commons.
The recent discovery in 1991 of Pier Francesco Mola's "Aaron, Holy to the Lord" (ca. 1650, Private Collection, New York: image available for study at Fred R. Kline Gallery Archives) adds to the Aaronic mythos. The painting offers a portrayal of the single figure of Aaron in his priestly garments celebrating Yom Kippur in the wilderness Tabernacle. The Mola "Aaron" is considered the unique single figure of Aaron to have been painted by an old master artist, circa 15th–18th centuries (A.Pigler, "Barockthemen" Vol. 1; although unknown to Pigler). The carefully rendered Judaic iconographic details in the Mola painting are rare and may have importance in relationship to mid-17th-century Jewish history. "Aaron, Holy to the Lord" was originally commissioned along with a now lost pendant of Moses (both from Mola) by the nobel Colonna family, wealthy Catholic art patrons living in Rome.
- Hebrew: אַהֲרֹן ′ahărōn, Arabic: هارون Hārūn, Greek (Septuagint): Ἀαρών, often called Aaron the priest (אֵהֲרֹן הֵכֹּהֵן) and once Aaron the Levite (אַהֲרֹן הַלֵּוִי) (Exodus 4:14)
- It should be noted that in the account given of the same events, in rabbinic sources and in the Qur'an, Aaron is not the idol-maker and upon Moses' return begged his pardon as he had felt mortally threatened by the Israelites (Quran 7:142-152).
- See Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayassa', i.; Tan., Huḳḳat, 18; Yer. Soṭah, i. 17c, and Targum Yer. Num. and Deut. on the abovementioned passages.
- All commentators, classical and modern, hold that the Qur'anic House of Amran refers to Amran's lineage, through his son Aaron. (cf. Muhammad Asad, Yusuf Ali and Ibn Kathir's commentary on Q. 19:28)
- "In the second group, we have the great founders of families, apart from Abraham, viz., Noah of the time of the Flood; David and Solomon, the real establishers of the Jewish monarchy; Job, who lived 140 years, saw four generations of descendants, and was blessed at the end of his life with large pastoral wealth (Job 42:16,12); Joseph, who as Minister of State did great things in Egypt and was the progenitor of two Tribes; and Moses and Aaron, the leaders of the Exodus from Egypt. They led active lives and called 'doers of good.'"
- Now these are the divisions of the sons of Aaron. The sons of Aaron; Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar.
- According to Samaritan sources, a civil war once broke out between the sons of Itamar Eli (Bible) and the sons of Phineas that resulted in a division of those who followed Eli and those who followed High Priest Uzzi ben Bukki at Mount Gerizim Bethel. (A third group followed neither.) Ironically, and likewise according to Samaritan sources, the high priests' line of the sons of Phineas died out in 1624 CE with the death of the 112th High Priest, Shlomyah ben Pinhas, at which time the priesthood was transferred to the sons of Itamar. See article Samaritan for list of High Priests from 1613 to 2004—the 131st high priest of the Samaritans is Elazar ben Tsedaka ben Yitzhaq. Also see article, Samaritan
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- Mariottini, Dr. Claude (2006). "The Priestly Benediction: Numbers 6:24-26". Dr. Claude Mariottini – Professor of Old Testament.
- National Gallery (2013). "The Adoration of the Golden Calf". National Gallery.
- Olson, Dennis T. (2000). "Aaron". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C.; Beck, Astrid B. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible (1st ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4.
- Singer, Isidore (1906). "aaron". The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from Earliest Times: Complete in Twelve Volumes (Ktav Publishing House). ASIN B000B68W5S.
- Steinmetz, Sol (2005). "kohen". Dictionary of Jewish Usage: A Guide to the Use of Jewish Terms. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
- usna.edu (2013). "Tomb of Aaron". United States Naval Academy. Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 2013-11-20.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aaron". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Aberbach, Moses; Smolar, Leivy (1967). "Aaron, Jeroboam and the Golden Calves". Journal of Biblical Literature 86: 129–140.
- Ginzberg, Louis. The Legends of the Jews. Translated by Henrietta Szold and Paul Radin. 7 vols. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1909–1938.
- Kaufmann, Yehezkel. The Religion of Israel. Translated by Moshe Greenberg. New York: Schocken Books, 1960.
- Kennet, R. H. (1905). "The Origin of the Aaronite Priesthood". The Journal of Theological Studies (22): 161–186. doi:10.1093/jts/os-VI.22.161.
- "Aaron", McCurdy, J. F. and Kaufmann Kohler. Jewish Encyclopedia. Funk and Wagnalls, 1901–1906; which cites
- Numbers Rabbah 9
- Leviticus Rabbah 10
- Midrash Peṭirat Aharon in Jellinek's Bet ha-Midrash, 1:91–95
- Yalḳuṭ Numbers 764
- Sabine Baring-Gould, Legends of Old Testament Characters
- Chronicles of Jerahmeel, ed. M. Gaster, pp. cx1:130–133
- Holweck, F. G., A Biographical Dictionary of the Saint. St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co. 1924.
- Meek, Theophile James. "Aaronites and Zadokites." The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 45 (April, 1920): 149-166.
- Meek, Theophile James. Hebrew Origins. Rev. ed. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1950.
References in the Qur'an
- Aaron's prophecy: 4:163, 6:84,
- Aaron is made helper of Moses: 19:53, 25:35, 26:13, 28:34, 28:35
- Aaron and Moses sent to Pharaoh: 23:45, 10:75, 10:87, 21:48
- Praise for Aaron: 37:114, 37:114, 37:118, 37:119, 37:120, 37:122
- The Golden Calf: 7:150, 20:94
- Media related to Aaron at Wikimedia Commons
- Works related to Aaron at Wikisource
- The dictionary definition of Aaron at Wiktionary
- MFnames.com - Origin and Meaning of Aaron
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