Matthew Shepard

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This article is about the murder victim. For the Detroit, Michigan based sports reporter, see Matt Shepard (sportscaster).
Matthew Shepard
Matthew Shepard.jpg
Born Matthew Wayne Shepard
(1976-12-01)December 1, 1976
Casper, Wyoming, U.S.
Died October 12, 1998(1998-10-12) (aged 21)
Poudre Valley Hospital, Fort Collins, Colorado, U.S.
Cause of death
Homicide
Parents Judy Shepard and Dennis Shepard

Matthew Wayne "Matt" Shepard (December 1, 1976 – October 12, 1998) was an American student at the University of Wyoming who was beaten, tortured and left to die near Laramie, Wyoming on the night of October 6, 1998, and died six days later at Poudre Valley Hospital in Fort Collins, Colorado, on October 12, from severe head injuries.

Two men were arrested shortly after the attack. During the trial of one of his killers, it was widely reported that Shepard was targeted because he was gay; a Laramie police officer testified at a pretrial hearing that the violence against Shepard was triggered by how the attacker "[felt] about gays", per an interview of the attacker's girlfriend.[1]

Shepard's murder brought national and international attention to hate crime legislation at the state and federal levels.[2] In October 2009, the United States Congress passed the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (commonly the "Matthew Shepard Act" or "Shepard/Byrd Act" for short), and on October 28, 2009, President Barack Obama signed the legislation into law.[3] Following her son's murder, Matthew's mother Judy Shepard became a prominent LGBT rights activist and established the Matthew Shepard Foundation. Shepard's death inspired notable films, novels, plays, songs, and other works.

Background[edit]

Shepard was born in 1976 in Casper, Wyoming, the first of two sons born to Judy (née Peck) and Dennis Shepard. His younger brother Logan was born in 1981. Matthew attended Crest Hill Elementary School, Dean Morgan Junior High School, and Natrona County High School for his freshman through junior years. Saudi Aramco hired his father in the summer of 1994, and Shephard's parents subsequently resided at the Saudi Aramco Residential Camp in Dhahran. During that time, Shepard attended The American School In Switzerland (TASIS),[4] from which he graduated in May 1995. He then attended Catawba College in North Carolina and Casper College in Wyoming, before settling in Denver, Colorado. Shepard became a first-year political science major at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, and was chosen as the student representative for the Wyoming Environmental Council.[2]

He was described by his father as "an optimistic and accepting young man who had a special gift of relating to almost everyone. He was the type of person who was very approachable and always looked to new challenges. Matthew had a great passion for equality and always stood up for the acceptance of people's differences."[5] In February 1995, during a high school trip to Morocco, Shepard was beaten and raped, causing him to experience depression and panic attacks, according to his mother. One of Shepard's friends feared that his depression had driven him to become involved with drugs during his time in college.[6]

Murder[edit]

On the night of October 6, 1998, Shepard met Aaron McKinney (then 22), and Russell Henderson (then 21), at the Fireside Lounge in Laramie, Wyoming.[7][8] It was decided that McKinney and Henderson would give Shepard a ride home.[9] McKinney and Henderson subsequently drove the car to a remote, rural area, and proceeded to rob, pistol-whip, and torture Shepard, tie him to a fence, and leave him to die. According to their court testimony, McKinney and Henderson discovered Shepard's address and intended to steal from his home, as well. Still tied to the fence, Shepard, who was in a coma, was discovered 18 hours later by Aaron Kreifels, a cyclist who initially mistook Shepard for a scarecrow.[10]

Reggie Fluty, the first police officer on the scene, found Shepard alive but covered in blood. The medical gloves issued by the Albany County Sheriff's Department were faulty, and Fluty's supply ran out. She decided to use her bare hands to clear an airway in Shepard's bloody mouth. A day later, she was informed that Shepard was HIV positive, and she may have been exposed due to cuts on her hands. After taking an AZT regimen for several months, she proved not to have been infected.[11] Judy Shepard later wrote she learned of her son's HIV status during his stay at the hospital following the attack.[12]

Shepard had suffered fractures to the back of his head and in front of his right ear. He experienced severe brainstem damage, which affected his body's ability to regulate his heart rate, body temperature, and other vital functions. There were also about a dozen small lacerations around his head, face, and neck. His injuries were deemed too severe for doctors to operate. Shepard never regained consciousness and remained on full life support. While he lay in intensive care, and in the days following the attack, candlelit vigils were held around the world.[13][14][15]

Shepard was pronounced dead at 12:53 a.m. on October 12, 1998, at Poudre Valley Hospital, in Fort Collins, Colorado.[16][17][18][19] He was 21 years old.[7]

Arrests and trial[edit]

Police arrested Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson shortly after the attack and found the bloody gun and Shepard's shoes and wallet in their truck.[20] Henderson and McKinney later tried to persuade their girlfriends to provide alibis for them.[21] At trial, McKinney offered various rationales to justify his actions. He originally pleaded the gay panic defense, arguing that he and Henderson were driven to temporary insanity by alleged sexual advances by Shepard. At another point, McKinney's lawyer stated that the two men wanted to rob Shepard but never intended to kill him.[20]

The prosecutor alleged that McKinney and Henderson pretended to be gay in order to gain Shepard's trust.[22] During the trial, Kristen Price, McKinney's girlfriend, testified that Henderson and McKinney had "pretended they were gay to get [Shepard] in the truck and rob him".[23][24] McKinney and Henderson went to the Fireside Lounge and selected Shepard after he arrived. McKinney alleged that Shepard asked them for a ride home.[23]

After befriending Shepard, they took him to a remote area outside of Laramie where they robbed him, assaulted him severely, and tied him to a fence with a rope from McKinney's truck, while Shepard pleaded for his life. Media reports often contained the graphic account of the pistol-whipping and his fractured skull. It was reported that Shepard was beaten so brutally that his face was completely covered in blood, except where it had been partially washed clean by his tears.[25][26] Both girlfriends testified that neither McKinney nor Henderson was under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time.[27][28]

Henderson pleaded guilty on April 5, 1999 and agreed to testify against McKinney to avoid the death penalty; he received two consecutive life sentences. The jury in McKinney's trial found him guilty of felony murder. As they began to deliberate on the death penalty, Shepard's parents brokered a deal, resulting in McKinney's receiving two consecutive life terms without the possibility of parole.[29] Henderson and McKinney were incarcerated in the Wyoming State Penitentiary in Rawlins and were later transferred to other prisons because of overcrowding.[30]

Hate crime legislation[edit]

President Obama with Louvon Harris, Betty Byrd Boatner, and Judy Shepard
President Barack Obama greets Louvon Harris, left, Betty Byrd Boatner, right, both sisters of James Byrd, Jr., and Judy Shepard at a reception commemorating the enactment of the legislation

Henderson and McKinney were not charged with a hate crime, because no Wyoming criminal statute provided for such a charge.[31] The nature of Shepard's murder led to requests for new legislation addressing hate crimes, urged particularly by those who believed that Shepard was targeted on the basis of his sexual orientation.[32][33] Under then United States federal law[34] and Wyoming state law,[35] crimes committed on the basis of sexual orientation were not prosecutable as hate crimes.

In the following session of the Wyoming Legislature, a bill was introduced defining certain attacks motivated by victim identity as hate crimes, however the measure failed on a 30-30 tie in the Wyoming House of Representatives.[36]

At the federal level, then-President Bill Clinton renewed attempts to extend federal hate crime legislation to include homosexual individuals, women, and people with disabilities.[37] The United States House of Representatives rejected these efforts in 1999.[citation needed]

In September 2000, both houses of Congress passed such legislation; however it was stripped out in conference committee.[38]

On March 20, 2007, the Matthew Shepard Act (H.R. 1592) was introduced as federal bipartisan legislation in the U.S. Congress, sponsored by Democrat John Conyers with 171 co-sponsors. Shepard's parents attended the introduction ceremony. The bill passed the House of Representatives on May 3, 2007. Similar legislation passed in the Senate on September 27, 2007[39] (S. 1105), however then-President George W. Bush indicated he would veto the legislation if it reached his desk.[40] The Democratic leadership dropped the amendment in response to opposition from conservative groups and Bush, and because the measure was attached to a defense bill there was a lack of support from antiwar Democrats.[41]

On December 10, 2007, congressional powers attached bipartisan hate crimes legislation to a Department of Defense Authorization bill, although it failed to pass. Nancy Pelosi, Speaker of the House, said she was "still committed to getting the Matthew Shepard Act passed". Pelosi planned to get the bill passed in early 2008[42] although she did not succeed. Following his election as President, Barack Obama stated that he was committed to passing the Act.[43]

The U.S. House of Representatives debated expansion of hate crimes legislation on April 29, 2009. During the debate, Representative Virginia Foxx of North Carolina called the "hate crime" labeling of Shepard's murder a "hoax".[44] Foxx later called her comments "a poor choice of words".[45]

The House passed the act, designated H.R. 1913, by a vote of 249 to 175.[46] Ted Kennedy, Patrick Leahy, and a bipartisan coalition introduced the bill in the Senate on April 28;[47] it had 43 cosponsors as of June 17, 2009. The Matthew Shepard Act was adopted as an amendment to S.1390 by a vote of 63-28 on July 15, 2009.[48]

On October 22, 2009, the Senate passed the act by a vote of 68-29.[49] President Obama signed the measure into law on October 28, 2009.[50][51]

Public reaction and aftermath[edit]

Funeral protests[edit]

Members of the Westboro Baptist Church, led by Fred Phelps, received national attention for picketing Shepard's funeral with signs bearing homophobic slogans.[52] Romaine Patterson, a friend of Shepard's, organized a group which assembled in a circle around the Westboro Baptist Church protesters, wearing white robes and gigantic wings (resembling angels) that blocked the protesters. Police had to create a human barrier between the two groups.[53] Angel Action was founded by Patterson in April 1999.[53][54]

Alternate theories[edit]

The murder continued to attract public attention and media coverage long after the trial was over. In 2004, the ABC News news program 20/20 aired a report quoting claims by McKinney, Henderson, and Kristen Price, the prosecutor and a lead investigator, that the murder had not been motivated by Shepard's sexuality but rather was primarily a drug-related robbery that had turned violent.[20]

Critics charged that the report, which featured interviews with McKinney and Henderson, was sensational, misleading, and downplayed or ignored evidence of homophobia as a motivation for the crime.[55][56][57][58]

Dave O'Malley, the Laramie police commander over the investigations division at the time of Shepard's murder,[59] stated that the murderers' claims were not credible, but the prosecutor in the case stated there was ample evidence that drugs were at least a factor in the murder.[60] Other coverage focused on how these more recent statements contradicted those made at and near the trial.[61]

In September 2013, The Book of Matt: Hidden Truths About the Murder of Matthew Shepard by Stephen Jimenez, the producer of the 2004 20/20 segment, was published. The book revived and expanded upon Jimenez's claims that Shepard's murder was at least partly drug-related, specifically to Shepard's being a "major" methamphetamine dealer, and that, contrary to the generally accepted version of events, his sexual orientation was not a major motive for the crime.[62] He added that Shepard and at least one of his killers (McKinney) had been occasional sexual partners.[63][64]

In an essay in The Advocate, Aaron Hicklin wrote that Jimenez had "amassed enough anecdotal evidence to build a persuasive case that Shepard's sexuality was, if not incidental, certainly less central than popular consensus had lead us to believe."[65]

Culture critic Alyssa Rosenberg criticized the book for being poorly sourced, stating: "by not distinguishing which quotations are manufactured from recollections, which are paraphrases recounted by sources, and which were spoken directly to him",[62] and countered most of the major aspects of the book.[62] For example, she disputed claims about Shepard's alleged drug dealing, as most of the sources remained suspect or otherwise unsubstantiated. "Jimenez never qualifies how credible the sources are, or validates their closeness to Shepard, or evaluates the potential motivations for their accounts", she wrote.[62]

Police officials interviewed after Jimenez's book's publication disputed certain claims made in the book. O'Malley said Jimenez's claim that Shepard was "a methamphetamine kingpin is almost humorous. Someone that would buy into that certainly would believe almost anything they read." Rob Debree, lead sheriff's investigator at the time, said the book contains "factual errors and lies", and deemed Jimenez's claim that Shepard was a drug dealer "truly laughable".[59]

Legacy[edit]

In the years following Shepard's death, his mother Judy Shepard has become a well-known advocate for LGBT rights, particularly issues relating to gay youth. She was a main force behind the Matthew Shepard Foundation, which she and her husband Dennis founded in December 1998.[citation needed]

The Meaning of Matthew[edit]

The Meaning of Matthew: My Son's Murder in Laramie, and a World Transformed is a 2009 biographical book by Judy Shepard about her son Matthew Shepard. Judy Shepard speaks about her loss, her family memories of Matthew, and the tragic event that changed the Shepards' lives and America. The Meaning of Matthew follows the Shepard family in the days immediately after the crime to see their incapacitated son, kept alive by life support machines; how the Shepards learned of the huge public response, the candlelit vigils and memorial services for their child; their struggles to navigate the legal system.[66]

In popular culture[edit]

Numerous works have been inspired by Matthew Shepard's life, death, trial, and its aftermath, including documentary and narrative films and television shows, stage plays, and musical and written works. Additionally, openly gay NBA player Jason Collins wore the jersey number "98" in honor of Shepard during the 2012–13 season with the Boston Celtics and the Washington Wizards.[67] After joining the Brooklyn Nets in 2014, NBA marketing reported high interest in Jason Collins' "98" jersey,[68] and high sales once available for purchase.[69][70]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Brooke, James (November 21, 1998). "Witnesses Trace Brutal Killing of Gay Student". The New York Times. Retrieved September 17, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b "Matthew Shepard Foundation webpage". Matthew Shepard Foundation. Archived from the original on July 29, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2009. 
  3. ^ "Obama signs hate-crimes law rooted in crimes of 1998". USA Today. October 28, 2009. 
  4. ^ Julie Cart (September 14, 1999). "Matthew Shepard's Mother Aims to Speak With His Voice". Los Angeles Times. 
  5. ^ Bevacqua, Jillian; Paone, Torie (July 5, 2011). "Judy Shepard speaks out against anti-gay violence". Muhlenberg Weekly. 
  6. ^ "New Details Emerge in Matthew Shepard Murder". ABC News. November 26, 2004. 
  7. ^ a b Brooke, James (Original: October 12, 1998). "Gay Man Dies From Attack, Fanning Outrage and Debate". The New York Times. Retrieved May 29, 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ "New Details Emerge in Matthew Shepard Murder". 
  9. ^ "Killer: Shepard Didn't Make Advances". Salon.com. Retrieved 2007-12-07. 
  10. ^ Hughes, Jim (October 15, 1998). "Wyo. bicyclist recalls tragic discovery". The Denver Post. p. A01. 
  11. ^ Reavill, Gil (2007). Aftermath, Inc: Cleaning Up After CSI Goes Home. Gotham. p. 103. ISBN 1592402968. 
  12. ^ "Magnificent New Book About Matthew Shepherd Astonishes". November 19, 2009 (378). 
  13. ^ "University of Wyoming Matthew Shepard Resource Site". University of Wyoming. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  14. ^ "Hate crimes bill still elusive 10 years after savage gay killing". The Ottawa Citizen (Ottawa, Canada). CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. October 14, 2008. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  15. ^ Egerton, Brooks (October 17, 1998). "Symbol of outrage". The Spokesman-Review. p. A2. Retrieved October 4, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Murder charges planned in beating death of gay student". CNN. October 12, 1998. Archived from the original on August 22, 2006. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  17. ^ Lacayo, Richard (October 26, 1998). "The New Struggle". Time Magazine. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  18. ^ "Beaten gay student dies; murder charges planned". CNN. October 12, 1998. Archived from the original on June 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  19. ^ "Matthew Shepard Medical Update" (PDF). Poudre Valley Health System (Colorado). October 12, 1998. Retrieved 2007-01-14. 
  20. ^ a b c "New Details Emerge in Matthew Shepard Murder". ABC News Internet Ventures. November 26, 2004. Retrieved 2009-06-07. 
  21. ^ "New details emerge about suspects in gay attack". CNN.com (Cable News Network). October 13, 1998. Archived from the original on 2008-05-08. Retrieved January 21, 2007. 
  22. ^ Tuma, Clara (April 5, 1999). "Henderson pleads guilty to felony murder in Matthew Shepard case". Associated Press (Court TV). Archived from the original on December 1, 2008. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  23. ^ a b Ramsland, Katherine. "Psychiatry, the Law, and Depravity: Profile of Michael Welner, M.D. Chairman, The Forensic Panel". truTV. 
  24. ^ Cullen, Dave (November 1, 1999). "Quiet bombshell in Matthew Shepard trial". Salon. Retrieved February 19, 2012. 
  25. ^ Loffreda, Beth (2000). Losing Matt Shepard: life and politics in the aftermath of anti-gay murder. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11858-9. 
  26. ^ Chiasson, Lloyd (November 30, 2003). Illusive Shadows: Justice, Media, and Socially Significant American Trials. Praeger. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-275-97507-4. 
  27. ^ "The Daily Camera:Matthew Shepard Murder". Archived from the original on 2008-04-24. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  28. ^ Black, Robert W. (October 29, 1999). "Girlfriend: McKinney told of killing". The Daily Camera. 
  29. ^ Cart, Julie (November 5, 1999). "Killer of Gay Student Is Spared Death Penalty; Courts: Matthew Shepard's father says life in prison shows "mercy to someone who refused to show any mercy."". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. 
  30. ^ Torkelson, Jean (October 3, 2008). "Mother's mission: Matthew Shepard's death changes things". Rocky Mountain News (The E.W. Scripps Co.). Retrieved November 16, 2008. 
  31. ^ Kimball, Emily (June 13, 2009). "Hate-crimes bill would expand federal jurisdiction". Richmond Times-Dispatch. 
  32. ^ Colby College (March 7, 2006). "Mother of Hate-Crime Victim to Speak at Colby". Retrieved 2006-04-06.  Press release.
  33. ^ "Open phones". Talk of the Nation (National Public Radio). October 12, 1998. Retrieved 2006-04-06.  "Denounced nationwide as a hate crime" at 1:40 elapsed time.
  34. ^ "Investigative Programs: Civil Rights: Hate Crimes". Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  35. ^ "Map of State Statutes". Anti-Defamation League. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  36. ^ Blanchard, Robert O. (May 1999). "The "Hate State" Myth". Reason. Archived from the original on April 5, 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-06. 
  37. ^ Barrett, Ted, and The Associated Press (September 13, 2000). "President Clinton urges Congress to pass hate crimes bill: GOP aides predict legislation will pass House, but will not become law". CNN. Archived from the original on May 26, 2008. Retrieved 2006-04-07. 
  38. ^ Office of House Democratic Leader Nancy Pelosi (October 7, 2004). "House Democrats Condemn GOP Rejection of Hate Crimes Legislation". Archived from the original on April 1, 2006. Retrieved 2006-04-07.  Press release.
  39. ^ Simon, R. (2007-05-03). "Bush threatens to veto expansion of hate-crime law". Los Angeles Times. 
  40. ^ Stout, D. (May 3, 2007). "House Votes to Expand Hate Crime Protection". New York Times. 
  41. ^ Wooten, Amy (January 1, 2008). "Congress Drops Hate-Crimes Bill". Windy City Times. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  42. ^ "Caving in on Hate Crimes", New York Times, December 10, 2007; retrieved December 11, 2007.
  43. ^ Lynsen, Joshua (June 13, 2008). "Obama renews commitment to gay issues". Washington Blade (Window Media LLC Productions). Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved November 16, 2008. 
  44. ^ Grim, Ryan (April 29, 2009). "Virginia Foxx: Story of Matthew Shepard's Murder A "Hoax"". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  45. ^ "Congresswoman calls gay death case a `hoax'". Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  46. ^ Stout, David (April 29, 2009). "House Passes Hate-Crimes Bill". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-30. 
  47. ^ "Matthew Shepard Hate Crimes Prevention Act Introduced in Senate". Feminist.org. 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  48. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records: Roll Call Vote". Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  49. ^ Roxana Tiron, "Senate OKs defense bill, 68-29", The Hill, found at The Hill website; retrieved October 22, 2009.
  50. ^ Pershing, Ben (October 23, 2009). "Senate passes measure that would protect gays". The Washington Post. 
  51. ^ Geen, Jessica (October 28, 2009). "Mother of Matthew Shepard welcomes U.S. hate crimes bill". Pink News. Retrieved 2009-10-28. 
  52. ^ "Top Story". Gay Today. Retrieved 2012-01-03. 
  53. ^ a b "Suspect pleads guilty in beating death of gay college student". CNN. April 5, 1999. Archived from the original on January 2, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  54. ^ "The Whole World Was Watching". Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  55. ^ Lee, Felicia R. (November 26, 2004). "ABC News Revisits Student's Killing, and Angers Some Gays". The New York Times. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  56. ^ GLAAD: 10 Questions About ABC’S 20/20 Show on Matthew Shepard at the Wayback Machine (archived May 14, 2009)
  57. ^ Charles, Casey (2012). Critical Queer Studies: Law, Film, and Fiction in Contemporary American Culture. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 978-1409444060. 
  58. ^ O'Donnell, M. (2008). "Gay-hate, journalism and compassionate questioning". Asia Pacific Media Educator (19): 113–126. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  59. ^ a b Hemmelgarn, Seth (2013-10-24). "Shepard book stirs controversy". The Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved 11-06-2013.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  60. ^ Knittel, Shaun. "The Matthew Shepard paradox: How one U.S. Representative opened hate's old wounds". sgn.org. Seattle Gay News. Retrieved October 29, 2009. 
  61. ^ "Rewriting the Motives Behind Matthew Shepard’s Murder". Recount (New York University). December 8, 2004. Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  62. ^ a b c d Rosenberg, Alyssa (2013-10-18). "‘The Book Of Matt’ Doesn’t Prove Anything, Other Than The Size Of Stephen Jimenez's Ego". ThinkProgress. Retrieved 2013-10-18. 
  63. ^ "Matthew Shepard Murdered By Bisexual Lover And Drug Dealer, Stephen Jimenez Claims In New Book". Huffington Post. 09-12-2013. Retrieved September 30, 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  64. ^ Smith, Kyle (2013-09-21). "New book questions Matthew Shepard killing". New York Post. Retrieved September 30, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Have We Got Matthew Shepard All Wrong?". September 13, 2013. 
  66. ^ Shepard, Judy (2009). The Meaning of Matthew: My Son's Murder in Laramie, and a World Transformed. New York, NY: Penguin Group USA. ISBN 978-1-59463-057-6. 
  67. ^ Grindley, Lucas (May 1, 2013). "Matthew Shepard's Mom Moved to Tears by Jason Collins's Gesture". The Advocate. Retrieved October 7, 2013. 
  68. ^ "A Sudden Demand for No. 98 Jerseys". February 25, 2014. 
  69. ^ Mazzeo, Mike (February 27, 2014). "Jason Collins' No. 98 for sale". ESPN. Retrieved April 17, 2014. "four of the top five best-selling items ... are Collins items" 
  70. ^ Moore, Matt (February 26, 2014). "Jason Collins' jersey skyrockets to No. 1 on sales list". CBS Sports. Retrieved April 17, 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Campbell, Shannon; Laura Castaneda (2005). News and Sexuality: Media Portraits of Diversity. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-4129-0998-8. 
  • Fondakowski, Leigh; Kaufman, Moisés (2001). The Laramie Project. New York: Vintage Books. ISBN 0-375-72719-1. 
  • Garceau, Dee; Basso, Matthew; McCall, Laura (2001). Across the Great Divide: Cultures of manhood in the American West. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92471-5. 
  • Hinds, Patrick; Romaine Patterson (2005). The Whole World Was Watching: Living in the Light of Matthew Shepard. Advocate Books. ISBN 1-55583-901-0. 
  • Loffreda, Beth (2000). Losing Matt Shepard: life and politics in the aftermath of anti-gay murder. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11859-7. 
  • McConnell, David (2013). American Honor Killings: Desire and Rage Among Men. Akashic Books. ISBN 978-1617751325. 
  • Swigonski, Mary E.; Mama, Robin S.; Ward, Kelly (2001). From Hate Crimes to Human Rights: A Tribute to Matthew Shepard. New York: Routledge. ISBN 1-56023-256-0. 

External links[edit]