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Abū Lahab (Arabic: أبو لهب, meaning Father of Flame) (died ca. 624 CE) was Muḥammed's paternal uncle, and one of the enemies of Islam at Muḥammad's time, condemned by name in the Quran in sura al-Masad. His full name was 'Abd al-'Uzzā, but he was called Abū Lahab because his cheeks were always red or inflamed. His wife was Umm Jamīl, who gave him two sons, 'Utbah ibn Abī Lahab and 'Utaybah ibn Abī Lahab.
The Wa Ṣabāḥah 
When Muhammad announced that he had been instructed by God to spread the message of Islam openly, he was told by the Quran to warn his kinsfolk about divine punishment. In doing so, Muhammad climbed Mount Ṣafā and shouted: Wa ṣabāḥah! which means "O calamity of the morning!" In Arabia this alarm was traditionally raised by anyone person who noticed an enemy tribe advancing against his tribe at dawn. So when Muhammad did this, people asked who was the one who made the call. They were told that it was Muhammad. When all the people assembled, Muhammad addressed the clans by name. "O Banū Hāshim, O Banū 'Abd al-Muṭallib... and so on, if I were to tell you that behind this hill there is an enemy about to attack you, would you believe me?" The people responded that they would, since Muhammad was known to be honest. Muhammad continued saying: "Then I warn you that you are heading for a torment." Before anybody could speak, Abū Lahab said: "Woe be on you the rest of the day! Is that what you summoned us for?" Another tradition recalls Abū Lahab picking up a stone to throw at Muhammad.
Other acts of scepticism 
Once Abū Lahab asked Muḥammad: "If I were to accept your religion, what would I get?" Muḥammad replied: "You would get what the other believers would get." Abū Lahab responded: "Is there no preference or distinction for me?" In which Muḥammad replied, "What else do you want?" Abū Lahab replied back: "May this religion perish in which I and all other people should be equal and alike!"
The Sura of Abu Lahab 
In the name of God, the most compassionate, the most merciful (بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم)
- Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab, and perish he,
- His wealth will not avail him or that which he gained,
- He will [enter to] burn in a Fire of [blazing] flame,
- His wife [as well] - the carrier of firewood (thorns of Sadan which she used to put on the way of the Prophet).
- Around her neck is a rope of twisted fiber (masadd).
Muhammad was protected somewhat by the influence of his family, but even he was subjected to such abuse; while he was praying near the Ka'bah, Abū Lahab once threw the entrails of a sacrificed camel over him.
The first people to reach Mecca with the news of the Quraysh defeat in the Battle of Badr were al-Haysuman and 'Abdullāh, al-Khuzā'ī's son, who bewailed the fact that so many of their chieftains had fallen on the battlefield. In the large tent of Zamzam, the converts Abū Rafi', former slave of 'Abbās ibn 'Abd al-Muṭallib freed by Muḥammad and 'Abbās' wife, Lubābah bint al-Ḥārith (known as Umm Faḑl) sat sharpening their arrows. They had both been overjoyed to hear the news of Muḥammad's victory, however, they felt it was more prudent to restrain their happiness.
As they sharpened the arrows, Abū Lahab who had not taken part in the encounter but sent al-'Āṣ in his place entered. His face looked as black as thunder as he sat himself down at the other end of the tent with his back toward Abū Rafi'. Not long after Abū Lahab heard some others in the tent saying, "Abū Sufyān, Al-Ḥārith's son has returned," whereupon he looked up, saw his nephew and called him. A small crowd gathered around the two as Abū Sufyān told his uncle, "The facts are the Quraysh met our enemy and turned their backs. They put us to flight taking prisoners as they pleased, I cannot blame our tribesmen because they faced not only them but men wearing white robes riding piebald horses, who were between heaven and earth. They spared nothing and no one had a chance."
When Umm Faḑl and Abū Rafi' heard the news of the men in white riding between heaven and earth, they could no longer contain their happiness and Abu Rafi' exclaimed for all to hear, "They were angels!" Abū Rafi's outburst was more than Abū Lahab could bear, in a raging fury he forced Abū Rafi', who was frail, to the ground and struck him over and over again. Umm Faḑl grabbed hold of a tent pole that lay nearby and with all her might hit her brother-in-law's head with it crying out. "Do you think that you can abuse him just because 'Abbās is away!" She wounded him so severely that his head was split open and laid bare part of his skull. The wound was never to heal, it turned septic and its poison spread rapidly through his entire body erupting into open pustules that caused his death within the week. The smell from his wound was so repulsive that nobody could come near him.
When he died, his family left his decaying body decomposing in his home for two or three nights. It was only when someone rebuked them strongly saying, "It is disgraceful, you should be ashamed of yourselves to leave your father to rot in his house and not bury him from the sight of men!" that they did something. Slaves were made to remove his body. They watered his body from a distance, and used poles to push him into a grave outside of Mecca throwing stones over the body.
See also 
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