Abadan, Iran

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Âbâdân
Ābādān
city
Âbâdân is located in Iran
Âbâdân
Âbâdân
Coordinates: 30°20′21″N 48°18′15″E / 30.33917°N 48.30417°E / 30.33917; 48.30417Coordinates: 30°20′21″N 48°18′15″E / 30.33917°N 48.30417°E / 30.33917; 48.30417
Country  Iran
Province Khuzestan
County Abadan
Bakhsh Central
Population (2006)
 • Total 217,988
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 • Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)

Âbâdân (Persian: Ābādān‎) is a city in and the capital of Abadan County, Khuzestan Provincewhich in located in central west of Iran. It lies on Abadan Island (68 km or 42 mi long, 3–19 km or 2–12 miles wide, the island is bounded in the west by the Arvand waterway and to the east by the Bahmanshir outlet of the Karun River otherwise known as Shatt al-Arab), 53 kilometres (33 mi) from the Persian Gulf,[1] near the Iraqi-Iran border.

Etymology[edit]

The earliest mention of the island of Abadan, if not the port itself is found in works of the geographer Marcian, who renders the name "Apphadana".[2] Earlier, the classical geographer, Ptolemy notes "Apphana" as an island off the mouth of the Tigris (which is, where the modern Island of Abadan is located). An etymology for this name is presented by 'B. Farahvashi to be derived from the Persian word "ab" (water) and the root "pā" (guard, watch) thus "coastguard station").[3]

In the Islamic times, a pseudo-etymology was produced by the historian Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri (d.892) quoting a folk story that the town was presumably founded by one "Abbad bin Hosayn" from the Arabian Tribe of Banu Tamim, who established a garrison there during the governorship of Hajjaj in the Ummayad period.[3]

In the subsequent centuries, the Persian version of the name had begun to come into general use before it was adopted by official decree in 1935.[3]

Population[edit]

Population
year people
1910 400
1956 220,000[4]
1980 300,000
1986 6
1991 84,774[5]
2001 206,073
2006 217,988[6]

The civilian population of the city dropped close to zero during the eight years of the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88). The 1986 census recorded only 6 people. In 1991, 84,774 had returned to live in the city.[5] By 2001, the population had jumped to 206,073, and it was 217,988, in 48,061 families, according to 2006 census.[6] Abadan Refinery is one of the largest in the world.

Only 9% of managers (of the oil company) were from Khuzestan. The proportion of natives of Tehran, the Caspian, Azarbaijan and Kurdistan rose from 4% of blue collar workers to 22% of white collar workers to 45% of managers. Thus while Persian-speakers were concentrated on the lower rungs of the work force, managers tended to be brought in from some distance.[7]

History[edit]

Abadan is thought to have been further developed into a major port city under the Abbasids' rule. In this time period, it was a commercial source of salt and woven mats.[1] The siltation of the river delta forced the town further away from water; In the 14th century, however, Ibn Battutah described Abadan just as a small port in a flat salty plain.[4] Politically, Abadan was often the subject of dispute between the nearby states; in 1847, Persia acquired it from Turkey,[5] in which state Abadan has remained since. From the 17th century onward, the island of Abadan was part of the lands of the Arab Ka'ab (Bani Kaab) tribe. One section of this tribe, Mohaysen, had its headquarters at Mohammara(present-day Khorramshahr), until the removal of Shaikh Khaz'al Khan in 1924.[8]

Exploded T-54/55 tank, remains as symbol of Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988).
Ruins of a building in Abadan. Abadan had suffered serious damages during Iran–Iraq War (1980–88), including Saddam's deadly chemical weapons.

It was not until the 20th century that rich oil fields were discovered in the area. On 16 July 1909, after secret negotiation with the British consul, Percy Cox assisted by Arnold Wilson, Sheik Khaz'al agreed to a rental agreement for the island including Abadan.[9][10][11][nb 1] The Sheik continued to administer the island until 1924.[12] The Anglo-Persian Oil Company built their first pipeline terminus oil refinery in Abadan, starting in 1909 and completing it in 1912, with oil flowing by August 1912 (see Abadan Refinery).[13][14] Refinery throughput numbers rose from 33,000 tons in 1912-1913 to 4,338,000 tons in 1931.[12] By 1938, it was the largest in the world.

During World War II, Abadan was a major logistics center for Lend-Lease aircraft being sent to the Soviet Union by the United States.[15][16]

In 1951, Iran nationalized all oil properties and refining ground to a stop on the island. Rioting broke out in Abadan, after the government had decided to nationalize the oil facilities, and 3 British workers were killed.[17] It wasn't until 1954, that a settlement was reached, which allows a group of international oil companies to manage the production and refining on the island.[18] This continued until 1973, when the NIOC took over all facilities.[13] After total nationalization, Iran focused on supplying oil domestically and built a pipeline from Abadan to Tehran.[13]

Whereas Abadan was not a major cultural or religious center, it did play an important role in the Islamic Revolution. On 19 August 1978—the anniversary of the US backed pro-Shah coup d'état which overthrew the nationalists and popular Iranian prime minister, Dr. Mohammed Mossadegh— the Cinema Rex, a movie theatre in Abadan, Iran, was set ablaze. The Cinema Rex Fire was the site of 430 deaths,[19][nb 2] but more importantly, it was another event that kept the Islamic Revolution moving ahead. At the time there was a lot of confusion and misinformation about the incident; however the public blamed the local police chief and also the Shah and SAVAK.[20][21][22][23] The reformist Sobhe Emrooz newspaper in one of its editorials revealed that the Cinema Rex was burned down by the radical Islamists. The newspaper was shut down immediately after.[citation needed] Over time, the true culprits, radical Islamists, were apprehended and the logic behind this act was revealed, as they were trying both to foment the general public to distrust the government even more, and also as they perceived cinema as a link to the Americans.[21][24] This fire was one of four during a short period in August, with other fires in Mashhad, Rizaiya, and Shiraz.[19]

In September 1980, Abadan was almost overrun during a surprise attack on Khuzestan by Iraq, marking the beginning of the Iran–Iraq War. For 12 months Abadan was besieged, but never captured, by Iraqi forces, and in September 1981, the Iranians broke the siege of Abadan.[25] Much of the city, including the oil refinery which was the world's largest refinery with capacity of 628,000 barrels per day, was badly damaged or destroyed by the siege and by bombing.[26] Previous to the war, the city's civilian population was about 300,000, but before it was over, most of the populace had sought refuge elsewhere in Iran.

After the war, the biggest concern was the rebuilding of Abadan's oil refinery, as they were operating at 10% of capacity due to damage.[27] In 1993, the refinery began limited operation & and the port reopened. By 1997, the refinery reached the same rate of production it was at before the war. Recently, Abandan has been the site of major labor activity as workers at the oil refineries in the city have staged walkouts and strikes to protest non-payment of wages and the political situation in the country.[28]

Recent events[edit]

To honor the 100th anniversary of the refining of oil in Abadan, city officials are planning an oil museum.[29] The Abadan oil refinery was featured on the reverse side of Iran's 100-rial banknotes printed in 1965 and from 1971 to 1973.

Places of interest[edit]

The Abadan Institute of Technology was established in Abadan in 1939.[12] The school specialized in engineering and petroleum chemistry, and was designed to train staff for the refinery in town. The school's name has since changed several times, but since 1989 has been considered a branch campus of the Petroleum University of Technology, centered in Tehran.

There is an international airport in Abadan. It is represented by the IATA airport code ABD.

Notable residents[edit]

  • Abie Nathan (1927–2008), Israeli humanitarian and peace activist

Climate[edit]

The climate in Abadan is arid (Köppen climate classification BWh) and similar to Baghdad's, but slightly hotter due to Abadan's lower latitude. Summers are dry and extremely hot, with temperatures above 45 degrees almost daily. Winters are mildly wet and spring-like, though subject to cold spells. Winter temperatures are around 16–20 degrees. The world's highest unconfirmed temperature was a temperature flare up during a heat burst in June 1967, with a temperature of 87 °C (189 °F).[30] Reliable measurements in the city range from −5 to 53 °C (23 to 127 °F).[31][better source needed]

Climate data for Abadan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
34.0
(93.2)
37.0
(98.6)
42.0
(107.6)
47.6
(117.7)
50.0
(122)
51.0
(123.8)
53.0
(127.4)
48.6
(119.5)
43.0
(109.4)
37.0
(98.6)
29.2
(84.6)
53
(127.4)
Average high °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
20.7
(69.3)
25.7
(78.3)
31.7
(89.1)
38.8
(101.8)
43.3
(109.9)
45.0
(113)
44.6
(112.3)
42.3
(108.1)
35.7
(96.3)
26.8
(80.2)
20.0
(68)
32.72
(90.89)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.3
(54.1)
14.7
(58.5)
19.3
(66.7)
24.8
(76.6)
31.2
(88.2)
35.3
(95.5)
36.8
(98.2)
36.1
(97)
32.8
(91)
26.9
(80.4)
19.5
(67.1)
13.8
(56.8)
25.29
(77.51)
Average low °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
8.6
(47.5)
12.7
(54.9)
17.4
(63.3)
22.8
(73)
26.1
(79)
27.7
(81.9)
26.8
(80.2)
23.1
(73.6)
18.5
(65.3)
13.1
(55.6)
8.3
(46.9)
17.67
(63.8)
Record low °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−5.0
(23)
−1.0
(30.2)
7.0
(44.6)
12.0
(53.6)
17.0
(62.6)
17.0
(62.6)
19.4
(66.9)
14.0
(57.2)
7.0
(44.6)
−8.8
(16.2)
−1.0
(30.2)
−8.8
(16.2)
Precipitation mm (inches) 34.8
(1.37)
23.1
(0.909)
18.4
(0.724)
14.8
(0.583)
4.0
(0.157)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.004)
3.1
(0.122)
20.4
(0.803)
30.4
(1.197)
149.1
(5.869)
Avg. rainy days 6.9 5.7 6.0 5.1 2.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.6 4.5 6.5 38.7
 % humidity 68 60 50 44 33 27 27 30 34 45 57 67 45.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 180.6 195.0 222.3 221.6 262.9 292.1 305.1 290.4 290.4 263.4 202.4 182.5 2,908.7
Source: NOAA (1961-1990) [32]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The agreement gave £1,500 per year and £16,500 in gold sovereigns to the Sheik.[11]
  2. ^ Sources give different amounts for the number of people killed, with 400+,[20] "about 370 people",[21] and "almost 400 people."[22]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Hoiberg 2010, p. 6
  2. ^ Hoeschel et al. 1600, p. 48
  3. ^ a b c Elwell-Sutton & de Planhol 1982, p. 52
  4. ^ a b Hoiberg 2010, p. 7
  5. ^ a b c Lagassé 2000, p. 2
  6. ^ a b Vadahti 2006[citation not found]
  7. ^ Elwell-Sutton & de Planhol 1982, pp. 55–56
  8. ^ Elwell-Sutton & de Planhol 1982, p. 53
  9. ^ Ferrier 1991, pp. 641–642
  10. ^ Greaves 1991, pp. 418–419
  11. ^ a b Abrahamian 2008, p. 56
  12. ^ a b c Ferrier 1991, pp. 647–648
  13. ^ a b c MacPherson 1989, p. 164
  14. ^ Issawi 1991, pp. 606–607
  15. ^ United States Air Force 1987
  16. ^ Ferrier 1991, p. 651
  17. ^ Wilber 1984, p. 141
  18. ^ Melamid 1997, p. 6
  19. ^ a b Chelkowski 1991, p. 800
  20. ^ a b Abrahamian 2008, p. 159
  21. ^ a b c Axworthy 2013, pp. 108–109
  22. ^ a b Daniel 2001, pp. 167–168
  23. ^ Satrapi 2003, pp. 14–15
  24. ^ Keddie 2003, p. 231
  25. ^ Daniel 2001, p. 208
  26. ^ MacPherson 1989, p. 154
  27. ^ Axworthy 2013, p. 309
  28. ^ Mather 2009
  29. ^ Anon 2005
  30. ^ Burt 2004, p. 36
  31. ^ Herrera 2014
  32. ^ NOAA 2013

References[edit]

  • Abrahamian, Ervand (2008). A History of Modern Iran. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52891-7. 
  • Axworthy, Micahel (2013). Revolutionary Iran: A History of the Islamic Republic. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-932226-8. 
  • Burt, Christopher C. (2004). Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-32658-1. 
  • Chelkowski, Peter (1991). "21: Popular Entertainment, Media and Social Change in Twentieth-century Iran". In Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles. The Cambridge History of Iran. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20095-4. 
  • Elwell-Sutton, L. P.; de Planhol, X. (1982). "Ābādān". In Yarshater, Ehsan. Encyclopædia Iranica. I: Āb-Abd-al-HamĪd. Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 51–57. ISBN 978-0710090904. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  • Ferrier, Ronald (1991). "18: The Iranian Oil Industry". In Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles. The Cambridge History of Iran. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20095-4. 
  • Greaves, Rose (1991). "11: Iranian Relations with Britain and British India, 1798-1921". In Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles. The Cambridge History of Iran. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20095-4. 
  • Hoeschel, David; Heracleensis, Marcianus; von Karyanda, Skylax; Messenius, Dicaearchus; Characenus, Isidorus (1600). Geographica Marciani Heracleotae, Scylacis caryandensis, artemidoriephesii, dicaearchi messenii, isidori characeni. Augsburg. 
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Ābādān". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. pp. 6–7. ISBN 0-85229-961-3. LCCN 2002113989. 
  • Issawi, Charles (1991). "16: European Economic Penetration, 1872-1921". In Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles. The Cambridge History of Iran. 7: From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20095-4. 
  • Keddie, Nikki R. (2003). Modern Iran: Roots and Results of Revolution (Revised ed.). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09856-1. 
  • Lagassé, Paul, ed. (2000). "Abadan". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-7876-5015-3. LCCN 00-027927. 
  • MacPherson, Angus (1989). "3: The Economy". In Metz, Helen Chapin. Iran: A Country Study. Area Handbook Series (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. 
  • Melamid, Alexander (1997). "Abadan". In Johnston, Bernard. Collier's Encyclopedia. I: A to Ameland (1st ed.). New York, NY: P. F. Collier. 
  • Satrapi, Marjane (2003). Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. New York, NY: Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-375-71457-X. 
  • Wilber, Donald N. (1984) [1948]. Iran: Past and Present: From Monarchy to Islamic Republic (9th ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00025-5. 

Additional reading[edit]

  • Axworthy, Michael (2008). A History of Iran: Empire of the Mind. New York, NY: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00888-9. 

External links[edit]