Abakaliki is the capital city of the present-day Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria. The inhabitants are primarily members of the Igbo nation. It was the headquarters of the Ogoja province before the creation of the Southeastern State in 1967. The name Abakaliki Which originally means Aba Nkaleke is a name of a community in Izzi land (Nkaleke). Aba City in Abia State is an ancient commercial city that had business relations and a link road to Nkaleke and resonated among Izzi people travelling to and fro Aba for business purposes. The popular Rice mill Industry and Abakpa Market were the major reason for the close business relations between Aba City and Aba Nkaleke. In the past and today, people from other rural Communities come to Abakaliki to sell their farm produce. Abakaliki which is today the capital of Ebonyi state consists of Izzi people who are the owners of the land and other indigenes and non indigenes alike. Today Abakaliki people are mostly known to include Izzi, Ezza, Ikwo and Ngbo clans grouped under one Cultural group but, the Main Abakaliki (Aba Nkaleke) people are The Izzi's. Abakaliki people are generally known for their Hospitality. The choice of Abakaliki as the Capital of Ebonyi State was as a result of the Hospitable nature of the people of Izzi which attracted other people from different parts of Nigeria and foreigners alike. This brought about the developement of the City. It has estimated population of 141,438 according to the 2006 census.  Nigerians from other communities also reside mainly within the state capital city.
Abakaliki lies at the intersection of the Enugu, Afikpo and Ogoja Roads. Abakaliki hosts many quarry factories, rice mills, large markets, golf courses, and luxurious hotels. Ebonyi State University main campus(permanent site) is located in the outskirt of the city; precisely in Izzi local government area with other temporary campuses in Presco, Ishieke, and CAS (College of Agric Sciences). Several new private factories, especially food processing industries, have taken advantage of the State government's tax holiday and other incentives to establish in the state capital.
Abakaliki is also the food basket of southern Nigeria. The city has been a leading producer of processed rice, yam, and cassava for decades. Newer technology recently introduced have enabled the modernisation of the city's rice mill complex for improved quality of rice processing. Following the creation of Ebonyi state in 1996 and its role as the administrative capital, the infrastructure and population of Abakaliki is ever on the increase. The huge incentives and tax holiday offered by Ebonyi state government to all major private investors have brought about a marked increase in new businesses in Abakaliki city. The city hosts a fertilizer blending plant. Abakaliki is also a haven of peace with little or no violent crime in the city. Abakaliki also hosts a Federal medical center, which has largely contributed to the affordability of public healthcare delivery in the city and the state. The Nkaliki poultry complex in Abakaliki is reputed to be among the largest poultry complex in the country. Just in the outskirts of the city lies one of the largest untapped limestone deposit zones in the country, measuring more than 2000 square kilometers. The Federal and state governments have recently granted licenses to private companies to establish cement companies within the area. In line with the Federal government economic reform programmes they have made the country self-sufficient in cement production. The people of Abkaliki are also blessed with natural resources like Lead, salt in Enyigba Abakaliki Local Government, Lime stone in Ishieke, Ebonyi Local Government Area.
Abakaliki has produced several great academicians and scientists, home and in the Diaspora. Many of whom are still in service today in several federal and state owned institutions in Nigeria.
In Abakaliki, there are numerous shopping facilities including the main market at the interscetions of the Gunning Road and the New Market Road. Currently, construction of a new ultra modem International Market is on-going.
On March 1, 1973, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Abakaliki. In Ebonyi state, there are various traditional religions having various deities with various modes of worship. These religions were bought in by ancestors that really know or understood the gods they were establishing its worship. These has in turn made the state vulnerable to different kinds of mishaps because they are all false worships. These days, a lot of Christian Denominations has sprang up from all corners of Ebonyi state. It is not for anyone to decide which denomination is the right or the wrong denomination, but it is for everyone to individually decide what to worship. whether to worship the God of the Bible in spirit and in truth or to worship the gods of the forefathers.