Abakan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Abakan (disambiguation).
Abakan (English)
Абакан (Russian)
Ағбан (Khakas)
-  City[1]  -
Wallpaper meria.jpg
Abakan Town Administration building
Map of Russia - Republic of Khakassia (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Khakassia in Russia
Abakan is located in Khakassia
Abakan
Abakan
Location of Abakan in the Republic of Khakassia
Coordinates: 53°43′N 91°25′E / 53.717°N 91.417°E / 53.717; 91.417Coordinates: 53°43′N 91°25′E / 53.717°N 91.417°E / 53.717; 91.417
Coat of Arms of Abakan (Khakassia).png
Flag of Abakan (Khakassia).png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of May 2014)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Khakassia[1]
Administratively subordinated to City of Abakan[1]
Capital of Republic of Khakassia[1][2]
Administrative center of City of Abakan[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2004)
Urban okrug Abakan Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Abakan Urban Okrug[3]
Head[citation needed] Nikolay Bulakin[citation needed]
Representative body Council of Deputies[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 165,214 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 109th
Time zone KRAT (UTC+07:00)[5]
Founded 1675[6]
City status since 1931[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[7] 655000–655012, 655014–655019, 655022, 655400, 655899, 655961, 655965, 655966
Dialing code(s) +7 3902[citation needed]
Official website
Abakan on WikiCommons

Abakan (Russian: Абакан; IPA: [ɐbɐˈkan]; Khakas: Ағбан) is the capital city of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located in the central part of Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 165,214,[4] a slight increase over 165,197 recorded during the 2002 Census[8] and a further increase from 154,092 recorded during the 1989 Census.[9]

History[edit]

Abakansky ostrog (Абаканский острог) was built at this location in 1675,[6] also known as Abakansk. In the Russian Empire, it was a part of Yeniseysk Governorate. During 1823–1931, it was known as Ust-Abakanskoye, in 1914–1925 as Abakan, and in 1925–1931 as Khakassk. It was granted town status and given its current name in 1931.[citation needed]

Chinese exiles[edit]

In 1940, Russian construction workers found ancient ruins during the construction of a highway between Abakan and the nearby district center village of Askyz (Аскыз). When the site was excavated by Soviet archaeologists during 1941-45, they realized that they had discovered a building absolutely unique for the area: a large (1500 square meters) Chinese-style, likely Han Dynasty era (206 BCE–220 CE) palace. The identity of the high-ranking personage who lived luxuriously in Chinese style, far outside of the borders of the Han Empire, has remained a matter for discussion ever since. Russian archaeologist L. A. Yevtyukhova surmised, based on circumstantial evidence, that the palace may have been the residence of Li Ling, a Chinese general who had been defeated by the Xiongnu in 99 BC, and defected to them as a result.[10] While this opinion has remained popular, other views have been expressed as well. More recently, for example, it was claimed by A. A. Kovalyov as the residence of Lu Fang (盧芳), a Han throne pretender from the Guangwu era.[11]

Lithuanian exiles[edit]

In the late eighteenth and during the nineteenth century, Lithuanian participants in the 1794, 1830–1831, and 1863 rebellions against the Russian czarist rule were exiled to Abakan. A group of camps was established, and prisoners were forced to work in the coal mines. After Stalin's death, Lithuanian exiles from the nearby settlements moved in[12]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Abakan is the capital of the republic.[1][13] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Abakan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts[1] As a municipal division, the City of Abakan is incorporated as Abakan Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy[edit]

The city has a river port, industry enterprises, Katanov State University of Khakasia, and three theatres. Furthermore, it has a commercial center that produces footwear, foodstuffs, and metal products.

Transportation[edit]

Abakan (together with Tayshet) was a terminal of the major Abakan-Taishet Railway. Now it is an important railway junction.

The city is served by the Abakan International Airport.

Military[edit]

The 100th Air Assault Brigade of the Russian Airborne Troops was based in the city until ca. 1996.[14]

Sites[edit]

Statue of Vladimir Lenin in Abakan
Abakan Cathedral of the Transfiguration

Abakan's sites of interest include Holy Transfiguration Cathedral, "Good Angel of Peace" sculpture, park of topiary art, and many others.

Sports[edit]

Bandy is the one of the most popular sports in the city, where Sayan-Khakassia plays in the highest division of Russian Bandy League. After a few years in the 2nd highest division, they won the qualifying tournament for the 2012-13 season.[15]

Climate[edit]

Abakan has a continental climate with semi-arid influences (Köppen climate classification "BSk"). Temperature differences between seasons are extreme, which is typical for Siberia. Precipitation is concentrated in the summer and is less common because of rain shadow from nearby mountains.

Climate data for Abakan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
9.0
(48.2)
20.0
(68)
27.2
(81)
38.0
(100.4)
37.2
(99)
39.0
(102.2)
37.0
(98.6)
34.0
(93.2)
24.0
(75.2)
16.1
(61)
11.0
(51.8)
39.0
(102.2)
Average high °C (°F) −13.9
(7)
−9.4
(15.1)
1.1
(34)
9.4
(48.9)
18.9
(66)
23.3
(73.9)
26.1
(79)
23.9
(75)
16.7
(62.1)
6.7
(44.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−13.9
(7)
7.2
(45)
Daily mean °C (°F) −18.3
(−0.9)
−15.6
(3.9)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.8
(37)
11.7
(53.1)
17.2
(63)
20.0
(68)
17.2
(63)
10.6
(51.1)
1.7
(35.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−17.2
(1)
1.7
(35.1)
Average low °C (°F) −22.8
(−9)
−21.1
(−6)
−10
(14)
−3.3
(26.1)
5.0
(41)
11.1
(52)
13.9
(57)
11.1
(52)
4.4
(39.9)
−2.8
(27)
−12.8
(9)
−20.6
(−5.1)
−3.9
(25)
Record low °C (°F) −45
(−49)
−40
(−40)
−38.1
(−36.6)
−22.2
(−8)
−10.5
(13.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
4.1
(39.4)
0.5
(32.9)
−8
(18)
−23
(−9)
−37.5
(−35.5)
−42.8
(−45)
−45
(−49)
Precipitation mm (inches) 7.6
(0.299)
5.8
(0.228)
4.2
(0.165)
11.2
(0.441)
29.1
(1.146)
58.4
(2.299)
67.5
(2.657)
59.1
(2.327)
35.7
(1.406)
17.8
(0.701)
10.2
(0.402)
7.8
(0.307)
314.4
(12.378)
Source: climatebase.ru [16]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #20
  2. ^ Munro 1995, p. 2
  3. ^ a b c Law #59
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России ["Cities and Towns of Russia" Encyclopedia]. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 13. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Yevtyukhova 1954[page needed]
  11. ^ Kovalyov 2007, p. 148
  12. ^ Juodvalkytė 2001[page needed]
  13. ^ Hoiberg 1993, p. 7
  14. ^ Schofield 1993[page needed]
  15. ^ Anon 2012
  16. ^ Anon 2012a

Sources[edit]

  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №20 от 5 мая 2004 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Хакасия», в ред. Закона №31-ЗРХ от 8 мая 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 14 и 18 Закона Республики Хакасия "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Хакасия"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №22, 12 мая 2004 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #20 of May 5, 2004 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Khakassia, as amended by the Law #31-ZRKh of May 8, 2014 On Amending Articles&nsp;14 and 18 of the Law of the Republic of Khakassia "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Khakassia". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date.).
  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №59 от 7 октября 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ муниципального образования город Абакан и наделении его статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №48, 15 октября 2004 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #59 of October 7, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Abakan and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • Anon (March 6, 2012). ""Саяны-Хакасия" - победитель Первенства России среди команд Высшей лиги" ["Saya-Khakassia" - the Winner of the Championship Russia Among the Teams of the Major League]. badynet.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014. 
  • Anon (2012a). "Abakan, Khakasia, Russia #29865". climatebase.ru. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved August 14, 2014. 
  • Anon (2011). "Russia Time Zones - Russia Current Times". TimeTemperature.com. Archived from the original on August 13, 2014. Retrieved August 13, 2014. 
  • Yevtyukhova, L. A. (1954). "Южная Сибирь в древности [Southern Siberia in Ancient Times]". По следам древних культур: от Волги до Тихого Океана [Tracing Ancient Cultures between the Volga and the Pacific] (in Russian). Moscow, Russia. pp. 195–224. 
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (1993). Encyclopædia Britannica. 1: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 0-85229-961-3. LCCN 2002113989. 
  • Juodvalkytė, Aldona (2001). "Abakanas". Universal Lithuanian Encyclopedia (in Lithuanian). I: A-Ar. Vilnius, Lithuania: Science and Encyclopedia Publishing Institute. 
  • Kovalyov, A. A. (2007). "Китайский император на Енисее? Ещё раз о хозяине ташебинского «дворца» [Chinese Emperor on the Yenisy? Once Again About the Owner of the Tashebik "Palace"]" (PDF). Этноистория и археология Северной Евразии: теория, методология и практика исследования [The Ethnohistory and Archaeology of Northern Eurasia: Theory, Methods, and Practice] (in Russian). Irkutsk, Russian. pp. 145–148. ISBN 978-5-8038-0430-7. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. 
  • Munro, David, ed. (1995). "Abakan". Oxford Dictionary of the World. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866184-3. 
  • Schofield, Carey (1993). The Russian Elite: Inside Spetsnaz and the Airborne Forces. Greenhill Press. pp. 249–251. ISBN 1-8536-7155-X. 

External links[edit]