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For other uses, see Abakan (disambiguation).
Abakan (English)
Абакан (Russian)
Ағбан (Khakas)
-  City[1]  -
Wallpaper meria.jpg
Abakan Town Administration building
Map of Russia - Republic of Khakassia (2008-03).svg
Location of the Republic of Khakassia in Russia
Abakan is located in Khakassia
Location of Abakan in the Republic of Khakassia
Coordinates: 53°43′N 91°25′E / 53.717°N 91.417°E / 53.717; 91.417Coordinates: 53°43′N 91°25′E / 53.717°N 91.417°E / 53.717; 91.417
Coat of Arms of Abakan (Khakassia).png
Flag of Abakan (Khakassia).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of February 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Republic of Khakassia
Administratively subordinated to City of Abakan[1]
Capital of Republic of Khakassia[1]
Administrative center of City of Abakan[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2004)
Urban okrug Abakan Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Abakan Urban Okrug[2]
Head[citation needed] Nikolay Bulakin[citation needed]
Representative body Council of Deputies[citation needed]
Population (2010 Census) 165,214 inhabitants[3]
Rank in 2010 109th
Time zone KRAT (UTC+08:00)[4]
Founded 1675[5]
City status since 1931[citation needed]
Postal code(s)[6] 655000
Dialing code(s) +7 3902[citation needed]
Official website
Abakan on WikiCommons

Abakan (Russian: Абакан; IPA: [ɐbɐˈkan]; Khakas: Ағбан) is the capital city of the Republic of Khakassia, Russia, located in the central part of Minusinsk Depression, at the confluence of the Yenisei and Abakan Rivers. Population: 165,214 (2010 Census);[3] 165,197 (2002 Census);[7] 154,092 (1989 Census).[8]


Abakansky ostrog (Абаканский острог) was built at this location in 1675,[5] also known as Abakansk. In the Russian Empire, it was a part of Yeniseysk Governorate. During 1823–1931, it was known as Ust-Abakanskoye, in 1914–1925 as Abakan, in 1925–1931 as Khakassk. It was granted town status and given its current name in 1931.[citation needed]

Chinese exiles[edit]

In 1940, Russian construction workers found ancient ruins during the construction of a highway between Abakan and the nearby district center village of Askyz (Аскыз). When the site was excavated by Soviet archaeologists during 1941-45, they realized that they had discovered a building absolutely unique for the area: a large (1500 square meters) Chinese-style, likely Han Dynasty era (206 BCE–220 CE) palace. The identity of the high-ranking personage who lived luxuriously in Chinese style, far outside of the borders of the Han Empire, has remained a matter for discussion ever since. Russian archaeologist L.A. Evtyukhova surmised, based on circumstantial evidence, that the palace may have been the residence of Li Ling, a Chinese general who had been defeated by the Xiongnu in 99 BC, and defected to them as a result.[9] While this opinion has remained popular, other views have been expressed as well. More recently, for example, it was claimed by A.A. Kovalyov as the residence of Lu Fang (盧芳), a Han throne pretender from the Guangwu era.[10]

Lithuanian exiles[edit]

In the late eighteenth and during the nineteenth century, Lithuanian participants in the 1794, 1830–1831, and 1863 rebellions against the Russian czarist rule were exiled to Abakan. A group of camps was established, and prisoners were forced to work in the coal mines. After Stalin's death, Lithuanian exiles from the nearby settlements moved in[11]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Abakan is the capital of the republic.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the City of Abakan—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the City of Abakan is incorporated as Abakan Urban Okrug.[2]


The city has a river port, industry enterprises, Katanov State University of Khakasia, and three theatres. Furthermore, it has a commercial center that produces footwear, foodstuffs, and metal products.


Abakan (together with Tayshet) was a terminal of the major Abakan-Taishet Railway. Now it is an important railway junction.

The city is served by the Abakan International Airport.


The 100th Air Assault Brigade of the Russian Airborne Troops was based in the city until ca. 1996.[12]


Statue of Vladimir Lenin in Abakan
Abakan Cathedral of the Transfiguration

Abakan's sites of interest include Holy Transfiguration Cathedral, "Good Angel of Peace" sculpture, park of topiary art, and many others.


Bandy is the biggest sport in the city. Sayan-Khakassia[13] have played in the highest division of Russian Bandy League for a long time. After a few years in the 2nd highest division, they won the qualifying tournament for the 2012-13 season.[1] Their home arena has a capacity of 21000.[2]


Abakan has a continental climate with semi-arid influences (Köppen climate classification "BSk"). Temperature differences between seasons are extreme, which is typical for Siberia. Precipitation is concentrated in the summer and is less common because of rain shadow from nearby mountains.

Climate data for Abakan
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
Average high °C (°F) −13.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −18.3
Average low °C (°F) −22.8
Record low °C (°F) −45
Precipitation mm (inches) 7.6
Source: climatebase.ru [14]



  1. ^ a b c d e f Law #20
  2. ^ a b c Law #59
  3. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  4. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  5. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 13. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Russian)
  7. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  9. ^ L.A. Evtyukhova (Л.А. Евтюхова), Southern Siberia in Ancient Times Южная Сибирь в древности). In: "Tracing Ancient Cultures between the Volga and the Pacific" (По следам древних культур: от Волги до Тихого Океана). Moscow, 1954, pp. 195-224.
  10. ^ A.A. Kovalyov (А.А. Ковалёв), Chinese Emperor on the Yenisy? Once more about the owner of the Tashebik "Palace" (Китайский император на Енисее? Ещё раз о хозяине ташебинского «дворца»), in "Ethnohistory and archaeoilogy of Northern Eurasia: theory, methodology, and the recearch practice" ("Этноистория и археология Северной Евразии: теория, методология и практика исследования"). Irkutsk, 2007, pp. 145-148.
  11. ^ Abakanas. Aldona Juodvalkytė. Visuotinė lietuvių enciklopedija, I t. Vilnius: Science and encyclopedias publishing institute, 2001. T.1: A-Ar.
  12. ^ (Schofield, The Russian Elite, 249-251)
  13. ^ Official home page
  14. ^ "CLimatebase.ru - Abakan,Russia". 2011.  Retrieved on November 24, 2011.


  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №20 от 5 мая 2004 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Хакасия», в ред. Закона №31-ЗРХ от 8 мая 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в статьи 14 и 18 Закона Республики Хакасия "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Хакасия"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №22, 12 мая 2004 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #20 of May 5, 2004 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Khakassia, as amended by the Law #31-ZRKh of May 8, 2014 On Amending Articles&nsp;14 and 18 of the Law of the Republic of Khakassia "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Republic of Khakassia". Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date.).
  • Верховный Совет Республики Хакасия. Закон №59 от 7 октября 2004 г. «Об утверждении границ муниципального образования город Абакан и наделении его статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Вестник Хакасии", №48, 15 октября 2004 г. (Supreme Council of the Republic of Khakassia. Law #59 of October 7, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the City of Abakan and on Granting It Urban Okrug Status. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).

External links[edit]