Abbas II of Egypt
|Abbas II Hilmi|
|Khedive of Egypt and Sudan
|Reign||8 January 1892 – 19(20)(21) December 1914|
|Dynasty||Muhammad Ali Dynasty|
|Born||14 July 1874
Alexandria or Cairo
|Died||19 December 1944
Abbas II, the great-great-grandson of Muhammad Ali, was born on 14 July 1874. He succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as Khedive of Egypt and Sudan on 8 January 1892. As a boy he visited the United Kingdom, and he had a number of British tutors in Cairo including a governess who taught him English. In a profile of Abbas II, the boys' annual Chums gives a lengthy account of his education. His father established a small school near the Abdin Palace where European, Arab and Turkish masters taught Abbas and his brother Prince Mehemet Ali. An American officer in the Egyptian army took charge of his military training. He attended school at Lausanne, then at the age of twelve he was sent to the Haxius School in Geneva, in preparation for his entry into the Theresianum in Vienna. In addition to Arabic and Turkish, he had good conversational knowledge of English, French and German.
He was still in college in Vienna when he assumed the throne of the Khedivate of Egypt upon the sudden death of his father, on 8 January 1892. He was barely of age according to Egyptian law; eighteen in cases of succession to the throne. For some time he did not cooperate very cordially with the United Kingdom, (whose army had occupied Egypt in 1882). As he was young and eager to exercise his new power, he resented the interference of the British Agent and Consul General in Cairo, Sir Evelyn Baring, later made Lord Cromer. At the outset of his reign, Khedive Abbas surrounded himself with a coterie of European advisers who opposed the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan and encouraged the young Khedive to challenge Cromer by replacing his ailing prime minister with a nationalist. At Cromer's behest, Lord Rosebery, the British foreign secretary, sent him a letter stating that the Khedive was obliged to consult the British consul on such issues as cabinet appointments. In January 1894 Abbas, while on an inspection tour of Egyptian army installations near the southern border, the Mahdists being at the time still in control of Sudan, made public remarks disparaging the Egyptian army units commanded by British officers. The British commander of the Egyptian army, Sir Herbert Kitchener, immediately offered to resign. Cromer strongly supported Kitchener and pressed the Khedive and prime minister to retract the Khedive's criticisms of the British officers.
By 1899 he had come to accept British counsels. Also in 1899 British diplomat Alfred Mitchell-Innes was appointed Under-Secretary of State for Finance in Egypt, and in 1900 Abbas paid a second visit to Britain, during which he said he thought the British had done good work in Egypt, and declared himself ready to cooperate with the British officials administering Egypt and Sudan. He gave his formal approval for the establishment of a sound system of native justice, a great reduction in taxation, increased affordable and sound education, the inauguration of the substantial irrigation works at Aswan and Assiut, and the reconquest of Sudan. He displayed more interest in agriculture than in statecraft. His farm of cattle and horses at Qubbah, near Cairo, was a model for agricultural science in Egypt, and he created a similar establishment at Muntazah, near Alexandria. He married the Princess Ikbal Hanem and had several children. Muhammad Abdul Mun'im, the heir-apparent, was born on 20 February 1899.
Abbas no longer publicly opposed the British, but secretly created, supported, and sustained the nationalist movement, which came to be led by Mustafa Kamil. He also funded the anti-British newspaper Al-Mu'ayyad. As Kamil's thrust was increasingly aimed at winning popular support for a National Party, Khedive Abbas publicly distanced himself from the Nationalists. Their demand for a constitutional government, in 1906, was rebuffed by Abbas, and the following year he formed the National Party, led by Mustafa Kamil Pasha, to counter the Ummah Party of the moderates. However, in general, he had no real political power. When the Egyptian Army was sent to fight the Mahdi he only found out about it because the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Francis Ferdinand was in Egypt and told him after being informed by a British Army officer about it.
His relations with Cromer's successor, Sir Eldon Gorst, were excellent, and they co-operated in appointing the cabinets headed by Butrus Ghali in 1908 and Muhammad Sa'id in 1910 and in checking the power of the Nationalist Party. The appointment of Kitchener to succeed Gorst in 1912 displeased Abbas, and relations between him and the British deteriorated. Kitchener often complained about "that wicked little Khedive" and wanted to depose him. Lord Kitchener exiled or imprisoned the leaders of the National party.
On 25 July 1914, at the onset of World War I, Abbas was in Constantinople and he was wounded in his hands and cheeks during a failed assassination attempt. On 5 November 1914 when Great Britain declared war on Turkey, he was accused of deserting his country by not returning home forthwith. The British also believed that he was plotting against their rule, as he had attempted to appeal to Egyptians and Sudanese to support the Central Powers and fight the British, so when the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in World War I, the United Kingdom declared Egypt a Sultanate under British protectorate on 18 December 1914 and deposed Abbas. Abbas supported the Ottomans in the war, including leading an attack on the Suez Canal. His uncle Hussein Kamel replaced him from 1914 to 1917, with the title of sultan. Hussein Kamel the British choices for their Protectorate, issued a series of restrictive orders to strip Abbas of property in Egypt and Sudan and forbade contributions to him. These also barred Abbas from entering Egyptian territory and stripped him of the right to sue in Egyptian courts. This did not prevent his progeny from exercising their rights, however. Abbas finally accepted the new order of things on 12 May 1931 and abdicated. He retired to Switzerland where he wrote The Anglo-Egyptian Settlement (1930). He died at Geneva on 19 December 1944, aged 70.[nb 1]
Marriages and issue
- Princess Emine Hilmi Khanum Efendi (Montaza Palace, Alexandria, 12 February 1895 - 1954), unmarried and without issue
- Princess Atiye Hilmi Khanum Efendi (Cairo, 9 June 1896 - 1971), unmarried and without issue
- Princess Fethiye Hilmi Khanum Efendi (27 November 1897 - 30 November 1923), unmarried and without issue
- Prince/HRH Prince Muhammad Abdel Moneim Bey Efendi, Heir Apparent and Regent of Egypt and Sudan
- Princess Lütfiye Şevket Hilmi (Cairo, 29 September 1900 - ?), married in Istanbul on 5 May 1923 to Omar Muhtar Katırcıoğlu (1902 - Çamlıca, near Üsküdar, Bosphorus, 15 July 1935), and had issue:
- Emine Neşedil Katırcıoğlu (b. 1927), widow and have 3 daughters
- Zehra Kadriye Katırcıoğlu (Istanbul 12 March 1929 - Istanbul 15 May 2012), married Ahmet Cevat Tugay have 4 sons and a daughter
- Prince Muhammed Abdel Kader (4 February 1902 - Montreux, 21 April 1919)
He married for the second time at Çubuklu, Bosphorus, on 1 March 1910 to Hungarian Noblewoman Marianne Török de Szendrö, who took the name Zübeyde Cavidan Hanım (Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, 8 January 1874 - aft. 1951), and divorced her in 1913 without issue.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2012)|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2014)|
|Ancestors of Abbas II of Egypt|
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abbas II". Encyclopædia Brittanica. Edinburgh, UK: Encyclopædia Brittanica, Inc.
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abbas II (Egypt)". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Lagassé, Paul, ed. (2000). "Abbas II". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-7876-5015-3. LCCN 00-027927.
- Magnusson, Magnus; Goring, Rosemary, eds. (1990). "Abbas Hilmi". Cambridge Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39518-6.
- Pemberton, Max, ed. (February 1897). Chums (Cassell and Company) 17 (232).
- Rockwood, Camilla, ed. (2007). "Abbas Hilmi Pasha". Chambers Biographical Dictionary (8th ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-0550-10200-3.
- Schemmel (2014). "Index Aa–Ag". Rulers. Archived from the original on 10 September 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Stearns, Peter N., ed. (2001). "The Middle East and North Africa, 1792–1914: e. Egypt". The Encyclopedia of World History: Ancient, Medieval, and Modern Chronologically Arranged (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-395-65237-5. LCCN 2001024479.
- Thorne, John, ed. (1984). "Abbas II". Chambers Biographical Dictionary. Chambers, Inc. ISBN 0-550-18022-2.
- Vucinich, Wayne S. (1997). "Abbas II". In Johnston, Bernard. Collier's Encyclopedia. I: A to Ameland (1st ed.). New York, NY: P. F. Collier. LCCN 96084127.
- Cromer, Sir Evelyn Baring, Earl of (1915). Abbas II. London, England: Macmillan and Co. – via Questia (subscription required)
- Goldschmidt, Arthur (2000). Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. pp. 2–3. ISBN 1-5558-7229-8. LCCN 99033550.
- Pollock, John Charles (2001). Kitchener: Architect of Victory, Artisan of Peace. New York, NY: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-0829-8. LCCN 2001035119.
- Sayyid-Marsot, Afaf Lutfi (1968). Egypt and Cromer: A Study in Anglo-Egyptian Relations. London: John Murray. ISBN 0-7195-1810-5. LCCN 75382933.
- Abbas II, Khedive of Egypt (1998). Sonbol, Amira, ed. The Last Khedive of Egypt: Memoirs of Abbas Halmi II. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press. ISBN 0-8637-2208-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Abbas II of Egypt.|
|Wikisource has the text of the The Nuttall Encyclopædia article Abbas Pasha.|
- Al-Ahram on Abbas in exile
- Mehmet Ali genealogy
- "Abbas Pasha Hilmi". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921.
Abbas II of EgyptBorn: 14 July 1874 Died: 19 December 1944
|Khedive of Egypt and Sudan
7 January 1892 – 19 December 1914
British intervention during World War I
as Sultan of Egypt and Sudan
|Titles in pretence|
|Loss of title
Deposed by United Kingdom
|— TITULAR —
Khedive of Egypt and Sudan
19 December 1914 – 19 December 1944
Muhammad Abdul Moneim