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The Abbasid Caliphate (Arabic: الخلافة العباسية al-Khilāfah al-‘Abbāsīyyah), was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad, Iraq after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the al-Andalus region.
The Abbasid caliphate was founded by the descendants of Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566–653), in Kufa in 750 CE and shifted its capital in 762 to Baghdad. Within 150 years of gaining control of Persia, the caliphs were forced to cede power to local dynastic emirs who only nominally acknowledged their authority. The caliphate also lost the Western provinces of al-Andalus, Maghreb and Ifriqiya to an Umayyad prince, the Aghlabids and the Fatimid Caliphate, respectively.
The Abbasids' rule was briefly ended for three years in 1258, when Hulagu Khan, the Mongol khan, sacked Baghdad, resuming in Mamluk Egypt in 1261, from where they continued to claim authority in religious matters until 1519, when power was formally transferred to the Ottoman Empire and the capital relocated to Constantinople.
Abbasi in Pakistan
The Abbasi came to ancient Pakistan from Egypt, as traders and merchants in commodities like fabrics, perfumes and diamonds. Envoys and traders of the Abbasids came to Taxila, ancient Pakistan, where they constructed a mosque and started preaching Islam by the order of Caliph Harun al-Rashid around 844 CE. An Abbasi scholar, Abu Fadhal, taught a Kashmiri King Onti Vermon in 882, and he translated the Quran into Hindi. This was the first translation of the Quran into an Indian language. In 1025 CE, Raja Mall of Jhelum, embraced Islam by Mahmud Ghazni and constructed a fort at Malot, Malpur near Islamabad in present day Pakistan administered Kashmir. He died in Jhelum.
They established a colony near Delhi in 1232. Sardar Tolak Khan, who came to Kashmir during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1423 to 1474), settled in the Poonch area (now the Bagh District of Azad Kashmir).
In Pakistan Abbasi caste is also divided in number of families. The word آل is used at the end name of seventh great grandfather of families. آل is the Arabic word which means Generation.
Members of the Abbasy or Abbasid family can be found in: Iraq (mainly), Bahrain, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iran, Turkey, Jordan, Egypt, Palestine, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia and Europe in Italy, Spain and Greece and Pakistan.