Abbeville

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Abbeville
The belfry, entrance to the Boucher-de-Perthes Museum (fr)
The belfry, entrance to the Boucher-de-Perthes Museum (fr)
Coat of arms of Abbeville
Coat of arms
Abbeville is located in France
Abbeville
Abbeville
Coordinates: 50°06′21″N 1°50′09″E / 50.1058°N 01.8358°E / 50.1058; 01.8358Coordinates: 50°06′21″N 1°50′09″E / 50.1058°N 01.8358°E / 50.1058; 01.8358
Country France
Region Picardy
Department Somme
Arrondissement Abbeville
Canton Abbeville
Government
 • Mayor (2014-2020) Nicolas Dumont
Area1 26.42 km2 (10.20 sq mi)
Population (2012)2 24,237
 • Density 920/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 80001 / 80100
Elevation 2–76 m (6.6–249.3 ft)
(avg. 8 m or 26 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Abbeville French pronunciation: [ab.vil] is a commune in the Somme department and in Picardie region in northern France.

It is one of the chef-lieus of the arrondissement of Somme, and on the River Somme. It was the capital of Ponthieu. Its inhabitants are called the Abbevillois.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

A map of Abbeville and the surrounding communes

Abbeville is located on the Somme River, 20 km (12 mi) from its modern mouth in the English Channel. The majority of the town is located on the east bank of the Somme, as well as on an island.[1] It is located at the head of the Abbeville Canal, and is 45 km (28 mi) northwest of Amiens and approximately 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Paris. It is also 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) as the crow flies from the Bay of Somme (fr) and the English Channel. In the medieval period, it was the lowest crossing point on the Somme and it was nearby that Edward III's army crossed shortly before the Battle of Crécy in 1346.

Just halfway between Rouen and Lille, it is the historical capital of the County of Ponthieu and maritime Picardy.

Quarters, hamlets and localities[edit]

Transport[edit]

Abbeville railway station (1905 postcard)

Abbeville is served by trains on the line between Boulogne-sur-Mer and Amiens and between Calais and Paris. Abbeville was the southern terminus of the Réseau des Bains de Mer, the line to Dompierre-sur-Authie opened on 19 June 1892 and closed on 10 March 1947.

Abbeville is located just near the A16 autoroute, and is about 1:50 by car from Paris.

Climate[edit]

Abbeville has an oceanic climate due to its proximity to the ocean. The summers and winters are temperate and rainy, days of snow are fairly common (18 days of snow per year on average). There are 26 days of storm per year with a maximum in the months of July and August, the rains are frequent and distributed regularly in the year with precipitation totalling 781.3 millimetres (30.76 in) and 128 days with precipitation. The sunshine is average (1678 hours of sunshine) because of its position in the north and the oceanic influence also helps to prevent temperatures from being too high with only three days of intense heat (temperature > = 30°C) and from being too cold with 6 days of heavy frost (temperature = -5°C). The highest temperature was 37.8°C on 1 July 1952 and the record low is -0.8°C, which occurred during a particularly cold spell on 17 January 1985.

Climate data for Abbeville, 1981-2010 except sun 1991-2010, records from 1921
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
19.9
(67.8)
22.9
(73.2)
29.3
(84.7)
32.4
(90.3)
35.0
(95)
37.8
(100)
37.3
(99.1)
32.8
(91)
27.8
(82)
21.8
(71.2)
16.1
(61)
37.8
(100)
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
7.1
(44.8)
10.4
(50.7)
13.4
(56.1)
16.9
(62.4)
19.4
(66.9)
22.0
(71.6)
22.2
(72)
19.2
(66.6)
15.0
(59)
10.1
(50.2)
6.8
(44.2)
14.1
(57.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
4.4
(39.9)
7.1
(44.8)
9.2
(48.6)
12.7
(54.9)
15.2
(59.4)
17.5
(63.5)
17.7
(63.9)
15.1
(59.2)
11.7
(53.1)
7.5
(45.5)
4.5
(40.1)
10.6
(51.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.7
(35.1)
3.7
(38.7)
5.0
(41)
8.3
(46.9)
10.9
(51.6)
13.1
(55.6)
13.2
(55.8)
10.9
(51.6)
8.4
(47.1)
4.8
(40.6)
2.3
(36.1)
7.0
(44.6)
Record low °C (°F) −17.4
(0.7)
−15.2
(4.6)
−9.8
(14.4)
−3.8
(25.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.0
(32)
1.3
(34.3)
4.9
(40.8)
1.3
(34.3)
−5.0
(23)
−8.5
(16.7)
−14.6
(5.7)
−17.4
(0.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 63.3
(2.492)
49.1
(1.933)
56.7
(2.232)
52.4
(2.063)
59.4
(2.339)
66.0
(2.598)
58.9
(2.319)
70.2
(2.764)
65.1
(2.563)
81.7
(3.217)
79.6
(3.134)
78.9
(3.106)
781.3
(30.76)
Avg. snowy days 4.4 4.3 2.4 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 3.2 17.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 66.1 85.9 118.3 172.3 197.3 205.8 224.5 211.9 153.3 114.8 73.9 53.8 1,677.9
Source: La météo.org[2]

Demography[edit]

Demographic evolution[edit]

In 2012, the commune had 24,237 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses carried out in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, the communes with more than 10,000 inhabitants have a census take place every year as a result of a sample survey, unlike the other communes which have a real census every five years.[note 1][note 2]

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1793 18,125 —    
1800 18,052 −0.4%
1806 17,660 −2.2%
1821 18,654 +5.6%
1831 19,162 +2.7%
1836 18,247 −4.8%
1841 17,582 −3.6%
1846 18,072 +2.8%
1851 19,158 +6.0%
Year Pop. ±%
1856 19,304 +0.8%
1861 20,058 +3.9%
1866 19,385 −3.4%
1872 18,208 −6.1%
1876 19,381 +6.4%
1881 19,283 −0.5%
1886 19,837 +2.9%
1891 19,851 +0.1%
1896 19,669 −0.9%
Year Pop. ±%
1901 20,388 +3.7%
1906 20,704 +1.5%
1911 20,373 −1.6%
1921 21,472 +5.4%
1926 20,320 −5.4%
1931 19,335 −4.8%
1936 19,345 +0.1%
1946 16,780 −13.3%
1954 19,502 +16.2%
Year Pop. ±%
1962 22,005 +12.8%
1968 23,999 +9.1%
1975 25,398 +5.8%
1982 24,915 −1.9%
1990 23,787 −4.5%
1999 24,567 +3.3%
2006 24,052 −2.1%
2011 24,104 +0.2%
2012 24,237 +0.6%
Population without double counting from 1962 to 1999; municipal population from 2006
Source: Cassini of the EHESS until 1962;[3] Insee from 1968;[4][5][6] Colliers Encyclopedia for 1990[1]

Age structure[edit]

The population of the commune is relatively old. The rate of persons over 60 years of age (23.3%) is higher than the national rate (21.6%) and the departmental rate (21%). Like national and departmental allocations, the female population of the commune is greater than the male population. The rate (54.4%) is over two points higher than the national rate (51.6%).

In 2007, the distribution of the population of the commune by age group is as follows:

  • 45.6% of males (0-14 years = 19.4%, 15-29 years = 21.1%, 30-44 year olds = 20.5%, 45-59 years = 19.9%, more than 60 years = 19%)
  • 54.4% of females (0-14 years = 16.5%, 15-29 years = 18.2%, 30-44 year olds = 18.2%, 45-59 years = 20.3%, more than 60 years = 26.8%)

Economy[edit]

Abbeville is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie d'Abbeville - Picardie maritime (fr). It manages ports, the aerodrome and industrial areas of the arrondissement of Abbeville.

Abbeville manufactured textiles, and in particular, linens and tablecloths when the Van Robais family created la Manufacture Royale des Rames in 1665;[citation needed] however after the Edict of Nantes was revoked and the subsequent migration of Protestants away from the area, the cloth business succumbed.[9] Also affecting the economy of the town was the closure of the river port on the Somme River due to excessive silt.[9] It also has cordage factories, carpet factories, and spinning mills. Finally, it also fabricates locks, has breweries, and produces food and, until 2007, sugar,[1][10][better source needed][9]

Culture, festivals, sport and leisure[edit]

Culture[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Floral town[edit]

Abbeville was awarded three flowers in 2007 by the Conseil des Villes et Villages Fleuris de France [Council of Floral Cities and Villages of France] in the Contest of floral cities and villages (fr).[12]

Sport[edit]

Abbeville has featured as the departure point for Stage 4 of the 2012 Tour de France and the departure point for Stage 1 of the 2011 Tour de Picardie. The commune has also been on the route of the Grand Prix de la Somme one-day cycle race. Abbeville will feature as the departure point for Stage 6 of the 2015 Tour de France, on 9 July.

Games[edit]

  • Chess club, Exchequer of Picardy Maritime (EPM).
  • Poker club, (PCA Poker Club Abbeville), a club which has finished first at France's Team Poker Championships (CNEC).

Abbeville in literature[edit]

Voltaire, in his Dictionnaire philosophique (1769), wrote an article Torture, in which he made an account of the martyrdom of the Chevalier de La Barre:

Victor Hugo evoked the trips he made to Abbeville, in his accounts of travel.

André Maurois, in Les Silences du Colonel Bramble (1918) amusingly described the intact commercial spirit of the inhabitants of Abbeville in the last months of the war.

Christian Morel de Sarcus (fr), in his novel Déluges, Éditions Henry, November 2004 (2005 Prix Renaissance), evokes the bombing of 1940 and the floods of the Somme of 2001.

Toponymy[edit]

The Romans occupied it and named it Abbatis Villa.[1][13]

The name of the city is attested in various forms over the centuries: Brittania (in the 3rd century), Abacivo villa (6th century), Bacivum palatium, Cloie and Cloye (in the 7th century), Abacivum villa, Basiu, Haymonis villa, Abbatis villa, Abbevilla (in the 11th century), Abbavilla,[14] Abedvilla, Abatis villa, Abbasvilla, Abbisvilla, Abbevile in 1209, Abbevilla in ponticio in 1213, Abisvil, Abeville in 1255, Abbeville in 1266 , Abbisville, Abbeville en Pontiu (13th century), Albeville, Aubeville in 1358, Albeville in 1347, Aubbeville, Aubeville, Abevile (1383), Abbativilla and, finally, Abbeville, meaning the "Villa of the Abbé" because it once depended on the Abbey of Saint-Riquier.

There are also Hableville in 1607 and Ableville in 1643, with transitional addition of an L.

Abbekerke and Abbegem[15] in Flemish.

Heraldry[edit]

Sobriquet[edit]

Politics and administration[edit]

St. Vulfran Collegiate Church
Belfry

Abbeville was the capital of the former province of Ponthieu. Today, it is one of the three sub-prefectures of the Somme department.

Political trends and results[edit]

The outcome of the 2012 presidential election in this commune was as follows:[16]

Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Eva Joly EELV 137 1.04
Marine Le Pen FN 3,041 23.12
Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 3,052 23.20 5,481 43.10
Jean-Luc Mélenchon FG 1,495 11.37
Philippe Poutou NPA 146 1.11
Nathalie Arthaud LO 126 0.96
Jacques Cheminade SP (fr) 22 0.17
François Bayrou MoDem 818 6.22
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan DLR 228 1.73
François Hollande PS 4,089 31.9 7,235 56.90
Registered voters 18,320 100.00 18,306 100.00
Abstentions 4,875 26.61 4,729 25.83
Voters 13,445 73.39 13,577 74.17
Spoilt or unmarked 291 2.16 861 6.34
Expressed 13,154 97.84 12,716 93.66

Municipal administration[edit]

Main article: [[List of mayors of Abbeville (fr)]]
List of mayors since 1947
Start End Name Party Other details
1947 1989 Max Lejeune (fr) SFIO (1936-1967)
Reforming Movement
Social Democratic Party (PSD)
Minister
Député (Popular Front) of the Somme (1936-1942)
Député of the Somme (1945-1977)
Senator of the Somme (1977-1995)
General Counsel, President of the General Counsel of the Somme (1945-1988)
Vice-president of the National Assembly (1967-1968, then 1970-1971)
President of the Regional Council of Picardy (1978-1979)
1989 1995 Jacques Becq (fr) PS Teacher (1942-1979)
1995 2008 Joël Hart (fr) UMP College principal
2008 In progress Nicolas Dumont PS Re-elected for the 2014-2020 term[17]
Election invalidated by the Administrative Court of Amiens on 8 October 2014[18]

Intercommunality[edit]

The commune is part of the Communauté de communes de l'Abbevillois of which it has the headquarters.

International relations[edit]

Abbeville is twinned with:

History[edit]

Prehistory[edit]

The name Abbeville has been adopted to name a category of paleolithic[1] stone tools. These stone tools are also known as handaxes. Various handaxes were found near Abbeville by Jacques Boucher de Perthes starting in 1838 and he was the first to describe the stones in detail, pointing out in the first publication of its kind, in 1846, that the stones were chipped deliberately by early man, so as to form a tool.[20] These stone tools which are some of the earliest found in Europe, were chipped on both sides so as to form a sharp edge, were known as Abbevillian handaxes or bifaces,[21] but recently the term 'abevillian' is becoming obsolete as the earlier form of stone tool, not found in Europe, is known as the Oldowan chopper. Some of these artifacts are displayed at the Musee Boucher-de-Perthes.[22]

A more refined and later version of handaxe production was found in the Abbeville/Somme River district. The more refined handaxe became known as the Acheulean industry, named after Saint-Acheul, today a suburb of Amiens.

It retained some importance into the Bronze Age.[1]

Middle Ages[edit]

Abbeville during the ninth century was part of the abbey of Saint-Riquier,[13][22] and was an important fort city responsible for the defense of the Somme. It had a charter granted to it in 1184.[1][22] Afterwards it was governed by the Counts of Ponthieu. Together with that county, it came into the possession of the Alençon and other French families, and afterwards into that of the House of Castile, from whom by marriage it fell in 1272 to King Edward I of England. French and English were its masters by turns till 1435 when, by the treaty of Arras, it was ceded to the Duke of Burgundy.

Early Modern era[edit]

In 1477 it was annexed by King Louis XI of France,[1] and was held by two illegitimate branches of the royal family in the 16th and 17th centuries, being in 1696 reunited to the crown. In 1514, the town saw the marriage of Louis XII of France to Mary Tudor, the daughter of Henry VII of England.[13][22] In 1685, it suffered a serious economic blow as the Edict of Nantes was rescinded and the Protestants, who were the majority of the skilled labor, left town. It never fully recovered from this exodus of talent.[1]

Abbeville was fairly important in the 18th century, when the Van Robais Royal Manufacture (one of the first major factories in France) brought great prosperity (but some class controversy) to the town. Voltaire, among others, wrote about it. He also wrote about a major incident of intolerance in which a young impoverished lord, the Chevalier de la Barre, was executed there for impiety (supposedly because he did not salute a procession for Corpus Christi, though the story is far more complex than that and revolves around a mutilated cross.)[citation needed]

19th and early 20th century[edit]

Abbeville was the birthplace of Rear Admiral Amédée Courbet (1827–85), whose victories on land and at sea made him a national hero during the Sino-French War (August 1884 to April 1885). Courbet died in June 1885, shortly after the end of the war, at Makung in the Pescadores Islands, and his body was brought back to France and buried in Abbeville on 1 September 1885 after a state funeral at Les Invalides a few days earlier. Abbeville's old Haymarket Square (Place du Marché-au-Blé) was renamed Place de l'Amiral Courbet in July 1885, shortly after the news of Courbet's death reached France, and an extravagant baroque statue of Courbet was erected in the middle of the square at the end of the nineteenth century. The statue was damaged in a devastating German bombing raid during World War II.[citation needed] It was an allied base during World War I.[13]

World War II[edit]

The German advance until 21 May 1940

On 12 September 1939 in Abbeville a conference took place in which France and the United Kingdom decided it was too late to send troops to help Poland in its fight against Germany. On 9 May 1940, authorities in Belgium arrested a number of both far right and far left activists and put them in custody of a French Army unit stationed near Abbeville. On 20 May, when the advancing German Army cut off the area (see following), a group of French soldiers carried out a massacre and killed a number of members of the right wing Verdinaso and Rexist Party and of the Belgian Communist Party. Altogether, twenty two suspects of varying political stripe were selected and executed without trial.

In the development of the 1940 Battle of France, the Germans had massed the bulk of their armoured force in Panzer Group von Kleist, which attacked through the comparatively unguarded sector of the Ardennes and achieved a breakthrough at Sedan with air support. The group raced to the coast of the English Channel at Abbeville, thus isolating (20 May 1940)[1] the British Expeditionary Force, Belgian Army, and some divisions of the French Army in northern France.[citation needed]

Charles de Gaulle (17–18 May 1940), then a colonel, launched a counterattack in the region of Laon (see the map) with 80 tanks to destroy the communication of the German armoured troops. His newly formed 4e Division cuirassée reached Montcornet, resulting in the Battle of Montcornet. Without support, the 4th DCR was forced to retreat. There was another counter-attack with the Battle of Abbeville. After Laon (24 May), de Gaulle was promoted to temporary general: On 28 May (...) the 4th DCR attacked twice to destroy a pocket captured by the enemy south of the Somme near Abbeville. The operation was successful, with over 400 prisoners taken and the entire pocket mopped up except for Abbeville (...) but in the second attack the 4th DCR failed to gain control of the city in the face of superior enemy numbers. [23] After five years - in September 1944 - Abbeville was liberated by Poles (Polish division of the Canadian Army) - First Armoured Division under General Maczek. World War II was not kind to the architecture of the town as the famous 17th-century Gothic Cathedral of St. Vulfran was nearly destroyed.[1] It, along with the town hall with its tower from the 13th century were saved, albeit damaged.[22]

Military life[edit]

Units which have been stationed in Abbeville:

Places and monuments[edit]

The city was very picturesque until the early days of the Second World War when it was bombed mostly to rubble in one night by the Germans. The town overall is now mostly modern and rebuilt.

The Collegiate Church of Saint-Vulfran[edit]

  • St. Vulfran's church, erected in the 15th, 16th and 17th centuries. The original design was not completed. The nave has only two bays and the choir is insignificant. The façade is a magnificent specimen of the flamboyant Gothic style, flanked by two Gothic towers.

The theatre[edit]

Main article: [[Théâtre municipal d'Abbeville (fr)]]

Built in 1911, the theatre is one of the few in the region that boasts an Italian room. Registered as an historical monument in 2003.

The belfry[edit]

Boucher de Perthes Museum[edit]

The Place Max-Lejeune in the heart of Abbeville
Main article: [[Musée Boucher-de-Perthes (fr)]]

The Boucher de Perthes Museum, partly situated in the now unused bell tower of the 13th century (inscribed on the World Heritage list. It is a tribute to Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes who also has a lycée named after him. The museum features artwork and artifacts from the 16th century onwards, along with other exhibitions that periodically change.

The Château de Bagatelle[edit]

The Manufacture of Oars[edit]

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre[edit]

  • The church of the Holy Sepulchre situated in the heart of the old town centre is a gothic church erected during the 11th century. The stained glass was designed by Alfred Manessier (1911-1993) and was made in Chartres.

Other churches[edit]

Archaeological sites[edit]

La Barre Monument[edit]

Main article: [[La Barre Monument (fr)]]

The La Barre Monument was erected in 1907 by public subscription, in commemoration of the martyrdom of the Chevalier de La Barre. Located near the station, next to the bridge on the Somme canal, the La Barre Monument (fr) is an annual rallying point, on the first Sunday of July, for defenders of secularism and freethinkers.

Other memorials[edit]

The Abbeville war memorial

Parks and public gardens[edit]

The Robert Mallet (fr) Municipal Library (former hôtel of Emonville) and gardens
  • The garden of Emonville in which is situated the Robert Mallet (fr) municipal library and the service of the municipal archives is named after one of its owners Arthur Foulques d'Emonville, an amateur botanist who had bought a part of the Priory of Saint-Pierre and Saint-Paul of Abbeville (fr), to accommodate a garden, and to construct a mansion. The main entrance to the garden is a remnant of the priory.
Main article: [[Parc d'Emonville (fr)]]
  • The Carmel and its gardens
  • The municipal park of the Bouvaque
Main article: [[Parc municipal de La Bouvaque (fr)]]

There are many sedentary and migratory birds as well as willow, reed beds, etc.

Other monuments[edit]

Abbeville railway station in February 2010
The town hall of Abbeville
  • The Hotel Buigny inscribed as an historic monument in 1933.
  • Abbeville railway station, of "seaside regional" style, is built around a frame of wood with red brick cladding, inscribed as an historical monument in 1984.
  • In the town centre, a dozen old houses dating from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries were classified as historical monuments or registered as historical monuments between 1924 and 1974.
  • The town hall, inaugurated in 1960.

Personalities linked to the commune[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Hugo, Victor (1987). Œuvres Complètes - Voyages [Complete Works - Travel]. Bouquins (in French). Paris: Éditions Robert Laffont. 
  • Lesueur, Charles. Abbeville pendant la Guerre de 1914-1918 [Abbeville during the War of 1914-1918] (in French). 
  • Louandre, François-César. Recherches sur la topographie du Ponthieu, avant le siecle XIVe [Research on the topography of Ponthieu, before the fourteenth century] (in French). 
  • Louandre, François-César (1829). Biographie d'Abbeville et de ses environs [Biography of Abbeville and its surroundings] (in French). 
  • Louandre, François-César (1834). Histoire ancienne et moderne d’Abbeville et de son arrondissement [Ancient and modern history of Abbeville and its arrondissement] (in French). 
  • Louandre, François-César (1837). Lettres et bulletins des armées de Louis XI, adressés aux officiers municipaux d'Abbeville [Letters and newsletters of the armies of Louis XI, addressed to municipal officers of Abbeville] (in French). with explanations and notes. 
  • Maisse, Gérald (2005). Paillart, F., ed. Occupation et Résistance dans la Somme 1940-1944 [Occupation and Resistance in the Somme 1940-1944] (in French). Abbeville. ISBN 9-782853-140195. 
  • Mallet, Robert. Les Riches heures d'Abbeville [The Riches hours of Abbeville] (in French). 
  • Mallet, Robert. Mes souvenirs sur la vie abbevilloise [My memories of the Abbeville life] (in French). 
  • Micberth, Michel-Georges; Louandre, François César (1998) [1883]. Histoire d'Abbeville et du comté de Ponthieu jusqu'en 1789 [History Abbeville and Ponthieu County until 1789]. Monographies des villes et villages de France (in French). 
  • Morel de Sarcus, Christian (2004). Déluges [Floods] (in French). Éditions Henry. (memory of the bombing of 1940 and the floods of the Somme in 2001). 
  • Prarond, Ernest (1850). Notice sur les rues d’Abbeville [Instructions on the streets of Abbeville] (in French). 
  • Prarond, Ernest (1854). Notices historiques, topographiques et archéologiques sur l’arrondissement d’Abbeville [Historical, topographical and archaeological records of the arrondissement of Abbeville] (in French). 
  • Prarond, Ernest (1875). Abbeville à table, études gourmandes et morales [Abbeville to table, gourmet and ethical studies] (in French). 
  • Prarond, Ernest (1871). La Topographie historique et archéologique d’Abbeville [The historical and archaeological topography of Abbeville] (in French). 
  • Prarond, Ernest (1873). La Ligue à Abbeville, 1576-1594 [The League in Abbeville, 1576-1594] (in French). 
  • Prarond, Ernest (1886). Les Convivialités de l’échevinage, ou l’Histoire à table [The convivialities of the aldermen, or table history] (in French). 
  • de Wailly, Henri (1980). Le Coup de faux: l'assassinat d'une ville (Abbeville 1940) [The false strike: The assassination of a city (Abbeville 1940)] (in French). Copernic. 
  • de Wailly, Henri (1990). De Gaulle sous le casque, Abbeville 1940 [De Gaulle under the helmet , Abbeville 1940] (in French). Librairie académique Perrin. 
  • de Wailly, Henri (1995). La Victoire évaporée: Abbeville 1940 [The Evaporated Victory: Abbeville 1940] (in French). Librairie académique Perrin. 
  • de Wailly, Henri (2012). L'Offensive blindée d'Abbeville 27 mai - 4 juin 1940 [The Abbeville Armored Offensive 27 May 27 to 4 June 1940] (in French). Economica. 
Online
Encyclopaediae
  • Asimov, Isaac (1964). "Boucher De Crèvecœur de Perthes". Asimov's Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology: The Living Stpries of More than 1000 Great Scientists from the Age of Greece to the Space Age. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. LCCN 64016199. 
  • Canby, Courtlandt (1984). "Abbeville". Encyclopedia of Historic Places. I: A-L. New York, NY: Facts on File Publications. ISBN 0-87196-397-3. LCCN 80025121. 
  • Cohen, Saul B., ed. (1998). "Abbeville". The Columbia Gazetteer of the World. 1: A to G. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11040-5. LCCN 98071262. 
  • Darvill, Timothy, ed. (2008). "Abbeville, France". The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1995-3404-3. LCCN 2008279152. 
  • Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abbeville". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ISBN 978-1-5933-9837-8. LCCN 2008934270. 
  • Van Valkenburg, Samuel (1997). "Abbeville". In Johnston, Bernard. Collier's Encyclopedia. I: A to Ameland (1st ed.). New York, NY: P. F. Collier. LCCN 96084127. 
Attribution

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ At the beginning of the 21st century, the terms of census have been amended by Act No. 2002-276 of 27 February 2002, called "grassroots democracy law" on the democracy of proximity and in particular Title V "of census operations", in order, after a power transition period from 2004 to 2008, the annual publication of the legal population of the different French administrative districts. For municipalities with populations greater than 10,000 inhabitants, a sample survey is carried out annually, the entire territory of these municipalities is included at the end of the same period of five years. The first post-legal population from 1999, and fitting in the new system which came into force on 1 January 2009, is the census of 2006.
  2. ^ In the census table, by Wikipedia convention, the principle was retained for subsequent legal populations since 1999 not to display the census populations in the table corresponding to the year 2006, the first published legal population calculated according to the concepts defined in Decree No. 2003-485 of 5 June 2003, and the years corresponding to an exhaustive census survey for municipalities with less than 10,000 inhabitants, and the years 2006, 2011, 2016, etc. For municipalities with more than 10,000, the latest legal population is published by INSEE for all municipalities.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Van Valkenburg 1997, p. 8
  2. ^ "données climatiques". La météo.org. 
  3. ^ "Abbeville". Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "Recensement de la population au 1er janvier 2006". Insee. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  5. ^ "Populations légales 2011 en vigueur le 1er janvier 2014". Insee. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  6. ^ "Populations légales 2011 en vigueur le 1er janvier 2015". Insee. Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  7. ^ "Évolution et structure de la population à Abbeville en 2007". INSEE. 
  8. ^ "Résultats du recensement de la population de la Somme en 2007". INSEE. 
  9. ^ a b c d Cohen 1998, p. 3
  10. ^ Anon 2007
  11. ^ "Les Nuits du Blues (présentation du programme 2011)". 
  12. ^ "Le palmarès des villes et villages fleuris". Le Courrier picard, Oise edition. 5 July 2008. 
  13. ^ a b c d Canby 1984, p. 2
  14. ^ Hippolyte Cocheris, Conservateur de la Bibliothèque Mazarine, Conseiller général du département de Seine-et-Oise, DICTIONNAIRE DES ANCIENS NOMS DES COMMUNES DU DÉPARTEMENT DE SEINE-ET-OISE, 1874
  15. ^ "Origine des noms flamands". Retrieved 26 May 2015. 
  16. ^ "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle de 2012 à Abbeville". Ministère de l'Intérieur - Somme (Picardie). 
  17. ^ "Abbeville (80) : Nicolas Dumont s'installe dans son siège de maire". France 3 Picardie. 28 March 2014. 
  18. ^ "Coup de tonnerre à Abbeville : l'élection du Maire PS Nicolas Dumont est invalidée". France 3 Picardie. 8 October 2014. 
  19. ^ Anon 2015
  20. ^ Asimov 1964, p. 223
  21. ^ Darvill 2008, p. 1
  22. ^ a b c d e Hoiberg 2010, p. 11
  23. ^ Anon 2014
  24. ^ "Abbeville". Archived from the original on 30 September 2012.  and "Abbeville - Monument aux morts 1939/1945". Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. 
  25. ^ Dubois, Claude (1990). "DROGBA AU SCA". abbsport.com. 
  26. ^ Le Courrier picard, 23 May 1965

External links[edit]