Abbotsbury

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Coordinates: 50°39′59″N 2°36′02″W / 50.6664°N 2.60063°W / 50.6664; -2.60063

Abbotsbury
Abbotsbury
Rodden Row - Abbotsbury - geograph.org.uk - 1595855.jpg
Rodden Row, Abbotsbury
Abbotsbury is located in Dorset
Abbotsbury
Abbotsbury
 Abbotsbury shown within Dorset
Population 481 [1]
OS grid reference SY576853
    - London  139 miles (224 km) 
Civil parish Abbotsbury
District West Dorset
Shire county Dorset
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town WEYMOUTH
Postcode district DT3
Dialling code 01305
Police Dorset
Fire Dorset
Ambulance South Western
EU Parliament South West England
UK Parliament West Dorset
Website http://www.abbotsbury.co.uk/
List of places
UK
England
Dorset
This article is about a village in England. For the suburb in Sydney, Australia see Abbotsbury, New South Wales

Abbotsbury is a village and civil parish in the English county of Dorset. It lies in the West Dorset administrative district, and is known for its swannery, subtropical gardens and historic stone buildings. It is a gateway village on the Jurassic Coast, and consequently is popular with tourists.

Description[edit]

The village of Abbotsbury comprises a long street of stone houses,[2] many of which are thatched, with some dating from the 16th century.[3][4] The street broadens at one point into an old market square.[3] Parts of the street have a raised pavement.[5] The village is surrounded by hills on all sides, except to the east; in 1905 Sir Frederick Treves described Abbotsbury as being "very pleasantly situated among the downs".[4] The village has two public houses, The Ilchester Arms and The Swan Inn, and several tearooms, small shops and businesses. Nearly a hundred structures within the parish are listed by English Heritage for their historic or architectural interest.[6] Dorset-born broadcaster and writer Ralph Wightman described the village as "possibly the most interesting in Dorset".[2]

The B3157 road between Abbotsbury and Burton Bradstock is notable for its fine coastal views.[7]

Geography[edit]

Abbotsbury lies in the West Dorset administrative district, about 7 miles (11 km) north-west of Weymouth. It is situated amidst hills about 1 mile (1.6 km) inland from the English Channel coast at Chesil Beach, an 18 mile (29 km) barrier beach which south of the village encloses The Fleet, a brackish coastal lagoon. The main road running through the village is the B3157, connecting Abbotsbury to Bridport and Weymouth. Abbotsbury is located 6 miles (9.7 km) from Upwey railway station and 35 miles (56 km) from Bournemouth International Airport. In the 2011 Census the parish, which includes the hamlet of Rodden to the east, recorded 256 dwellings[8] and a population of 481.

History[edit]

Abbotsbury Abbey tithe barn

One and a half miles northwest of the village, at the top of Wears Hill, are the earthworks of Abbotsbury Castle, an Iron Age hill fort.[9] The earthworks cover a roughly triangular area of about 10 acres (4.0 ha), of which about 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) are inside the ramparts.[10]

In the 10th century a charter of King Edmund records a granting of land at Abbedesburi,[11] a name which indicates the land may have once belonged to an abbot.[11] In the 11th century King Cnut granted land at nearby Portesham to the Scandinavian thegn Orc (also Urki, Urk), who took up residence in the area with his wife Tola.[12] The couple founded Abbotsbury Abbey and enriched it with a substantial amount of land.[12] The abbey existed for 500 years, but was destroyed in the dissolution, although the abbey barn survived and today is the world's largest thatched tithe barn.[13] The barn is a Grade I listed building.[14] Stone from the abbey was used in the construction of many buildings in the village,[2] including the house of Abbotsbury's new owner, Sir Giles Strangways.[7]

In 1664, during the English Civil War, Roundheads (Parliamentarians) and Cavaliers (Royalists) clashed at Abbotsbury. Parliamentarians besieged the Royalists in the church of St. Nicholas;[15] two bullet holes from the fight remain in the Jacobean pulpit.[7] The Strangways house which had replaced the Abbey after the dissolution was also the scene of a skirmish, as the Royalist Colonel Strangways resisted the Parliamentarians, who besieged the house and burned it. The house gunpowder store exploded in the fire and the house was destroyed,[7] together with the old abbey records which had been stored there.[16]

In the late 17th and early 18th centuries Abbotsbury experienced several fires, resulting in the destruction of virtually all its medieval buildings. Most of the historic secular buildings in the village today were built from stone in the 17th and 18th centuries.[17]

County historian John Hutchins (1698–1773) recorded that fishing was the main industry in the village, and 18th-century militia ballot lists reveal that husbandry was also particularly important. Ropemaking, basketry and the manufacture of cotton stockings were other notable trades within the village, with records indicating hemp and withies being grown in the area.[17]

In the early 19th century Abbotsbury's population grew steadily, from about 800 in 1801 to nearly 1,100 sixty years later.[17]

Between 1885 and 1952 Abbotsbury was served by the Abbotsbury Railway, a 6 miles (9.7 km) branch from the main line to Weymouth. It was primarily designed for freight, in anticipation of the development of oil shale deposits and stone at Portesham, as well as iron ore at Abbotsbury which would be shipped to South Wales for processing. The Abbotsbury terminus of the line was inconveniently sited 1 mile (1.6 km) east of the village because the railway could not buy the land needed to build the station closer to the village.[18][self-published source]

During the Second World War, the coastal front was fortified and defended as a part of British anti-invasion preparations of World War II.[19][20][self-published source] Later, the Fleet lagoon was used as a machine gun training range, and bouncing bombs were tested there, for Operation Chastise (the "Dambuster" sortie).

Church[edit]

The Parish Church of St Nicholas dates from the 14th century but has had various revisions over the centuries. The tower contains three bells dating from 1773 and made by Thomas Castleman Bilbie of the Bilbie family in Cullompton.[21][self-published source] The chancel was classicized in the 18th century and still has its plastered barrel roof and fine altarpiece. There are also some 15th-century painted glass, a stone effigy of one of the abbots and a Jacobean canopied pulpit.[22] It has been designated by English Heritage as a grade I listed building.[23]

Panorama of the village of Abbotsbury as viewed from the south-west at St Catherine's Chapel


Places of interest[edit]

Abbotsbury is well known for its swannery, subtropical gardens, Abbey and abbey barn, castle, St Catherine's Chapel and the nearby Chesil Beach. The swannery, subtropical gardens and an estate of some 15,000 acres (61 km2) in Dorset covering Chesil Beach and Abbotsbury is held by the Ilchester Estate owned by Mrs Charlotte Townshend, the daughter of Viscount Galway, a descendant of the first Countess of Ilchester and owner of the Melbury Estate.

Mute Swans on the Fleet lagoon at Abbotsbury Swannery

Swannery[edit]

Situated south of the village on the shore of the Fleet lagoon, Abbotsbury Swannery is over 600 years old, having previously been owned by the abbot and managed, using decoys, to provide meat for the abbey. When the abbey was destroyed the swannery passed to the earls of Ilchester,[2] and today the decoys are used for monitoring and recording purposes.[7] The swannery has a large colony of Mute Swans, as well as other waterfowl, and is open to the public. The site is an important nesting and breeding ground for the swans and, from May through the summer, cygnets can be seen at close quarters.

Subtropical gardens[edit]

The subtropical gardens at Abbotsbury were founded in 1765 by the Countess of Ilchester, as a kitchen garden for the nearby castle.[24] Since then, the gardens have developed into a 20 acre (81,000 m²) site filled with exotic plants, many of which were newly discovered species when they were first introduced. There are formal and informal gardens, with woodland walks and walled gardens. In 1990 violent storms damaged many of the rare specimens, which have since been replaced by younger plants.[25]

St Catherine's Chapel[edit]

St Catherine's Chapel

To the south of the village, on a bare hill about 80 m (260 ft) high, stands St Catherine's Chapel, a small 14th-century pilgrimage chapel used by the monks of the abbey as a place for private prayer.[26] It is built entirely of stone, including the roof and even the panelled ceiling.[7] The walls are 1.2 metres (3.9 ft) thick and buttressed. The chapel overlooks the English Channel, and may have served as a beacon for sailors, warning of the nearby Isle of Portland.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Parish Population Data". Dorset County Council. 14 March 2013. Retrieved 4 May 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d Ralph Wightman (1983). Portrait of Dorset (4 ed.). Robert Hale Ltd. p. 169. ISBN 0-7090-0844-9. 
  3. ^ a b "A Tour of Abbotsbury". abbotsbury.co.uk. 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Treves, p240
  5. ^ John Hyams (1975). The Batsford Colour Book of Dorset. B. T. Batsford Ltd. p. 20. ISBN 0-7134-3006-0. 
  6. ^ "Listed Buildings in Abbotsbury, Dorset, England". British Listed Buildings. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Roland Gant (1980). Dorset Villages. Robert Hale Ltd. pp. 165–7. ISBN 0-7091-8135-3. 
  8. ^ "Neighbourhood Statistics. Area: Abbotsbury (Parish)". Office for National Statistics. 30 January 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  9. ^ West Dorset Holiday and Tourist Guide. West Dorset District Council. c. 1983. p. 2. 
  10. ^ "An Inventory of the Ancient and Historical Monuments in West Dorset. Abbotsbury". British History Online. 1952, 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Keynes, "The lost cartulary of Abbotsbury", p. 207.
  12. ^ a b Keynes, "The lost cartulary of Abbotsbury", p. 208.
  13. ^ "Abbotsbury". jurassiccoast.org. 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2013. 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ Treves, p242
  16. ^ "Houses of Benedictine monks 1. The Abbey of Abbotsbury". British History Online. 2013. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  17. ^ a b c "Dorset Historic Towns Survey, Abbotsbury. Post-medieval Abbotsbury (1540–1849)". Dorset County Council. Retrieved 19 September 2013. 
  18. ^ "Abbotsbury". Disused Stations: Closed Railway Stations in the UK. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  19. ^ Foot, 2006, p 57–63
  20. ^ "Pillbox FW3/26 Abbotsbury". tracesofwar.com. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  21. ^ Moore, James; Roy Rice & Ernest Hucker (1995). Bilbie and the Chew Valley clock makers. The authors. ISBN 0-9526702-0-8. 
  22. ^ Betjeman, John, ed. (1968) Collins Pocket Guide to English Parish Churches; the South. London: Collins; p. 171
  23. ^ "Parish Church of St Nicholas". Images of England. Retrieved 2007-10-05. 
  24. ^ Cumming, Ed (23 March 2012). "Subtropical garden wins the HHA/Christie's award". The Telegraph. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  25. ^ "Chainsaw art at Abbotsbury Sub-tropical Gardens". Dorset Echo. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 
  26. ^ "History and research: Abbotsbury St Catherine's Chapel". English Heritage. Retrieved 15 September 2013. 

General references[edit]

  • Foot, William (2006). Beaches, fields, streets, and hills ... the anti-invasion landscapes of England, 1940. Council for British Archaeology. ISBN 1-902771-53-2. 
  • Pitt-Rivers, Michael, 1968. Dorset. London: Faber & Faber.
  • Taylor, Christopher, 1970. The Making of the Dorset Landscape. London: Hodder & Stoughton.
  • Treves, Sir Frederick (1905). Highways and Byways in Dorset. Macmillan & Co. Ltd. 
  • Keynes, Simon (1989). "The Lost Cartulary of Abbotsbury". Anglo-Saxon England 18: 207–43. 

External links[edit]