Abbreviated Injury Scale

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The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is an anatomical-based coding system created by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine to classify and describe the severity of specific individual injuries.[1][2][3] It represents the threat to life associated with the injury rather than the comprehensive assessment of the severity of the injury.[4] AIS is one of the most common anatomic scales for traumatic injuries.[5] The first version of the scale was published in 1969[6] with major updates in 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1998, 2005, and 2008.[7]

Scale[edit]

The score describes three things of the injury using 7 numbers written as 12(34)(56).7[4]

  • Type
  • Location
  • Severity

Each number signifies

  • 1- body region
  • 2- type of anatomical structure
  • 3,4- specific anatomical structure
  • 5,6- level
  • 7- Severity of score
1. Body region
AIS Code Region
1 Head
2 Face
3 Neck
4 Thorax
5 Abdomen
6 Spine
7 Upper Extremity
8 Lower Extremity
9 Unspecified
2. Type of Anatomic Structure
AIS Code Region
1 Whole Area
2 Vessels
3 Nerves
4 Organs (inc. muscles/ligaments)
5 Skeletal (inc. joints)
6 Loss of Consciousness (head only)
3/4 Specific Anatomic Structure }-
Whole Area
AIS Code Region
02 Skin Abrasion
04 Contusion
06 Laceration
08 Avulsion
10 Amputation
20 Burn
30 Crush
40 Degloving
50 Injury - NFS
60 Penetrating
Head - Loss of Consciousness (LOC)
02 Length of loss of consciousness
04-08 Level of consciousness
10 Concussion
Spine
02 Cervical
04 Thoracic
06 Lumbar
Vessels, Nerves, Organs, Bones, Joints
02 Vessels
04 Nerves
06 Organs
08 Bones
10 Joints
5/6 Level }-
Specific Injuries are assigned consecutive two-digit numbers beginning with 02

Fractures, rupture, laceration, etc.

Severity[edit]

Abbreviated Injury Score-Code is on a scale of one to six, one being a minor injury and six being maximal (currently untreatable).[1] An AIS-Code of 6 is not the arbitrary code for a deceased patient or fatal injury, but the code for injuries specifically assigned an AIS 6 severity.[1] An AIS-Code of 9 is used to describe injuries for which not enough information is available for more detailed coding, e.g. crush injury to the head.

The AIS scale is a measurement tool for single injuries. A universally accepted injury aggregation function has not yet been proposed, though the injury severity score and its derivatives are better aggregators for use in clinical settings.[1][5] In other settings such as automotive design and occupant protection, MAIS is a useful tool for the comparison of specific injuries and their relative severity and the changes in those frequencies that may result from evolving motor vehicle design.[1]

Abbreviated injury Score
AIS-Code Injury Example AIS % prob. of death
1 Minor superficial laceration 0
2 Moderate fractured sternum 1 – 2
3 Serious open fracture of humerus 8 – 10
4 Severe perforated trachea 5 – 50
5 Critical ruptured liver with tissue loss 5 - 50
6 Maximum total severance of aorta 100
9 Not further specified (NFS)

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Thomas A. Gennarelli, Elaine Wodzin (Hrsg.): The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005. Update 2008. American Association for Automotive Medicine (AAAM), Des Plaines, IL 2008.
  2. ^ Lesko MM, Woodford M, White L, O'Brien SJ, Childs C, Lecky FE (2010). "Using Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) codes to classify Computed Tomography (CT) features in the Marshall System". BMC Med Res Methodol 10: 72. doi:10.1186/1471-2288-10-72. PMC 2927606. PMID 20691038. 
  3. ^ "TRAUMA.ORG: Abbreviated Injury Scale". Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 2011-01-23. 
  4. ^ a b Abbreviated injury scale. University of Chicago: American Association for Automotive Medicine. 1985. p. 80. 
  5. ^ a b Andrew B., MD Peitzman; Andrew B. Peitzman; Michael, MD Sabom; Donald M., MD Yearly; Timothy C., MD Fabian (2002). The Trauma Manual. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-7817-2641-7. 
  6. ^ John D. States: The Abbreviated and the Comprehensive Research Injury Scales. In: STAPP Car Crash Journal. 13, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., New York 1969, ISSN 1532-8546, S. 282–294, LCCN 67-22372.
  7. ^ "AAAM's Abbreviated Injury Scale". Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Retrieved 2014-03-27.