Abdülaziz

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Abdülaziz
عبد العزيز
Caliph of Islam
Ottoman Sultan
Sultan Abdulaziz of the Ottoman Empire.jpg
Sultan Abdülaziz during his visit to the United Kingdom in 1867
Reign 1861–76
Predecessor Abdülmecid I
Successor Murad V
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Royal house House of Osman
Father Mahmud II
Mother Pertevniyal Sultan
Born 9 or 18 February 1830[1]
Constantinople
Died 4 June 1876(1876-06-04) (aged 46)[1]
Çırağan Palace
Tughra
Religion Sunni Islam
Punch cartoon commenting on the 1867 visit of the Sultan to Britain.
The mausoleum (türbe) of Sultan Mehmet II in Divan Yolu street, where Abdülaziz is buried as well

Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz; 9/18 February 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876.[1] He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861.[2]

Born at the Eyüp Palace, Constantinople (present-day Istanbul),[3][4] on 9/18 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was nevertheless an ardent admirer of the material progress that was made in the West.The Sultan took an interest in documenting the Sultanate. He was also interested in literature and was also a classical music composer. Some of his compositions have been collected in the album "European Music at the Ottoman Court" by the London Academy of Ottoman Court Music.

Family[edit]

His parents were Mahmud II and Valide Sultan Pertevniyal ("Partav-Nihal").[5] (1812–1883), originally named Bezime, a Vlach.[6] He was a quarter French. In 1868 Pertevniyal was living in the Dolmabahçe Palace. That year Abdülaziz led the visiting Eugénie de Montijo, Empress of France, to see his mother. Pertevniyal perceived the presence of a foreign woman within her quarters of the seraglio as an insult. She reportedly slapped Eugénie across the face, almost resulting in an international incident.[7] The Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque was built under the patronage of his mother. The construction work began in November 1869 and the mosque was finished in 1871.[8]

His paternal grandparents were Sultan Abdul Hamid I and Sultana Naksh-i-Dil Haseki. Several accounts identify his paternal grandmother with Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, a cousin of Joséphine de Beauharnais.[9] Pertevniyal was a sister of Hoshiar (Khushiyar), third wife of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Hoshiar and Ibrahim were the parents of Isma'il Pasha.[10][11][12][13][14]

Reign[edit]

Between 1861 and 1871, the Tanzimat reforms which began during the reign of his brother Abdülmecid I were continued under the leadership of his chief ministers, Keçecizade Mehmet Fuat Pasha and Mehmed Emin Aali Pasha. New administrative districts (vilayets) were set up in 1864 and a Council of State was established in 1868.[1] Public education was organized on the French model and Istanbul University was reorganised as a modern institution in 1861.[1] He was also integral in establishing the first Ottoman civil code.[1]

Abdülaziz cultivated good relations with the Second French Empire and the British. In 1867 he was the first Ottoman sultan to visit Western Europe;[1] his trip included a visit to the United Kingdom, where he was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria and shown a Royal Navy Fleet Review with Ismail of Egypt. He travelled by a private rail car, which today can be found in the Rahmi M. Koç Museum in Istanbul. His fellow Knights of the Garter created in 1867 were Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland, Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, Franz Joseph I of Austria and Alexander II of Russia.

Culverin with the arms of Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, Siege of Rhodes (1522). Caliber: 140mm, length: 339cm, weight: 2533kg, ammunition: 10kg iron ball. Remitted by Abdülaziz to Napoleon III in 1862.

In 1869, Abdülaziz received visits from Eugénie de Montijo, Empress consort of Napoleon III of France and other foreign monarchs on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal. The Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII, twice visited Constantinople.

By 1871 both ʿAlī Pasha and Fuʿād Pasha were dead.[1] The Second French Empire, his Western European model, had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War by the North German Confederation under the leadership of the Kingdom of Prussia. Abdülaziz turned to the Russian Empire for friendship, as unrest in the Balkan provinces continued. In 1875, the Herzegovinian rebellion was the beginning of further unrest in the Balkan provinces. In 1876, the April Uprising saw insurrection spreading among the Bulgarians. Ill feeling mounted against Russia for its encouragement of the rebellions.[1]

While no one event led to his being deposed, the crop failure of 1873 and his lavish expenditures on the Ottoman Navy and on new palaces which he had built, along with mounting public debt, helped to create an atmosphere conducive to his being overthrown. Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers on 30 May 1876;[1] his death at Feriye Palace in Constantinople a few days later was documented as a suicide at the time,[1][15] although in Sultan Abdulhamid II's recently surfaced memoirs, the event is described as an assassination by the order of Hussein Avni Pasha and Midhat Pasha. When Sultan Murad V began to show signs of paranoia, madness and continuous fainting and vomiting even on the day of his coronation and threw himself into a pool yelling at his guards to protect his life, they were afraid the public would become outraged and revolt to bring the former Sultan back. Within a few days, on 4 June 1876, they arranged for Sultan Abdülaziz to kill himself with scissors, cutting his two wrists at the same time.[16] It was unclear how the Sultan got hold of scissors in his tower prison cell and how he managed to cut two wrists at once, since no autopsy was allowed afterwards. The event was recorded as suicide officially and he was buried in Constantinople.

Achievements[edit]

The biggest achievement of Abdülaziz was to modernize the Ottoman Navy. In 1875, the Navy had 21 battleships and 173 warships of other types, ranking as the third largest navy in the world after the British and French navies.

He established the first Ottoman railroad network and Sirkeci Train Station in Constantinople, terminus of the Orient Express.

Impressed by the museums in London, Paris and Vienna, he established the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.

Under Abdülaziz's reign, Turkey's first postage stamps were issued in 1863, and The Ottoman Empire joined the Universal Postal Union in 1875 as a founding member.

He was made the 756th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1867 and the 127th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.

He also was responsible for the first civil code for the Ottoman Empire.[1]

Family life[edit]

Bedroom of Sultan Abdül Aziz in Dolmabahçe Palace.
Sarcophagus of Sultan Abdülaziz in the mausoleum of Sultan Mahmud II. Some of the Sultans' descendants are buried nearby as well
Admission ticket to Lord Mayor Thomas Gabriel's reception of H.I.M. The Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Khan at The Guildhall, July 1867, issued to The Chairman of the P. & O. Steam Navigation Company.

First marriage and issue[edit]

He married firstly at Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople on 20 May 1856 to Georgian HH Dürrünev Kadın Efendi (Batumi, 15 March 1835 – Constantinople, Üsküdar, Çamlıca Palace, 3 December 1892), and they had three children.

Second marriage and issue[edit]

HH Edâdil Kadın Efendi (1845 – Dolmabahçe Palace, 12 December 1875) at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1861 and they had one child.

Third marriage and issue[edit]

Circassian HH Gevheri Kadın Efendi (Caucasus, 8 July 1856 – Ortaköy Palace, Ortaköy, Constantinople, 20 September 1894) in 1872 to and they had two children.

Fourth marriage and issue[edit]

Georgian HH Hayranidil Kadın Efendi (Kars, 2 November 1846 – Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 26 November 1898) at the Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, on 21 September 1866 and they had two children.

Fifth marriage and marriage[edit]

Georgian HH Neşerek (Nesrin) Kadın Efendi (Tbilisi, 1848 – 11 June 1876 - Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople) at the Dolmabahçe Palace, in 1868 and they had three children. [17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdülaziz". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  2. ^ Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 2
  3. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
  4. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
  5. ^ Daniel T. Rogers, "All my relatives: Valide Sultana Partav-Nihal"
  6. ^ His profile in the Ottoman Web Site
  7. ^ "Women in Power" 1840-1870, entry: "1861-76 Pertevniyal Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire"
  8. ^ "Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque Complex". Discover Islamic Art. Retrieved 26 January 2008. 
  9. ^ Christine Isom-Verhaaren, "Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century"
  10. ^ Christopher Buyers, "The Muhammad 'Ali Dynasty Genealogy"
  11. ^ Non European Royalty Website, entry:"Egypt"
  12. ^ "Women in Power" 1840-1870, entry: "1863-79 Valida Pasha Khushiyar of Egypt"
  13. ^ Rulers from the House of Mohammed Aly
  14. ^ Genealogical entry: "Hoshiar Walda Pasha"
  15. ^ Davis, Claire (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 222. ASIN B000NP64Z2. 
  16. ^ Bozdağ, İsmet (2000). Sultan Abdülhamid'in Hatıra Defteri. İstanbul: Pınar Yayınları. p. 223. ISBN 9753520344. 
  17. ^ http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~royalty/turkey/i339.html i339.html

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abd-ul-Aziz". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

  • Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57; "Istanbul was only adopted as the city's official name in 1930..".


External links[edit]

Media related to Abdül Aziz I at Wikimedia Commons

Wikisource logo Works written by or about Abd-ul-Aziz at Wikisource

Abdülaziz
Born: 9 February 1830 Died: 4 June 1876
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Abdülmecid I
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
25 Jun 1861 – 30 May 1876
Succeeded by
Murad V
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abdülmecid I
Caliph of Islam
25 Jun 1861 – 30 May 1876
Succeeded by
Murad V