|Caliph of Islam
Sultan Abdülaziz in Istanbul, 1873
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire|
|Royal house||House of Osman|
|Born||9 or 18 February 1830
|Died||4 June 1876
Abdülaziz (Ottoman Turkish: عبد العزيز / `Abdü’l-`Azīz; 9/18 February 1830 – 4 June 1876) was the 32nd Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and reigned between 25 June 1861 and 30 May 1876. He was the son of Sultan Mahmud II and succeeded his brother Abdülmecid I in 1861.
Born at the Eyüp Palace, Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), on 9/18 February 1830, Abdülaziz received an Ottoman education but was nevertheless an ardent admirer of the material progress that was made in the West.The Sultan took an interest in documenting the Sultanate. He was also interested in literature and was also a classical music composer. Some of his compositions have been collected in the album "European Music at the Ottoman Court" by the London Academy of Ottoman Court Music.
His parents were Mahmud II and Valide Sultan Pertevniyal ("Partav-Nihal"). (1812–1883), originally named Bezime, a Vlach. He was a quarter French. In 1868 Pertevniyal was living in the Dolmabahçe Palace. That year Abdülaziz led the visiting Eugénie de Montijo, Empress of France, to see his mother. Pertevniyal perceived the presence of a foreign woman within her quarters of the seraglio as an insult. She reportedly slapped Eugénie across the face, almost resulting in an international incident. The Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque was built under the patronage of his mother. The construction work began in November 1869 and the mosque was finished in 1871.
His paternal grandparents were Sultan Abdul Hamid I and Sultana Naksh-i-Dil Haseki. Several accounts identify his paternal grandmother with Aimée du Buc de Rivéry, a cousin of Joséphine de Beauharnais. Pertevniyal was a sister of Hoshiar (Khushiyar), third wife of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt. Hoshiar and Ibrahim were the parents of Isma'il Pasha.
Between 1861 and 1871, the Tanzimat reforms which began during the reign of his brother Abdülmecid I were continued under the leadership of his chief ministers, Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha. New administrative districts (vilayets) were set up in 1864 and a Council of State was established in 1868. Public education was organized on the French model and Istanbul University was reorganised as a modern institution in 1861. He was also integral in establishing the first Ottoman civil code.
Abdülaziz cultivated good relations with the Second French Empire and the British Empire. In 1867 he was the first Ottoman sultan to visit Western Europe; his trip included a visit to the United Kingdom, where he was made a Knight of the Garter by Queen Victoria and shown a Royal Navy Fleet Review with Ismail Pasha. He travelled by a private rail car, which today can be found in the Rahmi M. Koç Museum in Istanbul. His fellow Knights of the Garter created in 1867 were Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond, Charles Manners, 6th Duke of Rutland, Henry Somerset, 8th Duke of Beaufort, Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (a son of Queen Victoria), Franz Joseph I of Austria and Alexander II of Russia.
Also in 1867, Abdülaziz became the first Ottoman Sultan to formally recognize the title of Khedive (Viceroy) to be used by the Vali (Governor) of the Ottoman Eyalet of Egypt and Sudan (1517–1867), which thus became the autonomous Ottoman Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan (1867–1914). Muhammad Ali Pasha and his descendants had been the governors (Vali) of Ottoman Egypt and Sudan since 1805, but were willing to use the higher title of Khedive, which was unrecognized by the Ottoman government until 1867. In return, the first Khedive, Ismail Pasha, had agreed a year earlier (in 1866) to increase the annual tax revenues which Egypt and Sudan would provide for the Ottoman treasury. Between 1854 and 1894, the revenues from Egypt and Sudan were often declared as a surety by the Ottoman government for borrowing loans from British and French banks. After the Ottoman government declared a sovereign default on its foreign debt repayments on 30 October 1875, which triggered the Great Eastern Crisis (1875–78) in the empire's Balkan provinces that led to the devastating Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) and the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration in 1881, the importance for Britain of the sureties regarding the Ottoman revenues from Egypt and Sudan increased. Combined with the much more important Suez Canal which was opened in 1869, these sureties were influential in the British government's decision to occupy Egypt and Sudan in 1882, with the pretext of helping the Ottoman-Egyptian government to put down the Urabi Revolt (1879–1882). Egypt and Sudan (together with Cyprus) nominally remained Ottoman territories until 5 November 1914, when the British Empire declared war against the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
In 1869, Abdülaziz received visits from Eugénie de Montijo, Empress consort of Napoleon III of France and other foreign monarchs on their way to the opening of the Suez Canal. The Prince of Wales, the future Edward VII, twice visited Constantinople.
By 1871 both Mehmed Fuad Pasha and Mehmed Emin Âli Pasha were dead. The Second French Empire, his Western European model, had been defeated in the Franco-Prussian War by the North German Confederation under the leadership of the Kingdom of Prussia. Abdülaziz turned to the Russian Empire for friendship, as unrest in the Balkan provinces continued. In 1875, the Herzegovinian rebellion was the beginning of further unrest in the Balkan provinces. In 1876, the April Uprising saw insurrection spreading among the Bulgarians. Ill feeling mounted against Russia for its encouragement of the rebellions.
While no one event led to his being deposed, the crop failure of 1873 and his lavish expenditures on the Ottoman Navy and on new palaces which he had built, along with mounting public debt, helped to create an atmosphere conducive to his being overthrown. Abdülaziz was deposed by his ministers on 30 May 1876; his death at Feriye Palace in Constantinople a few days later was documented as a suicide at the time, although in Sultan Abdulhamid II's recently surfaced memoirs, the event is described as an assassination by the order of Hüseyin Avni Pasha and Midhat Pasha. When Sultan Murad V began to show signs of paranoia, madness and continuous fainting and vomiting even on the day of his coronation and threw himself into a pool yelling at his guards to protect his life, they were afraid the public would become outraged and revolt to bring the former Sultan back. Within a few days, on 4 June 1876, they arranged for Sultan Abdülaziz to kill himself with scissors, cutting his two wrists at the same time. It was unclear how the Sultan got hold of scissors in his tower prison cell and how he managed to cut two wrists at once, since no autopsy was allowed afterwards. The event was recorded as suicide officially and he was buried in Constantinople.
- Abdülaziz gave special emphasis on modernizing the Ottoman Navy. In 1875, the Ottoman Navy had 21 battleships and 173 warships of other types, ranking as the third largest navy in the world after the British and French navies. His passion for the Navy, ships and sea can be observed in the wall paintings and pictures of the Beylerbeyi Palace on the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul, which was constructed during his reign. However, the large budget for modernizing and expanding the Navy (combined with a severe drought in 1873 and incidents of flooding in 1874 which damaged Ottoman agriculture and reduced the government's tax revenues) contributed to the financial difficulties which caused the Porte to declare a sovereign default with the "Ramazan Kanunnamesi" on 30 October 1875. The subsequent decision to increase agricultural taxes for paying the Ottoman public debt to foreign creditors (mainly British and French banks) triggered the Great Eastern Crisis (1875–78) in the empire's Balkan provinces, which culminated in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) that devastated the already struggling Ottoman economy, and the establishment of the Ottoman Public Debt Administration in 1881, during the early years of Sultan Abdülhamid II's reign.
- The first Ottoman railroads were opened between İzmir–Aydın and Alexandria–Cairo in 1856, during the reign of Sultan Abdülmecid I. The first large railway terminal within present-day Turkey, the Alsancak Terminal in Izmir, was opened in 1858. However, these were individual, unconnected railroads, without a railway network. Sultan Abdülaziz established the first Ottoman railway networks. On April 17, 1869, the concession for the Rumelia Railway (i.e. Balkan Railways, Rumeli (Rumelia) meaning the Balkan peninsula in Ottoman Turkish) which connected Istanbul to Vienna was awarded to Baron Maurice de Hirsch (Moritz Freiherr Hirsch auf Gereuth), a Bavaria-born banker from Belgium. The project foresaw a railway route from Istanbul via Edirne, Plovdiv and Sarajevo to the shore of the Sava River. In 1873, the first Sirkeci Terminal in Istanbul was opened. The temporary Sirkeci terminal building was later replaced with the current one which was built between 1888 and 1890 (during the reign of Abdülhamid II) and became the final destination terminus of the Orient Express. In 1871, Sultan Abdülaziz established the Anatolia Railway. Construction works of the 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge on the Asian side of Istanbul, from Haydarpaşa to Pendik, began in 1871. The line was opened on September 22, 1872. The railway was extended to Gebze, which opened on January 1, 1873. In August 1873 the railway reached Izmit. Another railway extension was built in 1871 to serve a populated area along Bursa and the Sea of Marmara. The Anatolia Railway was then extended to Ankara and eventually to Mesopotamia, Syria and Arabia during the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II, with the completion of the Baghdad Railway and Hejaz Railway.
- Under his reign, Turkey's first postage stamps were issued in 1863, and the Ottoman Empire joined the Universal Postal Union in 1875 as a founding member.
- He was the first Ottoman sultan who travelled to Western Europe. His voyage in visiting order (from 21 June 1867 to 7 August 1867): Istanbul – Messina – Naples – Toulon – Marseille – Paris – Boulogne – Dover – London – Dover – Calais – Brussels – Koblenz – Vienna – Budapest – Orșova – Vidin – Ruse – Varna – Istanbul.
- Impressed by the museums in Paris (30 June – 10 July 1867), London (12 July – 23 July 1867) and Vienna (28 July – 30 July 1867) which he visited in the summer of 1867, he established the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.
- He was made the 756th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1867 and the 127th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword.
First marriage and issue
He married firstly at Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople on 20 May 1856 to Georgian HH Dürrinev Kadınefendi (Batumi, 15 March 1835 – Constantinople, Üsküdar, Çamlıca Palace, 3 December 1892), and they had three children.
- Prince Şehzade Yusuf Izzettin Efendi (b. Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, 11 October 1857 – d. Zincirlikuyu, Şişli, Pera, 1 February 1916) Cdt of the Imperial Guard Ottoman Army married firstly in 1879 and divorced Çeşmiahu Hanım Efendi, daughter of Bahaeddin Efendi, married secondly at the Beşiktaş Palace, Constantinople, 20 May 1885, Cavidan Hanım Efendi (Kars, Caucasus, 12 January 1870 - Göztepe, Istanbul, 1935), married thirdly at the Beşiktaş Palace, Constantinople, 6 July 1886, Emine Nazikedâ Hanım Efendi (Sohum, 30 May 1872 - Erenköy, Istanbul, 1946), married fourthlly at the Beşiktaş Palace, Constantinople, 15 October 1892, Tazende Hanım Efendi (Poti, 10 October 1875 - Ortaköy, 1950), m. (fifth) at the Çamlıca Palace, Constantinople, 4 February 1904, Leman (Ünlüsoy) Hanım Efendi (Batum, 6 June 1888; d. at the Çamlıca Palace, Constantinople, 3 August 1953), daughter of Ahmed Bey by his wife, Şükriye Hanım.
- Prince Mehmed Bahar ud-din Effendi. b. February 1883 (s/o Jasm-i-Ahu) and d. 8 November 1883.
- H.I.H. Prince Muhammad Nizam ud-din Effendi. b. at the Beşiktaş Palace, Constantinople, 18 December 1908 (s/o Laman). Lieut. Ottoman Army. He d. at Orsellina, Lucarno, Italy 19 March 1933 1987 (bur. Sultan Mahmud Mausoleum, Istanbul).
- Princess Hatice Şükriye Sultan (Çamlıca Palace, Üsküdar, 24 February 1906 (d/o Laman). Rcvd: the Nishan-i-Shafakat 1st class. m. (first) at the Nişantaşı Palace, Constantinople, 14 November 1923 (div. at Cairo, 15 June 1927) H.I.H. Prince Damad Muhammad Sharif ud-din Effendi (b. at the Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 19 May 1904; d. 1966), second son of H.I.H. Prince Sulaiman Effendi, by his third wife, Aisha Tarzandar Khanum Effendi. m. (second) at Cairo, Egypt, 4 September 1935 (div. 194X), H.H. Shaikh Ahmad bin Jabir al-Sabah, Ruler of Kuwait, KCSI, KCIE (b. 1885; d. at the Dasman Palace, Kuwait City, 29 January 1950), eldest son of Shaikh Jabir II bin Mubarak as-Sabah, Ruler of Kuwait - see Kuwait. m. (third), at Cairo, April 1949, H.H. Damad Muhammad Shafik Zia Bey Effendi (b. in Cyprus, 1894; d. 197x), son of Hasan Bahjat Effendi. She d. at Cairo, 1 April 1972 (bur. Sultan Mahmud Mausoleum, Istanbul).
- Princess Mihrban Mihr-i-shah Sultana. b. at the Beşiktaş Palace, Constantinople, 30 August 1916 (d/o Laman). m. at Alexandria, 31 July 1948, as his second wife, Captain H.I.H. Prince Omar Faruk Effendi (b. at the Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 29 February 1898; d. 28 March 1969), only son of H.M. Sultan 'Abdu'l-Majid Khan II, Khalif of the Faithful, by his first wife H.H. Sehsuvar Haseki Sultana. She d.s.p. at Istanbul, 25 January 1987 (bur. there at the Sultan Mahmud Mausoleum) - see below.
- Princess Saliha Sultan (Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, 11 July 1862 - Maadi, Cairo, 1941 (bur. Khedive Tewfik Mausoleum, Cairo), married at the Yıldız Palace, Constantinople, 20 April 1889, Field Marshal H.H. Damad Zulkiful Ahmad Pasha (ca. 1860 - 1941), ADC to Sultan Abdul Hamid II, son of H.E. Ismail Haji Pasha Hartunoglu Kurd. She d. at, having had issue, one daughter.
Second marriage and issue
HH Edadil Kadınefendi (1845 – Dolmabahçe Palace, 12 December 1875) at the Dolmabahçe Palace in 1861 and they had one child.
- Prince Şehzade Mahmud Celaleddin Efendi (Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, 14 November 1862 - Feriye Palace, Constantinople, 1 September 1888), unmarried and without issue.
- Princess Emine Sultan (30 November 1866 – 23 January 1867)
Third marriage and issue
- Prince Şehzade Mehmed Seyfeddin Efendi (Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, 22 September 1874Rear-Ad. Imperial Ottoman Navy. married firstly at the Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 4 December 1899, Naza Falak Bas Khanum Effendi (Kutais, Russia, 5 January 1880; d. at Nice, France 1930). m. (second) at the Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 23 February 1902, Narvalitar Khanum Effendi (b. at Poti, Caucasus, 27 March 1885; d. at Nice, France 1935). He d. at Nice, France, 19 October 1927 (bur. Selimiye, Damascus), having had issue, three sons and one daughter:
- HIH Princess Esma Sultan (Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, 21 March 1873 (d/o Gavhari). Rcvd: the Nishan-i-Shafakat 1st class. m. at the Yıldız Palace, Constantinople, 20 April 1889, General H.H. Damad Xerxes Muhammad Pasha (b. 1856; d. 24 May 1909), Ottoman Army, First ADC to Sultan 'Abdu'l-Hamid Khan II, widower of H.I.H. Princess Naila Sultana, twenty-fourth daughter of H.M. Sultan 'Abdu'l-Majid Khan I. She d. 7 May 1899, having had issue, four sons and one daughter.
Fourth marriage and issue
- Caliph Abdülmecid II
- Princess Nazime Sultan (Constantinople, Dolmabahçe Palace, 25 February 1866 - Jounieh, Lebanon, c. 1947 and buried in Selimiye Mosque, Damascus) married at Constantinople, Yıldız Palace on 20 April 1889 to Field Marshal HH Damat Ali Halit Pasha (c. 1860 - Mecca while on a pilgrimage, c. 1948), Cdt. in Rumelia 1879-1881, Senator 1922, son of H.E. Lofcalı Ibrahim Derviş Pasha.
Fifth marriage and issue
- Prince Mehmed Şevket Efendi (Dolmabahçe Palace, Constantinople, 5 June 1872, educ. privately. Rcvd: the Nishan-i-Ali-Imtiaz, and Knt. 1st class Order of Franz Joseph of Austria (1882). m. at Yıldız Palace, Constantinople, 3 April 1890, Fatima Ruy-i-Naz Khanum Effendi (b. at Bandırma, 2 January 1873; d. at Ortaköy, 1935). He d. at the Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 22 October 1899, having had issue, one son:
- Major-General HIH Prince Muhammad Kamal ud-din Efendi (Yıldız Palace, Constantinople, 1 March 1891, educ. privately. Maj-Gen. Ottoman Army, served during the Great War in Libya, Cdt. at Bursa 1918-1919, Hon ADC to the Sultan. m. at the Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 2 March 1913, Kamila Dastaviz Khanum Effendi (b. at Batum, 13 August 1895). He d. at Beirut, 18 November 1946 (bur. there), having had issue, two sons and one daughter:
- Prince Mahmud Husam ud-din Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 25 August 1916 - Beirut, 7 August 1966, and burid there)
- Prince Sulaiman Sa'ad ud-din Efendi (Ortaköy Palace, Constantinople, 20 November 1917. Rcvd: Order of the Legion of Honour of France. m. Lamia Khanum Effendi, née Baba-Saoui. He d. in Saudi Arabia, 8 May 1985, having had issue, one sons and two daughters:
- Prince Orhan Ibrahim Efendi (born 16 July 1959, Beirut)
- Princess Perihan Sultan. (born 1961, Beirut)
- HIH Princess Gülhan Sultan (born 1963, Beirut)
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abdülaziz". Encyclopædia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Chambers Biographical Dictionary, ISBN 0-550-18022-2, page 2
- The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
- Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.
- Daniel T. Rogers, "All my relatives: Valide Sultana Partav-Nihal"
- His profile in the Ottoman Web Site
- "Women in Power" 1840-1870, entry: "1861-76 Pertevniyal Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire"
- "Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque Complex". Discover Islamic Art. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
- Christine Isom-Verhaaren, "Royal French Women in the Ottoman Sultans' Harem: The Political Uses of Fabricated Accounts from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century"
- Christopher Buyers, "The Muhammad 'Ali Dynasty Genealogy"
- Non European Royalty Website, entry:"Egypt"
- "Women in Power" 1840-1870, entry: "1863-79 Valida Pasha Khushiyar of Egypt"
- Rulers from the House of Mohammed Aly
- Genealogical entry: "Hoshiar Walda Pasha"
- Mevzuat Dergisi, Yıl: 9, Sayı: 100, Nisan 2006: "Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nda ve Türkiye Cumhuriyeti'nde Borçlanma Politikaları ve Sonuçları"
- Article 18 of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
- Articles 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 of the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)
- Davis, Claire (1970). The Palace of Topkapi in Istanbul. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 222. ASIN B000NP64Z2.
- Bozdağ, İsmet (2000). Sultan Abdülhamid'in Hatıra Defteri. İstanbul: Pınar Yayınları. p. 223. ISBN 9753520344.
- CFOA History - Trains and Railways of Turkey
- Voyage of Sultan Abdülaziz to Europe (21 June 1867 – 7 August 1867)
- http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~royalty/turkey/i339.html i339.html
- Finkel, Caroline, Osman's Dream, (Basic Books, 2005), 57; "Istanbul was only adopted as the city's official name in 1930..".
Media related to Abdül Aziz I at Wikimedia Commons
AbdülazizBorn: 9 February 1830 Died: 4 June 1876
|Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
25 Jun 1861 – 30 May 1876
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam
25 Jun 1861 – 30 May 1876