Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri
||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (September 2013)|
'Abd al-Karīm ibn Hūzān Abū al-Qāsim al-Qushayrī al-Naysābūrī, (Persian: عبدالکریم قُشَیری/Arabic: عبد الكريم بن هوازن بن عبد الملك بن طلحة أبو القاسم القشيري) (also Kushayri) was born in 986 CE (376 AH) in Nishapur which is in Khorasan Province in Iran. This region was widely known as a center of Islamic civilization up to the 13th Century CE.
As a young man he received the education of an average young man of that time, but that all changed when he journeyed to the city of Nishapur and was introduced to the Sufi shaykh Abu Ali al-Dakkak. Al-Dakkak later became the master and teacher of the mystical ways to al-Qushayri. He later married the daughter of Al-Dakkak, Fatima. After the death of Abu Ali al-Dakkak, Al-Qushayri became the successor of his master and father in law and became the leader of mystic assemblies. The madrasa that Abu Ali al-Dakkak built in 1001 CE became known as Al-Madrasa al-Qushayriyya or "the madrasa of the Qushayri family". In later years al-Qushayri performed the pilgrimage as well as traveling to Baghdad and during these travels he heard hadith. Upon his return he began teaching hadith, which is something he is famous for. He returned to Baghdad where the Caliph had him perform hadith teachings in his palace. Political unrest in the region forced him to leave Naysabur, but he was eventually able to return and lived there until his death in 1072 (465 AH). He left behind six sons and numerous daughters between Fatima and his second wife and was buried near Al-Madrasa al-Qushayriyya, next to his father in-law Abu Ali al-Dakkak.
Laṭā'if al-Isharat bi-Tafsīr al-Qur'ān is a famous work of al-Qushayri that is a complete commentary of the Qur'an. He determined that there were four levels of meaning in the Qur'an. First, the Ibara which is the meaning of the text meant for the mass of believers. Second, the ishara, only available to the spiritual elite and lying beyond the obvious verbal meaning. Third, laṭā’if, subtleties in the text that were meant particularly for saints. And finally, the ḥaqā’iq, which he said were only comprehensible to the prophets. This text placed him among the elite of the Sufi mystics and is widely used as a standard of Sufi thought.
His fame however, is due mostly to his Risala, or Al-Risāla al-Qushayriyya, or Al-Qushayrī's Epistle on Sufism. This text is essentially a reminder to the people of his era that Sufis had authentic ancestral tradition, as well as a defence of Sufism against the doubters that rose during that time of his life. It has sections where al-Qushayrī discusses the creed of the Sufis, mentions important and influential Sufis from the past, and establishes fundamentals of Sufi terminology, giving his own interpretation of those Sufi terms. Al-Qushayrī finally goes through specific practices of Sufism and the techniques of those practices. This text has been used by many Sufi saints in later times as a standard, as is obvious from the many translations into numerous languages.
- "Bayazid al-Bistami". World of Tasawwuf. Retrieved 2013-09-20.
- "Session 9: Tasawwuf, Selections from al-Qushayri's al-Risala al-Qushayriyya". Lahore University of Management Sciences. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- Encyclopedia Islam