Abd al-Karīm ibn Hawāzin Qushayri

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Muslim scholar
Born 376 AH[1]
Died 465 AH[2]
Jurisprudence Shafi'i[3]
Creed Ash'ari[4][5]
Main interest(s) Tasawwuf Theology Fiqh Usul al-Fiqh

'Abd al-Karīm ibn Hūzān Abū al-Qāsim al-Qushayrī al-Naysābūrī, (Persian: عبدالکریم قُشَیری/Arabic: عبد الكريم بن هوازن بن عبد الملك بن طلحة أبو القاسم القشيري) (also Kushayri) was born in 986 CE (376 AH) in Nishapur which is in Khorasan Province in Iran. This region was widely known as a center of Islamic civilization up to the 13th Century CE.[8]

Biography[edit]

As a young man he received the education of a country squire of the time: adab, the Arabic language, chivalry and weaponry (istiʿmāl al-silāḥ), but that all changed when he journeyed to the city of Nishapur and was introduced to the Sufi shaykh Abū ʿAlī al-Daqqāq. Daqqāq later became the master and teacher of the mystical ways to Qushayri. He later married the daughter of Daqqāq, Fatima. After the death of Daqqāq, Qushayri became the successor of his master and father-in-law and became the leader of mystic assemblies in the madrasa that Abu Ali al-Daqqāq built in 1001 CE, which later became known as al-Madrasa al-Qushayriyya or "the school of the Qushayri family". In later years Qushayri performed the pilgrimage in the company of Abū Muḥammad al-Juwaynī (d. 438/1047), the father of Imam al-Haramayn al-Juwayni, as well as traveling to Baghdad and the Hijaz. During these travels he heard Hadith from various prominent Hadith scholars. Upon his return he began teaching Hadith, which is something he is famous for. He returned to Baghdad where the Caliph al-Qa'im had him perform hadith teachings in his palace. After his return to Khurāsān, political unrest in the region between the Ḥanafī and Ashʿarī-Shāfiʿī factions in the city forced him to leave Nishapur, but he was eventually able to return and lived there until his death in 1072/465, when the vizier Nizam al-Mulk re-established the balance of power between the Ḥanafīs and the Shāfiʿīs. He left behind six sons and several daughters between Fatima and his second wife and was buried near al-Madrasa al-Qushayriyya, next to his father in-law Abū ʿAlī al-Daqqāq[9]

Work[edit]

Laṭā'if al-Isharat bi-Tafsīr al-Qur'ān is a famous work of al-Qushayri that is a complete commentary of the Qur'an. He determined that there were four levels of meaning in the Qur'an. First, the Ibara which is the meaning of the text meant for the mass of believers. Second, the ishara, only available to the spiritual elite and lying beyond the obvious verbal meaning. Third, laṭā’if, subtleties in the text that were meant particularly for saints. And finally, the ḥaqā’iq, which he said were only comprehensible to the prophets.[10] This text placed him among the elite of the Sufi mystics and is widely used as a standard of Sufi thought.

His fame however, is due mostly to his Risala, or Al-Risāla al-Qushayriyya, or Al-Qushayrī's Epistle on Sufism. This text is essentially a reminder to the people of his era that Sufis had authentic ancestral tradition, as well as a defence of Sufism against the doubters that rose during that time of his life. Al-Qushayri repeatedly acknowledges his debt to, and admiration for, his Sufi master throughout his Risala. Daqqaq was instrumental in introducing Qushayri to another outstanding Sufi authority of Khurasan, Abu 'Abd al-Rahman al-Sulami (412/1021), who is quoted on almost every page of the Risala.[11] It has sections where al-Qushayrī discusses the creed of the Sufis, mentions important and influential Sufis from the past, and establishes fundamentals of Sufi terminology, giving his own interpretation of those Sufi terms. Al-Qushayrī finally goes through specific practices of Sufism and the techniques of those practices.[10] This text has been used by many Sufi saints in later times as a standard, as is obvious from the many translations into numerous languages.

See also[edit]


Abstract of Exposition of goshiriyye disquisition translation[edit]

Ar-Risala al-Qushayriya Collection letters and messages that 'Abdu al-Karīm ibn Hūzān Abu al-Qāsim al-Qushayrī al-Naysābūrī (also Kushayri) the mystic famed of the fifth century, it is sent to the Sufis and their disciples. Start preparing the year 437 AH and 438 by the end of the year. Due to the advent of writing and posting them on the path of corruption and diversion has mentioned hypocrites? Ar-Risala al-Qushayriya Sensing actions and Thinking criteria the official launch of Sufism in the area of Islamic culture as the fifth century there has to be a basis for the understanding and interpretation of a doctrine. The book contains two chapters and fifty-four parts. The opinions expressed in the first chapter of the Sufis and the issues that more attention has concern them the unity and attributes of God, The second chapter eighty-three of Mystics biographies and quotes. The second part of this chapter explains the terminology and interpretation Mystics. He, in this section, interpretation some of the terms Mysticism Where the Elders stories about complete and it could explain. Qushayrī, was Shafi'i religion Chief and Ash'ari principles ("science of discourse") at Nishapur. His Beliefs and Thoughts of 'Ilm al-Kalām In writing ar-Risala al-Qushayriya from the perspective imam Shafi' and Ash'ari principles ("science of discourse" and 'Ilm al-Kalām) Given the importance of pursuing theological issues Educational literature, especially mystical texts and Sufis, a chapter devoted to the study of the influence of theological issues in the thesis ar-Risala al-Qushayriya Issues of concern (Seeing with the eyes of God), (mandatory and optional of Ash'arism sect or Ash'ari theology) and (Will of God and Will of human), (infallible Prophets) and (Topics Divine) Based on shfei' sect or Ash'ari theology we reviewed and analyzed with (Imami Shi'a Islam) Resources. As the official religion of the Iranians. In this thesis, difficult words and phrases fully described And also all the verses, stories, verses and phrases in Arabic and translated into one of the most important books of narrative or poetic justice or major works of literature, Islamic and Gnostic history was documented. Also, a comparative analysis in terms of Sofia ar-Risala al-Qushayriya Examples of prose poetry and mystical texts also have to comply with the terms Lyrics in Arabic sources describe the research Dr. mahdavi damghani used. So in summary, this comprehensive description, including A comprehensive description of the translation ar-Risala al-Qushayriy essay explaining difficult words and phrases, explanations, verses, stories, verses texts Arabic and biographies of persons and places, and we have discussed. By: Hossein . Shahbazi / TABRIZ-IRAN / July 2014[12]

Hossein.shahbazi/ PHD PERSIAN Literature -  Neda hayyolalam oskooei؛ Editing

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 9004057455. 
  2. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 9004057455. 
  3. ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 73. ISBN 143845371X. 
  4. ^ Spevack, Aaron (2014). The Archetypal Sunni Scholar: Law, Theology, and Mysticism in the Synthesis of Al-Bajuri. State University of New York Press. p. 73. ISBN 143845371X. 
  5. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 9004057455. 
  6. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 9004057455. 
  7. ^ Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Lewis, B.; Pellat, Ch. (1986). Encyclopaedia of Islam (New Edition). Volume V (Khe-Mahi). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. p. 526. ISBN 9004057455. 
  8. ^ "Bayazid al-Bistami". World of Tasawwuf. Retrieved 2013-09-20. 
  9. ^ ""al-Ḳus̲h̲ayrī." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition.". 
  10. ^ a b "Session 9: Tasawwuf, Selections from al-Qushayri's al-Risala al-Qushayriyya". Lahore University of Management Sciences. Retrieved 26 February 2013. 
  11. ^ Knysh, Alexander (2007). Al-Qushayri’s Epistle on Sufism. Reading UK: Garnet Publishing Limited. p. xxi. ISBN 978-1-85964-185-9. 
  12. ^ Shahbazi,Hossein.Manshoore oboodiyyat dar tasavvof,( RESALEYE GOSHIRIYYE SELECTIVE) Tehran.Iran- ISBN 978-964-401-508-3
  • Encyclopedia Islam

External links[edit]