Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi

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Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi
عبد ربه منصور هادي
Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi 2013.jpg
2nd President of Yemen
Incumbent
Assumed office
27 February 2012[note 1]
Acting: 23 November 2011 – 27 February 2012
Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Mujawar
Mohammed Basindawa
Khaled Bahah
Preceded by Ali Abdullah Saleh
In office
4 June 2011 – 23 September 2011
Acting
Prime Minister Ali Muhammad Mujawar
Preceded by Ali Abdullah Saleh
Succeeded by Ali Abdullah Saleh
2nd Vice President of Yemen
In office
3 October 1994 – 27 February 2012
President Ali Abdullah Saleh
Preceded by Ali Salim al-Beidh
Succeeded by Vacant
Minister of Defence
In office
29 May 1994 – 3 October 1994
Prime Minister Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas
Preceded by Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas
Succeeded by  ???
Personal details
Born (1945-09-01) 1 September 1945 (age 69)
Abyan, Aden Protectorate
(now Yemen)
Political party General People's Congress
Alma mater Aden Protectorate Army Military School
Religion Sunni Islam
Military service
Allegiance Federation of South Arabia (1964–1967)
People's Democratic Republic of Yemen South Yemen (1967–1986)
Yemen Arab Republic YAR (1986–1990)
 Yemen (1990–1994)
Years of service 1964–1994
Rank Major General
Awards Aden Emergency
South Yemen Civil War
1994 civil war in Yemen
  1. ^ The office has been disputed between Hadi and Mohammed Ali al-Houthi since 6 February 2015.

‘Abd Rabbuh Manṣūr Hādī (Arabic: عبد ربه منصور هادي[ʕæbd ˈrɑbːʊh mɑnˈsˤuːr ˈhæːdiː]; born 1 September 1945) is a Yemeni major general and politician who is the President of Yemen since 27 February 2012. He was previously the Vice President from 1994 to 2012.[1]

Between 4 June and 23 September 2011, Hadi was the acting President of Yemen while Ali Abdullah Saleh was undergoing medical treatment in Saudi Arabia following an attack on the presidential palace during the 2011 Yemeni uprising.[2] Then, on 23 November, Hadi became Acting President again, after Saleh moved into a non-active role pending the presidential election "in return for immunity from prosecution". Hadi was "expected to form a national unity government and also call for early presidential elections within 90 days" while Saleh continued to serve as President in name only.[3]

On 22 January 2015, Hadi resigned after the Houthis seized the presidential palace and placed him under virtual house arrest. A month later, he escaped to his hometown of Aden, rescinded his resignation, and denounced the Houthi takeover as an unconstitutional coup d'état. His assertion of legitimacy has been challenged by the Houthis, who named a Revolutionary Committee to assume the powers of the presidency, as well as the General People's Congress, Hadi's own political party.[4]

Early life and education[edit]

Young Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi during his service in the army of South Yemen.

Hadi was born in 1945 in Thukain village in Abyan, a southern Yemeni governorate.[5] He graduated from a military academy in the Federation of South Arabia in 1964.[6] In 1966 he graduated after receiving a military scholarship to study in Britain, where he learned to speak English fluently.[5] Then, in 1970, he received another military scholarship to study tanks in Egypt for six years. Hadi spent the following four years in the Soviet Union studying military commanding. He occupied several military posts in the army of South Yemen until 1986, when he fled to North Yemen with Ali Nasser Mohammed, president of South Yemen, after Ali Nasser's faction of the ruling Yemeni Socialist Party lost the 1986 civil war.[7]

Career[edit]

Hadi played a low-profile role during the Aden Emergency. Following the independence of South Yemen, he rose to prominence in the new military, reaching the rank of Major General.[6]

He remained loyal to President Ali Nasser Mohammed during the South Yemen Civil War, and followed him into exile in neighboring North Yemen. During the 1994 civil war in Yemen, Hadi sided with the Yemeni government of President Ali Abdullah Saleh and was appointed as Minister of Defense.[6] In this role he led the military campaign against the Democratic Republic of Yemen.[8] Following the war he was promoted to Vice President on 3 October 1994, replacing Ali Salim Al-Beidh, who had resigned and fought against the government during the civil war.

President of Yemen[edit]

Mandate[edit]

Hadi was the sole candidate in the presidential election that was held on 21 February 2012. His candidacy was backed by the ruling party as well as the parliamentary opposition. The Election Commission reported that 65 percent of registered voters in Yemen voted during the election. Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February 2012.[9] He was formally inaugurated as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, when Saleh resigned from the presidency and formally ceded power to Hadi.[10]

Political reform[edit]

In March 2013 the National Dialogue Conference was conceived as a core part of the transition process and is intended to bring together Yemen’s diverse political, social, geographic, and demographic groups to address the most critical issues plaguing the country.[11] On January 2014, Hadi pushed delegates at the conference to break a deadlock on key issues and bring the talks to an overdue close. When those in attendance finally agreed on a final few points, he launched into an impassioned speech that led to a spike in his popularity. It was agreed that Yemen would shift to a federal model of government in the future, a move which have been proposed and forcefully backed by Hadi.[12]

Military[edit]

In a move to unify the Military of Yemen which suffered from split since the Yemeni Revolution, Hadi began reforming the Military. He issued Presidential decree №104 of December 2012 reorganizing the Military into 5 main branches: Air Force, Army (Ground Force), Navy and Coastal Defence, Border Troops and Strategic Reserve Forces, which includes the Special Operation Command, the Missile Defence Command and the Presidential Protective Forces. The Strategic Reserve Forces replaces the Republican Guard.[13]

Security issues[edit]

President Hadi meets Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel in the Pentagon on July 30, 2013

From his early days at office, President Hadi advocated fighting Al-Qaida as an important goal. In a meeting with British Foreign Secretary, William Hague in his first days at office Hadi said "We intend to confront terrorism with full force and whatever the matter we will pursue it to the very last hiding place".[14]

Another security issue he is busy with is the Yemeni military, which suffers from a sharp division since Major General Ali Mohsen Al-Ahmar defected in late March 2011 in the midst of protests demanding Saleh's ouster. The military services protests extended to the Republican Guard – based in the south of Sana'a – when dozens from the Fourth Brigade closed down southern entrances to the capital city and demanded the firing of the brigade's commander, Mohammad Al-Arar, and his general staff.[14]

In an interview in September 2012 to the Washington Post, Hadi warned that his country, still reeling from the popular uprising that ousted his predecessor Ali Abdullah Saleh, risks a descent into a civil war "worse than Afghanistan" should an upcoming months-long national dialogue fail to resolve the state's deep political and societal rifts. He also said that Yemen was facing "three undeclared wars" conducted by al Qaeda, pirates in the Gulf of Aden, and Houthi rebels in the north, and that Iran was supporting these adversaries indirectly without giving further details.[15]

Rebel takeover and resignation[edit]

Hadi was forced to agree to a power-sharing deal after the fall of Sana'a to the rebel Houthis in September 2014. The Houthis then refused to participate in the "unity government", although they continued to occupy key positions and buildings in Sana'a and hold territory throughout northern Yemen. Hadi was further humiliated when the General People's Congress ousted him as its leader and rejected his cabinet choices on 8 November 2014.[16]

On 22 January 2015, after the takeover of the presidential palace by Houthi rebels, President Hadi and Prime Minister Khaled Bahah tendered their resignations to parliament which reportedly refused to accept them.[17] Then the Yemeni cabinet dissolved.[18] Hadi and his former ministers have remained under virtual house arrest since their resignations.[19]

United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called for Hadi to be restored as president after the Houthis installed themselves as the interim government in February 2015.[19][20] According to Houthi-controlled state media, Hadi reaffirmed on 8 February that his resignation was "final" and could not be withdrawn.[21]

However, after leaving Sana'a and traveling to his hometown of Aden on 21 February, Hadi gave a speech in which he presented himself as Yemen's president and said all of the actions taken by the Houthis since 21 September were unconstitutional and invalid.[22][23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-30936940
  2. ^ "Al-Hadi acting President of Yemen". Al Jazeera. 4 June 2011. 
  3. ^ "Yemeni President Saleh signs deal on ceding power". BBC News. 23 November 2011. 
  4. ^ Al-Moshki, Ali Ibrahim (25 February 2015). "PRESIDENT OR FUGITIVE? HOUTHIS REJECT HADI’S LETTER TO PARLIAMENT". Yemen Times. Retrieved 26 February 2015. 
  5. ^ a b "Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi biography". Yemen Fox. 23 February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c "Saleh’s successor: low-profile warrior of consensus in Yemen". Al Arabiya (Sanaa). AFP. 19 February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  7. ^ ""Hadi elected as Yemen new president", 25 February 2012". Yemen24news.blogspot.com. 2012-02-25. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  8. ^ "Yemen profile - President: Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi". BBC News. 26 October 2013. 
  9. ^ Kasinof, Laura (25 February 2012). "Yemen’s New President Sworn Into Office". New York Times. Retrieved 25 February 2012. 
  10. ^ "AFP: Yemen's Saleh formally steps down after 33 years". Google. 27 February 2012. Retrieved 14 April 2013. 
  11. ^ "Yemen's National Dialogue Behind Closed Doors". Atlanticcouncil.org. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  12. ^ Peter Salisbury. "Yemen's quiet president". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  13. ^ [Yemeni president orders new structure of armed forces. BBC Monitoring International Reports, 21 December 2012]
  14. ^ a b Mukhashaf, Mohammed. ""Yemen president vows to pursue Qaeda-linked militants", Reuters, 5 March 2012". Reuters.com. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  15. ^ Rothkopf, David. ""Yemen's president warns of a civil war 'worse than Afghanistan'", FP, 29 September 2012". Blog.foreignpolicy.com. Retrieved 2014-08-26. 
  16. ^ "Yemen's Houthis reject new power-sharing government". Reuters. 8 November 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  17. ^ "Yemen crisis: President resigns as rebels tighten hold". BBC. January 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2015. 
  18. ^ http://www.cnn.com/2015/01/22/world/yemen-violence/index.html
  19. ^ a b "UN calls for Yemen President Hadi’s reinstatement". Gulfnews.com. 8 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  20. ^ "Yemen talks to resume as coup is condemned". Al Jazeera. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  21. ^ "Hadi affirms his presidential resignation final". Yemen News Agency (SABA). 9 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. 
  22. ^ "Yemen's Hadi says Houthis decisions unconstitutional". Al Jazeera. 21 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
  23. ^ "Yemen's ousted president Hadi calls for Houthis to quit capital". The Star Online. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 21 February 2015. 
Political offices
Preceded by
Ali Salim al-Beidh
Vice President of Yemen
1994–2012
Succeeded by
Not yet
Preceded by
Ali Abdullah Saleh
President of Yemen
Acting

2011
Succeeded by
Ali Abdullah Saleh
President of Yemen
Acting: 2011–2012

2012–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent