|-||1236–1283||Abu Yahya I bin Zayyan|
|-||1550–1556||Al Hassan ben Abu Muh|
|Part of a series on the|
|History of Algeria|
The Zayyanids (Arabic: زيانيون, Ziyānyūn) or Abd al-Wadids (Arabic: بنو عبد الواد, Bānu ʿabd āl-Wād) are a Berber Zenata dynasty that ruled the Kingdom of Tlemcen, an area of northwestern Algeria, centered around Tlemcen, whose territory stretched from Tlemcen to the Chelif bend and Algiers, and reached at its zenith the Moulouya river to the west, Sijilmasa to the south and the Soummam river to the east. Their rule lasted from 1235 to 1556.
On the collapse of the Almohad rule around 1236, the kingdom of Tlemcen became independent under the rule of the Zayyanids, and Yaghmurasen Ibn Zyan. Ibn Zyan was able to maintain control over the rival Berber groups, and when faced with the outside threat of the Marinids, he formed an alliance with the Sultan of Granada and the King of Castile, Alfonso X.
After ibn Zyan's death, the Marinid sultan, Abu Yaqub Yusuf besieged Tlemcen for 8 years and finally captured it from (1337–48), by Abu al-Hasan 'Ali After a period of self-rule it was captured again by the Marinids from 1352–59, by Abu Inan Faris. The Marinids reoccupied it periodically, particularly in 1360 and 1370. In both cases, the Marinids found that they were unable to hold the region against local resistance. but these episodes appear to have marked the beginning of the end of the Zayyanids.
In the 15th century, expansion eastward was attempted, but proved disastrous, as consequences of these incursions they were so weakened that over the following two centuries, the Zayyanid kingdom was intermittently a vassal of Hafsid Ifriqiya, Marinid Morocco, or Aragon. When the Spanish took the city of Oran from the kingdom in 1509, continuous pressure from the Berbers prompted the Spanish to attempt a counterattack against the city of Tlemcen (1543), which was deemed by the Papacy to be a crusade. The Spanish failed to take the city in the first attack, although the strategic vulnerability of Tlemcen caused the kingdom's weight to shift toward the safer and more heavily fortified corsair base at Algiers.
The failure of this kingdom from ever being a formidable foe can be linked to a number of reasons. First, they had no geographical or cultural unity. They also constantly faced internal issues, and they did not have fixed frontiers, and finally most important was the fact that they depended on Arab nomads for their military.
List of rulers
- Yghomracen Ibn Zyan 1236–1283 or Abu Yahya I bin Zayyan (1236–1283)
- Abu Said Uthman I 1283–1303 (son of the previous) or Othmane Ibn Yaghmoracen (1283–1304)
- Abu Zayyan I 1303–1308 (son of the previous)
- Abu Hammu I 1308–1318 (brother of the previous)
- Abu Tashufin I 1318–1337 (son of the previous)
- Abu Said Uthman II 1348–1352 (son of Abu Tashufin I)
- Abu Thabid I (associate) 1348–1352 (brother of Abu Said Uthman II)
Second Marinid conquest 1352–1359 (Marinid ruler was Abu Inan)
- Abu Hammu II Musa ruled in 1359–1360, 1360–1370, 1372–1383, 1384–1387, 1387–1389 (brother of Abu Said Uthman II) Expedition to Bugia defeated, 1366
- Abu Zayyan Muhammad II ibn Uthman ruled in 1360, 1370–1372, 1383–1384 and 1387 during times when Abu Hammu II was forced from power.
- Abu Tashufin II 1389–1393 (son of Abu Hammu I)
- Abu Thabid II 1393 (son of Abu Tashufin I)
- Abul Hadjdjadj I 1393–1394 (brother of the previous)
- Abu Zayyan II 1394–1399 (brother of the previous)
- Abu Muh I 1399–1401 (brother of the previous)
- Abu Abdallah I 1401–1411 (brother of the previous)
- Abd er Rahman I bin Abu Muh 1411 (son of Abu Muh I)
- Said I bin Abu Tashufin 1411 (brother of Abu Muh I)
- Abu Malek I 1411–1423 (brother of Said I)
- Abu Abdallah II 1423–1427 (son of Abd er Rahman I)
Civil War 1427–1429
- Abu Abdallah II (second time) 1429–1430
- Abu Abbas Ahmad I 1430–1461 (son of Abu Thabit II)
- Abu Abdallah III 1461–1468 (son of the previous)
- Abu Tashufin III 1468 (son of the previous)
- Abu Abdallah IV 1468–1504 (brother of the previous)
- Abu Abdallah V 1504–1517 (son of the previous)
- Abu Hammu III 1517–1527 (son of Abu Abbas Ahmad)
- Abu Muh II 1527–1540 (brother of the previous)
- Abu Abdallah VI 1540 (son of the previous)
- Abu Zayyan II 1540–1543 (brother of the previous)
Saadi conquest 1543–1544
- Abu Zayyan II (second time) 1544–1550
- Al Hassan ben Abu Muh 1550–1556 (brother of the previous)
- Map of Mediterranean states in 1300
- Map of Mediterranean states in 1400
- Chapan Metz, Helen (Washington). "Zayanids". Algeria: A Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 11/06/2010.
- The Abdelwadids (1236–1554), on qantara-med.org
- L'Algérie au passé lointain – De Carthage à la Régence d'Alger, p175
- Phillip Chiviges Naylor, North Africa: a history from antiquity to the present, (University of Texas Press, 2009), 98.
- "'Abd al-Wadid". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-Ak - Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 2010. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Delfina S. Ruano (2006), Hafsids, in Josef W Meri (ed.), Medieval Islamic Civilization: an Encyclopedia. Routledge., p. 309.
- I. Hrbek (1997), The disintegration of political unity in the Maghrib, in Joseph Ki-Zerbo & Djibril T Niane (eds.) (1997), General History of Africa, vol. IV: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century (abridged ed.) UNESCO, James Curry Ltd., and Univ. Calif. Press., pp. 34–43.
- The ʿAbd al-Wādid Dynasty, on britannica.com
- Yassir Benhima, The Abdelwadids (1236–1554), on qantara-med.org