Traoré played for Raja Casablanca before he ended his contract and joined Rosenborg on a free transfer a few months later. At Rosenborg, he plays alongside his compatriot and Côte d'Ivoire international Didier Ya Konan, who joined the club in December 2006 from homeland club ASEC Abidjan. In August 2007, it was reported by Norwegian newspapers that Traoré was beat up and robbed while being on vacation in Ivory Coast.
In the November 2007 issue of World Soccer he was featured on their list of the 50 most exciting teenagers in world football.
On 24 October 2008 it became known that Traoré knocked down fellow Rosenborg player Øyvind Storflor during a practice session. The following day Rosenborg announced that Traoré would be banned from playing the last two matches of the season.
Traoré's contract would run out in the at the end of 2010 and his last year in Rosenborg was difficult with little amount of playing time. Rosenborg's Chief of Football Erik Hoftun stated "We thank Abdou for his spell at the club. Unfortunately, he didn't develop as much as we expected, but we wish him good luck in the future" after his departure from the Norwegian champions. On 20 August 2010, Traoré was sold to Polish Ekstraklasa club Lechia Gdańsk, for an undisclosed fee. On 28 August he made his debut for Lechia in a league match against Śląsk Wrocław. On 21 September he scored his first goal in a cup match against Górnik Zabrze. Four days later he scored his first and second goal in a league game against Górnik Zabrze.