Abdul Karim Khan (Yarkand)

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Royal cemetery Altyn with tombs of Moghul Khans of Yarkand Khanate (1465-1759), including Abdul Karim Khan, his father Abdurashid Khan and grandfather Sultan Said Khan in Yarkand, Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China, 2005

Abdul Karim Khan was the ruler of Yarkand Khanate in modern northwest China (Xinjiang) between 1560 and 1591 years. He was second son of Abdurashid Khan.

Khan was a descendant of the first moghul khan Tughlugh Timur (1347-1363 AD). He came to power in 1560. Abdul Karim Khan took khanship as the eldest son in the family after death of Abdurashid Khan. He distributed between his brothers all troops that he inherited from his father and made some replacements, which were caused by failed attempt of Barlas emirs to replace him by his brother Sufi Sultan, who ruled in Kashgar. He expelled from the country hakim of Yarkand Mahmud Barlas and emir of Khotan Ahmad Barlas and dispersed their 3,000 troops. He sent his brother Abduraim Sultan to rule Chalish and Turpan, where the position of " Little Khan " ( contrary to the " Great Khan " who was sitting in Yarkand ) was vacant after the death of Shah Khan, son of Mansur Khan, in 1570 in the battle with Kalmaks. Rule of Abdul Karim Khan was featured by tranquility in the country and full absence of wars. Contemporary Balkh historian Mahmud ibn Vali wrote in 1644 in his work " Bahr al-asrar " (was written in 7 parts during 1641-44 in Balkh, each contained 4 chapters, second chapter of 7th part described rulers of Yarkand Khanate, or the country Kashgar and Uyghurstan as he called it, since Sultan Said Khan to Abdal Latif Sultan (Afak Khan), who ruled in 1618-1630 ) that Peace and tranquility, public security of the people of Uyghurstan were spread to such extent during the rule of Abdul Karim Khan that it caused envy among neighboring countries. Abdul Karim Khan died in 1591 and was succeeded by his brother Muhammad Khan, who was the 5th son of Abdurashid Khan.

During Khan's reign Khoja Ishak Wali, 4th son of Nakshbandi sheikh Mahdum-i- Azam and founder of Sufi Order Ishakiyya, disciples of which were later known as Karataghliks or Black Mountaineers, came to Yarkand upon Khan's invitation. Khoja Ishak himself was born in Kashgar in 1505, his mother was Bibicha Aisha or Rukiya Begum, who was the daughter of Kashgar ruler Usman Bughra Khan from the line of Karakhanids and became Kashgar's wife of Mahdum-i-Azam. He was unable to attract Khan to his sect, but was allowed his missionary work among population of Yarkand Khanate during which he made his disciples about 40,000 and 164 made a teachers of his sect. He died in 1599 and managed to attract to his sect brother of Abdul Karim Khan, Muhammad Sultan, who became Khan in 1591.

Genealogy of Chaghatai Khanate[edit]

In Babr Nama written by Babur, Page 19, Chapter 1; described genealogy of his maternal grandfather Yunas Khan as:

"Yunas Khan descended from Chaghatal Khan, the second son of Chlngiz Khan (as follows,) Yunas Khan, son of Wais Khan, son of Sher-'ali Aughldn, son of Muhammad Khan, son of Khizr Khwaja Khan, son of Tughluq-timur Khan, son of Aisan-bugha Khan, son of Dawa Khan, son of Baraq Khan, son of Yesuntawa Khan, son of Muatukan, son of Chaghatal Khan, son of Chingiz Khan"

[1]

Genealogy of Abdul Karim Khan according to Tarikh-i-Rashidi of Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat
  1. Chingiz Khan
  2. Chaghatai Khan
  3. Mutukan
  4. Yesü Nto'a
  5. Ghiyas-ud-din Baraq
  6. Duwa
  7. Esen Buqa I
  1. Tughlugh Timur
  2. Khizr Khoja
  3. Muhammad Khan (Khan of Moghlustan)
  4. Shir Ali Oglan
  5. Uwais Khan(Vaise Khan)
  6. Yunus Khan
  7. Ahmad Alaq
  1. Sultan Said Khan
  2. Abdurashid Khan
  3. Abdul Karim Khan (Yarkand)

[2]

Chagahtai Khanate (Kashgaria)[edit]

Preceded by
Abdurashid Khan
Yarkand Khanate of Kashgaria Khan
1560–1591
Succeeded by
Muhammad Sultan

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Babur Nama in English, Zahiru'd-din Mubammad Babur Padshah Ghdzt, ANNETTE SUSANNAH BEVERIDGE
  2. ^ The Tarikh-i-Rashidi: a history of the Moghuls of central Asia by Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat; Editor: N. Elias,Translated by Sir Edward Denison Ross,Publisher:S. Low, Marston and co., 1895
  • James A. Millward (1998). Beyond the pass: economy, ethnicity, and empire in Qing Central Asia, 1759–1864. Stanford University Press. p. 298. ISBN 0-8047-2933-6. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  • Laura Newby (2005). The Empire and the Khanate: a political history of Qing relations with Khoqand c. 1760–1860. BRILL. p. 97. ISBN 90-04-14550-8. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  • Shah Mahmud Churas Chronicles (written in 1670 in Yarkand) Translation and research by Akimushkin O.F. Publishing house of Eastern literature " Nauka", Moscow, 1976
  • Kutlukov M (1990). About foundation of Yarkand Khanate (1465-1759). Almata. "Pan" publish house.