Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi

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Abdullah ibn Muhammad
عبد الله بن محمد
7th Emir of Córdoba
Reign 888 to 912
Predecessor Al-Mundhir
Successor Abd-ar-Rahman III
Born January 11, 844
Córdoba
Died October 15, 912

Abdullah ibn Muhammad (عبد الله بن محمد ‘Abd Allāh ibn Muḥammad; January 11, 844 – October 15, 912)[1] of the Umayyad dynasty was the seventh Emir of Córdoba, reigning from 888 to 912 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia).

Biography[edit]

Contemporary historians accused Abdullah of orchestrating the death of his elder brother, al-Mundhir, whereby he ascended to power.[2] This is unlikely, as ibn Muhammad showed very little interest in governing, becoming a neurotic recluse who was only interested in hunting and his faith. Once in power, however, he showed no reluctance to dispose of those he viewed as a threat, even if they were family. Two of his own brothers were executed on his orders, and he commanded one of his sons (al-Mutarrif) to kill his own brother. Even this extreme display of loyalty was not enough to save al-Mutarrif, as he too was executed for treason a few years later.[citation needed]

Abdullah is described as an apathetic [clarification needed] emir. His government was marked by continuous wars between Arabs, Berbers and Muladi. His power as emir was confined to the area of Córdoba, while the rest had been seized by rebel families that did not accept his authority.

The most formidable threat for the emir was Umar Ibn Hafsun, who had conquered the provinces of Rayya (including Bobastro),[3] Elvira (including Granada) and Jaén, and had allied with the populations of Archidona, Baeza, Úbeda and Priego. In 891 Ibn Hafsun was defeated near the castle of Polei and lost several cities. After the victory, Abdullah massacred all the Christians, while the Muslims of the conquered cities were pardoned. However, by the following year Ibn Hafsun had already recovered, and conquered back all the lost territories.

In 901, the emir signed a peace agreement with Ibn Hafsun (who had allied with the Banu Qasi family, controlling the Ebro valley, and the Kingdom of Asturias). However, the war broke out again the following year, only to be halted by the death of Abdullah at Córdoba, who was improving his positions. The son he had designated as successor was killed by one of Abdullah's brothers. The latter was in turn executed by Abdullah's father, who named as successor Abd ar-Rahman III, son of the killed son of Abdullah.

Family[edit]

Abdullah was the son of Muhammad I and the younger brother of al-Mundhir.

Around 863, Abdullah married Onneca Fortúnez, daughter of Fortún Garcés,[2] King of Pamplona and his wife Aurea (Orea). She was repudiated sometime before 880 and returned to the Kingdom of Pamplona, most probably with her father who returned that year,[2] and took her cousin Aznar Sánchez of Larraun as her second husband with whom she had at least three children, including Queen Toda of Navarre who was, therefore, the aunt of Abd ar-Rahman III.[2]

Abdullah had several children:

  • Muhammed ibn Abd Allah (864 – 3 Dec 895). Recorded to be a son of Onneca.[4][5][6] He was murdered by his brother al-Mutarrif (with the approval of their father) on 28 January 891[7] He married a Basque or Frankish woman named Muzna. They were the parents of Abd ar-Rahman III[4] who was born three weeks after his father's death.[7]
  • al-Mutarrif, murdered in 891 after being accused of conspiracy.[7]
  • Aban
  • al-Asi, executed in 921 after being accused of conspiracy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lévi-Provençal 1953, pp. 18 and 21.
  2. ^ a b c d Martínez Díez 2005, p. 314.
  3. ^ Martínez Díez 2005, p. 187.
  4. ^ a b Martínez Díez 2005, pp. 314-315.
  5. ^ Lacarra de Miguel 1945, pp. 230-231.
  6. ^ Lévi-Provençal 1953, pp. 19 and 21.
  7. ^ a b c Martínez Díez 2005, p. 315.

Sources[edit]

Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi
Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish
Preceded by
al-Mundhir
Emir of Cordoba
888–912
Succeeded by
Abd-ar-Rahman III