Abd-al-Razzāq Samarqandī

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Abd al-Razzáq

Kamal-ud-Din Abd-ur-Razzaq ibn Ishaq Samarqandi, (1413–1482), was a Timurid chronicler and Islamic scholar. He was the ambassador of Shah Rukh, the Timurid dynasty ruler of Persia to Calicut, India, from January 1442 to January 1445.

Early life[edit]

Abd-ur Razzaq was born in Herat on 7 November 1413. His father Jalal-ud-Din Ishaq was the qazi and imam of the Shah Rukh's court in Herat. He studied with his father and his elder brother Sharif-ud-Din Abdur Qahhar and together with them obtained an ijazah (license) from Shams-ud-Din Mohammad Jazari in 1429. After the death of his father in 1437, he was appointed the qazi of the Shah Rukh's court.

Travel and writing[edit]

Abd-ur-Razzaq was the ambassador of Shah Rukh, the Timurid dynasty ruler of Persia to Calicut, India, from January 1442 to January 1445. He wrote a 45-page narrative of this mission to India. It appears as a chapter in his book Matla-us-Sadain wa Majma-ul-Bahrain (The Rise of the Two auspicious constellations and the Confluence of the Two Oceans), a book of about 450 pages which contains a detailed chronicle of the history of his part of the world from 1304 to 1470 and which takes much of its contents from other writings.[1]

Abd-ur-Razzaq's narrative of his visit to India includes describing the life and events in Calicut under the Zamorin and also of the Ancient City of Vijayanagara at Hampi, describing their wealth and immense grandeur.[2][3] He also left accounts of the shipping trade in the Indian Ocean during the 15th century.

Abd-ur-Razzaq's Matla-us-Sadain wa Majma-ul-Bahrain also included a detailed account of diplomatic relations between Shah Rukh's state and the Ming China. In particular, it incorporated the first-hand account the mission Shah Rukh sent to Beijing in 1420-1422, written by its participant Ghiyāth al-dīn Naqqāsh.[1]

Work online[edit]


  1. ^ a b Bellér-Hann., Ildikó (1995), A History of Cathay: a translation and linguistic analysis of a fifteenth-century Turkic manuscript, Bloomington: Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies, p. 11, ISBN 0-933070-37-3 
  2. ^ Alam, Muzaffar; Sanjay, Subrahmanyam (2007). Indo-Persian Travels in the Age of Discoveries, 1400–1800. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 54–67. ISBN 978-0-521-78041-4. 
  3. ^ "Recalling the grandeur of Hampi". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2006-11-01. Retrieved 2007-01-10. 

External links[edit]