|English:||Treasury of Abhidharma|
(Wylie: chos mngon pa'i mdzod;
THL: Ngön Pa Dzö)
|Glossary of Buddhism|
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Abhidharma-kośa (Sanskrit; Tibetan: chos mngon pa'i mdzod; English: Treasury of Abhidharma) is a key text on the abhidharma written in Sanskrit verse by Vasubandhu, in the 4th or 5th century. It summarizes the Sarvāstivādin tenets in eight chapters with a total of around 600 verses. The text was widely respected, and used by schools of Mahayana Buddhism in India, Tibet, and the Far East.
Vasubandhu wrote a commentary to his own work, called the Abhidharma-kośa-bhāsya. In it, he critiques the interpretations of the Sarvāstivādins and others of the tenets he presented in that work. This commentary includes an additional chapter in prose refuting the idea of the "person" (pudgala) favoured by some Buddhists. However, later Sarvāstivādin master Samghabhadra considered that he misrepresented their school in the process, and at this point designated Vasubandhu as a Sautrantika (upholder of the sutras) rather than as an upholder of the Abhidharma.
The text includes eight chapters:
|Ch. 1 Categories of Existence||Gnas Dang Po Khams Bsdn Pa||Classifies existing things into stained and unstained phenomena|
|Ch. 2 Sense Powers||Gnas Gnyis Pa Dbang Po Bstan Po||Describes how existing things are perceived|
|Ch. 3 The Suffering World||Gnas Gsum Pa 'jig Rten Bsdn Pa||Describes the different realms and who inhabits them|
|Ch. 4 Karma||Gnas Bzhi Pa Lam Bsdn Pa||Describes where the world comes from|
|Ch. 5 How Bad Thoughts Motivate Karma||Gnas Lnga Pa Phy Rgys Bsdn Pa||Describes how we come to create the deeds that create our world|
|Ch. 6 How to Escape Suffering||Gans Drug Pa Gng Zg Dng Lam||Describes how wisdom can free us from suffering|
|Ch. 7 Wisdom||Gnas Bdun Pa Ye She Bsdn Pa||Describes more thoroughly the wisdom mentioned in Ch.6|
|Ch. 8 Balanced Meditation||Gnas Brgyad Pa Snyoms Par 'jug Pa Bsdn Pa||Describes a Buddha's knowledge|
|Ch. 9 Refutation of the Pudgala||?||This chapter is included in Vasubhandu's commentary only; it is not in the root text.|
An alternate English translation of the chapter titles, including the title of the 9th chapter of Vasubandhu's commentary, is:
- 1: The Dhātus
- 2: The Indriyas
- 3: The World
- 4: Karma
- 5: The Latent Defilements
- 6: The Path and the Saints
- 7: The Knowledges
- 8: The Absorptions
- 9: Refutation of the Pudgala
- 1: The Dhātus
Chapter four the Kośa is devoted to a study of karma, and chapters two and five contain formulation as to the mechanism of fruition and retribution. This became the main source of understanding of the perspective of early Buddhism for later Mahāyāna philosophers.
Vasubhandu elaborates on the causes[note 1] and conditions[note 2] involved in the production of results,[note 3] karma being one source of causes and results, the "ripening cause" and "ripened result."[web 1] Generally speaking, the conditions can be thought of as auxiliary causes. Vasubhandhu draws from the earlier Sarvāstivādin Abhidharma treatises to establish an elaborate Buddhist etiology with the following primary components:
- Acting causes[note 4] – all phenomena, other than the result itself, which do not impede the production of the result. This includes (a) potent acting causes, such as a seed for a sprout, and (b) impotent acting causes, such as the space that allows a sprout to grow and the mother or the clothes of the farmer who planted the seed.
- Simultaneously arising causes[note 5] – causes that arise simultaneously with their results. This would include, for instance, characteristics together with whatever it is that possesses the characteristics.
- Congruent causes[note 6] – a subcategory of simultaneously arising causes, it includes causes share the same focal object, mental aspect, cognitive sensor, time, and slant with their causes—primarily referring to the primary consciousness and its congruent mental factors.
- Equal status cause[note 7] – causes for which the results are later moments in the same category of phenomena. For example, one moment of patience can be considered the cause of the next moment of patience.
- Driving causes[note 8] – disturbing emotions and attitudes that generate other subsequent disturbing emotions and attitudes in the same plane of existence, though the two need not be of the same ethical status.
- 'Ripening cause[note 9] - the karmic cause or efficacy.
- Causal conditions[note 10] - corresponds to five of the six causes, excepting the kāraṇahetu, which corresponds to the three conditions below
- Immediately preceding conditions[note 11] - a consciousness which precedes a sense or mental consciousness without any intervening consciousness and which produces the subsequent consciousness into an experience-ready entity
- Focal condition[note 12] - or "object condition" - an object which directly generates the consciousness apprehending it into having its aspect, e.g. the object blue causes an eye consciousness to be generated into having the aspect of blue
- Dominating condition[note 13]
Five Types of Results:
- Ripened results[note 14] - karmic results.
- Results that correspond to their cause[note 15] - causally concordant effects
- Dominating results[note 16] - the result of predominance. All conditioned dharmas are the adhipatiphala of other conditioned dharmas.
- Man-made results[note 17] - a result due to the activity of another dharma
- Results that are states of being parted[note 18] - not actually a result at all, but refers to the cessation that arises from insight.
Ancient translations of the Abhidharma-kośa were made into Chinese by Paramārtha (564-567 CE) and by Xuán Zàng (651-654 CE). Other translations and commentaries exist in Tibetan, Chinese and Mongolian, and modern translations have been made into English, French and Russian.
The English translation is:
- Abhidharmakosabhasyam of Vasubandhu, translated by Leo M. Pruden, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley 1990 (Translated into English from the French translation of Louis de La Vallé Poussin, L'Abhidharmakośa de Vasubandhu, Institut belge des hautes études chinoises, Bruxelles, 1971)
There are many commentaries written on this text, including an autocommentary by Master Vasubandhu entitled Abhidharmakoshabhyasa. The First Dalai Lama, Gyalwa Gendun Drup (1391-1474) composed a commentary titled Illumination of the Path to Freedom.
- S. hetu, Tib. rgyu
- S. pratyaya, Tib. rkyen, Pāli: paccaya
- S. vipākaphalam, Tib. rnam-smin-gyi 'bras-bu
- S. kāraṇahetu, T. byed-rgyu
- S. sahabhuhetu, T. lhan-cig 'byung-ba'i rgyu
- Skt. saṃmprayuktahetu, T. mtshungs-ldan-gyi rgyu
- S. sabhagahetu, T. skal-mnyam-gyi rgyu
- S. sarvatragohetu, T. kun groi rgyu
- Skt. vipākahetu, T. rnam-smin-gyi rgyu
- S. hetupratyaya, T. rgyu-rkyen
- S. samanantarapratyaya, T. dema thag rkyen
- S. alambanapratyaya, T. dmigs-rkyen
- S. adhipatipratyaya, T. bdag-rkyen
- S. vipakaphalam, T. rnam smin gyi 'bras-bu
- S. niṣyandaphalam, T. rgyu-mthun gyi 'bras-bu
- S. adhipatiphalam, bdag poi bras bu
- S. puruṣakāraphalam, T. skyes bu byed-pa'i 'bras-bu
- S. visamyogaphalam, T. bral 'bras
- Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abhidharmakosa". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 31. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- Lamotte 2001, p. 18.
- Lamotte 2001.
- Ronkin 2005, p. 25.
- A Study of Dependent Origination: Vasubandhu, Buddhaghosa, and the Interpretation of Pratīyasamutpāda. by Susan C. Stalker Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1987 pg. pg 25
- Lamotte, Etienne (2001), Karmasiddhi Prakarana: The Treatise on Action by Vasubandhu, English translation by Leo M. Pruden, Asian Humanities Press
- Ronkin, Noa (2005), Early Buddhist Metaphysics: the Making of a Philosophical Tradition, Routledge, ISBN 0-203-53706-8
- Vallée Poussin, Louis de la, trad. (1923-1931). L’Abhidharmakosa de Vasubandhu, Paris: Paul Geuthner, Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3, Vol. 4, Vol. 5, Vol. 6.
- Pruden, Leo M. (1991), Abhidharmakosabhasyam, translated from the French translation by Louis de la Vallée Puossin, Asian Humanities Press, Berkeley.