Abhisheka

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Abhishekam)
Jump to: navigation, search

Abhisheka / Abhishekam (also abhiseka, abhiṣeka ~ amongst other such transliterations) is a Sanskrit term akin to puja, yagya and arati that denotes: a devotional activity; an enacted prayer,[1] rite of passage and/or religious rite or ritual. Within this range of senses, abhiṣeka is common to all Dharmic faiths such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. In monarchy, the royal coronation ceremony is called rajyabhishek.[2]

Abhisheka as a ritual[edit]

Abhisheka ritual in Agara, Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka.

Abhisheka, also called Abhishekam, is conducted by priests, by pouring libations on the image of the deity being worshipped, amidst the chanting of mantras. Usually, offerings such as milk, yogurt, ghee, honey, Panchaamrutam, sesame oil, rosewater, sandalwood paste may be poured among other offerings depending on the type of abhishekam being performed. This ritual is routinely performed in some Hindu and Jain temples. "Rudraabhisheka" (रुद्राभिषेक) (Abhisheka of Rudra) is performed on Shiva lingams.

Hinduism[edit]

Abhisheka is the name given to a late Vedic rite of anointing government officials, particularly heads of state, at the time of their taking power or to mark a signal achievement. It is also the bathing ceremony and anointing performed on certain festival days for the temple deities.

Indo-Tibetan Buddhism[edit]

List of Abhiseka initiates in 812 at Takaosan-ji (高雄山寺)

In the Indo-Tibetan Buddhist tradition, an abhisheka can be a method for performing esoteric transmission, a way to offer blessings of a lineage to participants, or it can be an empowerment to begin a particular meditation practice.[3]

It originally was used as a consecration rite. Water from the four oceans was poured out of golden jars onto the head of the royalty. It was used during the monarch's accession ceremony and also his investiture ceremony.[4]

Tantric Buddhism[edit]

The abhiseka rite is a prelude for initiation into mystical teaching. There are four classes of abhiseaka, each being associated with one of the four Tantras. They are master consecration, secret consecration, knowledge of prajna, and the fourth consecration.[4]

Shingon Buddhism[edit]

The Abhiseka Ritual (灌頂 kanjō?) in Shingon Buddhism is the initiation ritual used to confirm that a student of esoteric Buddhism has now graduated to a higher level of practice. The kanji used literally mean "pouring from the peak", which poetically describes the process of passing on the master's teachings to the student. The ritual was popular in China during the Tang Dynasty,[5] and Kukai, founder of Shingon, studied there extensively before introducing this ritual to the Japanese Buddhist establishment of the time.[6] A separate initiation ritual exists for the general public called the kechien kanjō (結縁灌頂?), and symbolizes their initiation into esoteric Buddhism. This ritual is generally only offered at Mt. Koya in Wakayama Prefecture in Japan, but it can be offered under qualified masters and under proper auspices outside Japan, albeit very rarely.

The Shingon ritual utilizes one of the two Mandala of the Two Realms, depending on the occasion. In esoteric ritual, after the student receives the Samaya precepts, the teacher of the esoteric Buddhism assumes the role of the teacher, usually Mahavairocana Buddha, while the master and student repeat specific mantras in a form of dialogue taken from esoteric Buddhist sutras. The student, who is blindfolded, then throws a flower upon the Mandala that is constructed, and where it lands (i.e. which deity) helps dictate where the student should focus his devotion on the esoteric path.[7] From there, the student's blindfold is removed and a vajra is placed in hand.

Famous Abhishekas[edit]

Cultural examples[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Meditation, contemplation, intentionality and wishing are inherent in this usage of prayer.
  2. ^ Ramdev P. Kathuria (1987). Life in the courts of Rajasthan, during the 18th century. S. Chand. ISBN 8121901448. 
  3. ^ Hayward (2008) p.114
  4. ^ a b Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "abhiseka". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8. 
  5. ^ Orzech, Charles, D. (2011). On the Subject of Abhiseka, Pacific World 3rd series, No 13, 113-128
  6. ^ Abe, Ryūichi (1999). The Weaving of Mantra: Kūkai and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse. 
  7. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito (1972). Kūkai: Major Works, Translated, with an Account of His Life and a Study of His Thought. p. 44. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Authorship unattributed (1993). "Why Temples?". Archived from the original on 2007-06-10. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  • Authorship unattributed (2004). "Healing Through Yagya / Pooja / Occult". Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2007-02-24. 
  • Abe, Ryuichi (1999). "The Weaving of Mantra: Kukai and the Construction of Esoteric Buddhist Discourse". Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-11286-6
  • Ferm, Virgilius (1945). An Encyclopedia of Religion. New York: Philosophical Library, 1945. OCLC 263969
  • Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). Kūkai and His Major Works. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05933-7
  • Hayward, Jeremy (2008) Warrior-King of Shambhala: Remembering Chögyam Trungpa. Boston: Wisdom. ISBN 978-0-86171-546-6